Integrating business skills into ktsp mierza miranti
Integrating Business Skills into KTSP-Based ELT of Secondary 12
Mierza Miranti, Educator and Professional Development Manager of Sugar Group Schools
Abstract – Entrepreneurship education has been widely discussed in terms of its chances of being
integrated into a curriculum, even as the basis of it. As for KTSP (Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan
Pendidikan) or literally translated to Learning-Unit Based Curriculum, the currently applied
curriculum in Indonesia, it seems that the issue does not take a considerable portion. However, the
possibility of integrating the values, topic, business skills, and even projects is opened in the field
of English Language Teaching or ELT that has flexible nature in the curriculum. Thus, in this paper,
the integration of business skills is further discussed from the planning to possible practices
applied in secondary 12 ELT process. It is ended with evaluation and further example of integration
that can be done in ELT for the other levels.
Keyword: business skills, integration, ELT, KTSP
It is considered a challenge to integrate business skills into language subject within the KTSP
(Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan), which can be literally translated to Learning-Unit
Based Curriculum. The demand of creating meaningful learning seems to be a daunting task
when it comes to teaching a national examination preparation class, namely secondarytwelve. The urge of having to merely drills the students to pass the examination might give an
ease for teachers who prefer to teach only to face the exam. Then, meaningful classroom
activities would be something to be left alone in the dark.
However, taking a deeper look on the given one-size-fit-all curriculum set by the Department
of Education and Culture of Indonesia, teachers can make a difference to educational
processes undergone by the students. The KTSP actually only sets the minimum
requirements – or in language classroom, it is called skills – to be delivered to the students.
This would mean that teachers have the flexibility to modify the contents and make it more
individualized, meaningful, and purposeful. Not to mention the ones who teach, as the writer’s
condition at the moment, secondary-twelve students.
This paper would like to put forward an idea of integrating business skills into English
Language Teaching (ELT). It would not take the idea nor having the word entrepreneurship in
the title since the application took place in a company-owned school. The school’s main
objective is to provide the need of the company to prepare candidates who will run the
business in the future. Nevertheless, not all students will be considered eligible to work for the
company since some of them might not be able to meet the expected standard of
achievement. In some circumstances, some of them might also choose to be self-employed
instead of working in a company. Therefore, the integration of business skills into ELT was
done: to prepare professionals of the future in the field of business, both as employees well as
2. Business Skills
Business skills, as the name suggests, are sets of competences, attitudes, and knowledge
that qualify an individual to be successful in any of commercial activities and the ones related
to it (Grundy & Brown, 2004; Waterhouse & Crook, 1995; Curriculum Planning and
Development Division of MInistry of Education of Singapore, 2008). It covers such a broad
aspects from theory to practice in order to help the entity involved in the field excelled in
achiving the goals set in the beginning.
A more theoritical approach of the skills is the ones pointed out by the Curriculum Planning
and Development Division of MInistry of Education of Singapore (2008). It views the elements
of business skills that rely more on the knowledge. Students are then lead to the familiarity
with the purposes and types of business, career opportunities in business industries, business
resources, the unlimited needs and wants versus limited resources, financial resources
management, as well as the nature of business management along with the nature of
competition. These skills or knowledge are considered important in building successul
entrepreneurs of the future. Therefore, making the students getting to know more about them
is important to be done at the school level.
In addition, Pearson & Thomas (2004) divide business skills into three main parts, i.e.
personal development, management, and business development. These essential elements, if
carefully done in meaningful and holistic manners, will establish a strong foundation of
entrepreneurs and business persons who are able to reach successes in their personal,
managerial, and business aspects.
Furthermore, Grundy & Brown (2004) argues that the business skills are not to be viewed in
segregated approach. The skills of business – such as strategy, marketing, commercial
management, operating, finance, leadership, organizational, problem-solving, and selfmanagement – are actually multifaceted and interrelated.
From the theory to practice, it becomes a mutual agreement on a view saying that the
knowledge of business will not really works if there are no skills invoved. Equaly, having the
capacity to lead and innovate would become ineffective if ones would like to be involeved in
business, without having the necessary skills to get into it. Learning and developing the skills
should be profound and real-world related, as well as unified, if success is the goal that wants
to be achieved.
3. The ELT of Secondary 12 in KTSP
Indonesian curriculum has undergone various kinds of changes in the attempts of achieving
the best method and practices to develop best potential of its students. The first curriculum
was launched in 1989, and then the next one is in 1994, and 1999. Furthermore, education
professionals got more thrills when the new curriculum was set as Competency Based
Curriculum (KBK – Kurikulum Berbasis Kompetensi) applied in 1994. Finally, the one
discussed in this paper is the current one – KSTP – that has been being applied since 2006
based on the PP (Peraturan Pemerintah: Government Regulation – writer)
No. 99/2005. At
the time of this paper was written, the government was planning to apply the new set of
curriculum, replacing KTSP. The latter mentioned curriculum, however, will not be further
KTSP is an alleged result of improvement of the previous national curriculum –KBK – which
was claimed to fail in accommodating the variety of culture and conditions in Indonesia
(Ambarsari, 1994). This curriculum is claimed to have some advantages comparing to the
previous ones, especially on some aspects of application as it promotes the school autonomy.
It also encourages the learning units to creatively develop the curriculum based on the needs
of the students and even the demands of globalization (Hanafie, 2007).
As for the business skills, the writer chose Pearson & Thomas’s (2004) to be integrated with
the ELT process. The literature divides the skills into three major parts and distribute them into
different sub-categories as follow:
Personal development, which covers the way to get into high achievement, time
management, personal effectiveness, leadership, team building, solving problems and
decision making, innovation, effective communication skill, mentoring/ coaching, personal
marketing, and public relation.
Management skills, which includes the capacity to understand finance, human resources
management, and competitive marketing strategy.
Business development, which comprises of strategies for growth and preparing a
business plan, through the buying and selling of unquoted companies, and through the
management buy-ins and buy-outs.
Since this paper analyzes the application of the planning which took place in the first semester
of secondary-twelve, followings are the standard of competency and the chosen basic
requirements of English to be integrated with business skills:
“KTSP” CURRICULUM FOR SEMESTER 1 GRADE XII HIGH SCHOOL
Standard of Competency
Comprehend meanings in short
To respond to meanings in monologs utilizing a variety
functional texts and monologs in
of accurate, fluent, and acceptable spoken language in
forms of narrative and discussion in
daily life contexts in narrative and discussion texts.
daily life contexts.
To express meanings in short
To express meanings in monologs utilizing a variety of
functional texts and monologs in
spoken language on an accurate, fluent, and acceptable
forms of narrative and discussion
manner in daily life contexts in narrative and discussion
texts in daily life contexts.
“KTSP” CURRICULUM FOR SEMESTER 1 GRADE XII HIGH SCHOOL
Standard of Competency
To comprehend meanings of short
To respond to meanings and rhetorical stages in essays
functional texts and essays in forms
utilizing a variety of written language on an accurate,
of narrativeand discussion in daily
fluent, acceptable manner in daily life contexts and to
access knowledge in texts of narrative and discussion.
Exposing meanings and rhetorical stages in written
monologs in forms of narrative and
monologs utilizing a variety of written language on an
discussion on accurate, fluent, and
accurate, fluent, acceptable manner in daily life contexts
acceptable manners in daily life
in texts of narrative and discussion.
knowledge as well.
4. The Integration
The writer works in a school applying KTSP. She also believes that teachers can design the
best plan for their class using this curriculum because of the flexible characteristics. This idea
is also supported by Hanafi (2008) that says the curriculum have some better advantages in
compare to the previous ones. The focus is on some aspects of application as it promotes the
school autonomy. It also encourages teachers to creatively develop the curriculum based on
the needs of the students and even the demands of globalization.
As for English, even though the curriculum suggests to have the four language skills: writing,
reading, speaking, and listening, the writer believes that teachers are not supposed to
separate the strands of language. Some activities, of course, are sometimes combined
together to achieve communication goals – which are known as the three main strains of a
language, i.e. oral communication, written communication, and visual communication. Yet, in
business, these strains are also important part of communication skill.
Since the duration of the application is only less than a semester, the business skills to be
integrated are only partially taken. The benchmark of selection is the suitability with the
English skills required to be mastered. In semester one of secondary-twelve syllabus, there
are actually three types of text to be learnt, i.e. narrative, explanation, and discussion. Yet, the
English genres taken were only narrative and discussion texts. The major topic utilized was
actually about Glocal Poverty. The other type of text, explanation, was not part of the
integration because the function was to explain a social movement that can cause poverty. It
serves as the basic knowledge for the next learnt type of text. Following is the abridged
sequence of integration.
The Integration of Secondary 12 ELT and Business Skills
The Play for
Creating a short story Poverty in pairs that was
made into a play for performance in the topic of
Preparing the performance including financing the
problems and decision
event, preparing the performance and every detail
it needed, as well as promoting it. Conducting and
Working in groups of three or four students to
marketing, and public
The Best Program to Combat Poverty
evaluating the performance
discuss the best program to offer to the
community to help the poor getting out of the
cycle of poverty in a form of mind map.
Presenting the program individually in a form of
Writing a discussion text to find out the pros and
cons of their own program.
Conducting a public hearing to present their
program and persuade the other students who
stand as the opposed group to join, donate, or
participate in the program.
a. Activity One: Narrative – The Play for Performance
As required in the curriculum that the types of text to be learnt is narrative, then the first
thing that the students did was to create narratives. Since it had been introduced in the
previous level, secondary eleven, the focus was on how to make the work more theatrical
since it would be used as the synopsis of the play. After the synopsis was finished, the
students made a group of 10-12 to arrange a theatrical performance.
The first business skill the students acquired during this
first step was the human resources management. It
even surfaced at the time they had to deal with
analyzing which roles to be given to their peers. The
leadership skill was also gained here as they had to
clearly communicate the goals based on their roles to
Snapshot of the performance
Snapshot of the performance
their peers. For example, a stage manager had to make
sure that all of his/ her instructions were clear and done. Even for the designers, for
example make-up artists, they also had to make sure that the actors who would be treated
would be there on time as requested and along with the makeup asked to be brought–
since they could not afford to provide professional make-up.
Along the way of preparation, the students learnt some other personal development
business skills such as team building, solving problems and decision making, innovation,
and effective communication skill within the group. To ensure that the students really
understand that these soft skills were also measured, an objective rubric assessing the
affective aspects of the learning was introduced and utilized.
Besides working with the group, the students also explored the other skills of personal
marketing and public relation, as well as competitive marketing strategy, when they had to
persuade the school community to attend and watch their performance. Along with that,
they also learnt how to understand finance management since a budget was set in the
beginning so that every group would not make any purchase or expenses that went
beyond the number. For sure that time management was strongly learnt here since the
very beginning as the timeline was also closely monitored.
b. Activity Two: Discussion Text – The Best Program to Combat Poverty
The second series of program started with an elicitation stage
where the students sit in a group of four to brainstorm their
ideas. They sit together to find four best programs if they
were trusted to run a non-profit organization as they are
requested to work hand in hand with the government. The
The Mind map
challenge given was that they were given a certain number
as their budget had to face the citizen who went against their
On this phase, the students were actually practicing their business
development skills namely strategies for growth and preparing a
business plan. At the same time, they were also developing their
personal business competence i.e. team building, solving problems
and decision making, as well as innovation and the competence of
After the mind map had been done, students then started drafting
their discussion text to find the pros and cons of their programs. By
having the list of the pros and cons, students continued their
learning process with browsing for information and searching for
valid data in the Learning Resource Center of the school. It must be
done before started the writing process to support the arguments in
the discussion text essay they were going to make. It was quite an ease for a secondarytwelve English teacher to teach this type of text since in they had got the skills of building
arguments and browsing for valid data when they were secondary eleven in a lesson
called invention. Then, after all the data and references had been browsed to support their
argument, they started to compose their writing. At that instance, the students were
learning the business skill of solving problems and decision making.
Using writing and data they had browsed, students then got ready for the next phase:
giving speech. It would be based on their writing and situated in a café competed with the
microphone and banners of the school. The set was
actually to support the mood of their program (and
their own) importance. Before getting on the stage, a
model speech session was held. In that session, one
group sent one of their representatives whom they
think was able to be their role model of a good public
speaker. Those public speakers were then evaluated
Screenshot of the public speakers
to give the students some ideas on how to speak in public. The ones who commented and
gave input to the speakers were their own classmates, using a rubric that had been
distributed a day before. For sure, the purpose was to build the business skill of effective
communication and public relation.
The series of activities was then ended by a debate.
But, of course before the debate, there was a
session taking a 40-minutes period to equip the
students with the skills and expressions needed. The
way of facilitating the session was not merely
presenting it but started with an elicitation stage.
Since the school applied English-speaking environment outside the classroom, it was quite
easy to elicit the expressions they would use for the debate. What the teacher did was only
to ensure that they said it correctly since it was still in an English classroom. On the d-day,
the groups put forward their idea of the programs and try to convince the audience who
acted as the society. By having this activity, the students were expected to acquire the
skills of solving problems and decision making, innovation, effective communication skill,
personal marketing, and public relation.
Finally, after the series of activities were accomplished, a reflection was conducted with the
members of the class. It was a splendid moment to bring out a discussion on the skills they
acquired during the series of activities. This was also an important time for teachers to find
out whether they already achieved the expected competencies. After the short discussion,
short and simple checklist papers of business skills assessment were distributed to be
filled in. Then, teacher might take her turn to open another discussion on what additional
business skills were integrated and share more with the students on the benefits.
5. The Reflection
Integrating business skills into English language teaching can be a way to give more to the
students having the national curriculum that seems to focus on the cognitive aspects. The
skills that are expected to help students to be successful individuals in the future, however,
will be effective to be delivered by having to consider the following aspects:
1. Planning the integration carefully, especially in selecting the activities to achieve the skills.
2. Keeping a good time-management to ensure that all objectives can be achieved
3. Giving continuous individualized assessment to ensure that the students have the equal
right to grasp the knowledge and skill.
4. Try to always elicit questions to discover whether the learners have achieved the learning
objectives and acquire the expected skills.
Paying attention to – at least – the aforementioned points, might lead to a successful
integration in a lesson at that moment. However, it would be to naïve to say that by having this
integration in one lesson in one semester, the students would automatically develop business
skills that support their path to be successful individual in the future. It looks promising but
Thus, to achieve the objective of successful and – hopefully – sustainable development of
business skills in the future, a unit-based integration is needed. It does not have to be
systemic, especially if the schools apply the standardized national curriculum. Conducting the
integration in the same subject for the whole three consecutive years of secondary schools or
other learning unit might produce better result.
In English Language Teaching, for example, there are so many example of integration that
can be taken into practice. In secondary 10, students can learn read, discuss, and perform a
biography of successful entrepreneurs to be integrated in the lesson of recount text. Another
example might take place in an English classroom of secondary 11 that learns about
exposition text in which at the same time the language learning objective is achieved, the
students also learn how to persuade audience to buy their words as part of direct marketing
As a final point, being in a system that applies the one-size-fit-all curriculum that said to
produce employees-mindset is not a dead-end.
Future entrepreneurs and successful
business individuals can still be expected to be born in this kind of educational system. What
can be done by the ones involved in it is to do more than what is just written in the curriculum.
Setting and planning meaningful activities that sharpen the business skills are strongly
needed, with close mentoring and supervision, to produce the expected outcome.
Curriculum Planning and Development Division of MInistry of Education of Singapore. (2008).
Elements of Business Skills for Upper Secondary. Singapore: Pearson Education South Asia Pte
Depdiknas, 2002. Manajemen Peningkatan Mutu Berbasis Sekolah. Jakarta: Direktorat Jenderal
Pendidikan Dasar dan Menengah
Grundy, T., & Brown, L. (2004). The Ultimate Book of Business Skills: The 100 Most Important
Things for Being Successful in Business. Cornwal: Capstone Publishing Limited (A Wiley
Pearson, B., & Thomas, N. (2004). The Sorter MBA: A Practical Approach to Key Business Skills.
Scotland: Harper Collins Publishers.
Sutriono & Hanafie, Rita. 2007. Filsafat Ilmu dan Metodologi Penelitian. Yogyakarta: Andi
Waterhouse, M., & Crook, G. (1995). Management and Business Skills in a Built Environment.
London: Chapman and Hall.
Mierza Miranti is currently an English teacher and Professional Development Manager of Sugar
Group Schools & Polytechnic. She has published some works related to her interest in ELT,
writing, and other educational issues.