Incorporating the global warming issue into a ktsp paper-teflin 2010


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Incorporating the global warming issue into a ktsp paper-teflin 2010

  1. 1. Incorporating the Global Warming Issue into a KTSP-Based ELT Mierza Miranti - Sugar Group Schools, Lampung, Indonesia Abstract - Teaching English based on KTSP can be made to be more meaningful by integrating issues that hopefully will make students having more than the knowledge about it but also an awareness on what happens worldwide. This paper, therefore, describes the steps of integrating the issue of global warming into the lesson by not only taking one side but both sides, i.e. ones believing that global warming is coming and the others who believe that the global warming cannot be proven scientifically. The students, who belong to science major, will take a stand after having themselves exposed to a lot of research and literatures that will support them to support their opinion and argue others in a debate using the expressions learnt. It is expected that they will also develop their critical mind since the activities are selected to encourage students to discover, explore, extend, and communicate their own values, adjustments, opinions, and even arguments, while listening to other people’s point of view as a practice of respect. Finally, a teaching reflection is put at the end of the paper to be considered for the next teaching practice. Keyword: Global Warming issues, KTSP, ELT 1. Introduction As an English teacher whose one of the roles is to implement the curriculum in the classroom, the writer considers KTSP (Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan) – or literally translated into Curriculum on Independent Education Unit – to be applied in the national education system, has actually given appropriate possibilities for her to really make use of the guideline in order to give the most of the learning for the students. She would agree that it is beneficial to have KTSP because it gives her a complete autonomy more than the required standard. At the same time she tried to accomplish one of the goals set in the curriculum with the class, the integration of global issues also occur and amazingly achieving beyond language learning itself. As for English as a language, the level of flexibility is even higher since the entity delivered in the classroom is, of course, language: a mean of communication. Thus, by recognizing the function, language teachers can give more than the knowledge and skills. They also can take part as the ones to produce responsible global citizens who have the following characteristics as defined in Oxfam (2006):  Being aware of the wider world and has a sense of their own role as a world citizen;  Respecting and valuing diversity;  Having an understanding of how the world works economically, politically, socially, culturally, technologically, and environmentally;  Being outraged by social injustice;  Participating in and contributes to the community at a range of levels from local to global;  Willing to act to make the world a more sustainable place;  Taking responsibility for their actions. The issue to be integrated in the classroom is global warming since it is considered debatable from the first time it is proposed as a term (Crane, 1997). One side considers this issue to be considered scientifically, morally, and even politically correct, while the other considers it as a scam since the data is not considered valid. Each side argues that the opposing groups want to take advantage over the issue. Thus, students as citizens are expected to see using a “bird’s eyes-view” in objectively criticizing this topic. Therefore, in doing the process, students will do some research as their inquiry learning process. The other reason is because the practices itself are conducted in 3 English classes of 12 graders majoring in science. These students are expected to use their prior knowledge based on their major: science.
  2. 2. Incorporating the Global Warming Issue into a KTSP-Based ELT 2. The Disputes over the Global Warming Issues The controversy of global warming involves debates concerning the environment, as well as its causes and consequences. The issues include the reasons on the increase of average air temperature, especially since the mid-20th century. Most scientists argue whether this warming trend is within normal climatic variations or unprecedented, whether the major contributor is humankind, and whether the measurements of the increase is unreliable. The others concern about the estimated climate sensitivity, additional warming predictions, and the consequences of global warming. Furthermore, the popular media seems to take over the controversy rather than scientific literatures (Boykoff, 2004), where a strong consensus that the temperature on the global surface have increased in recent decades has been created and that human are the ones causing the increasing trend of the greenhouse gases. Actually, the global warming issue had emerged in the 1800s. One famous discussion about the matter was delivered in the 1860s by John Kendall – a British physicist. He speculated that the climate changes from glacial to interglacial were related to changes in atmospheric carbon. The carbon dioxide is said to be the cause of it (Hansen in Greenberg, 2009). Nevertheless, the debate was still among the scientists and had not been brought into more general scope. Only few media that covered about the matter, since it might be considered too scientific to be publicized. The issue becomes more popular and debatable after it was reintroduced by Dr James Hansen, the head of NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies in New York City, who testified before the United States Senate for the Energy and Natural Resources Committee in 1988, claiming that carbon dioxide is the main culprit in the climate change (Shabecoff, 1988). By using mathematical models, the person who is also marked as the “Father of Global Warming” predicted that for some years, the carbon dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels such as coal and oil and other gases emitted by human activities into the atmosphere would cause the earth's surface to warm by trapping infrared radiation from the sun, turning the entire earth into a kind of greenhouse. After the issue is coined, more and more researchers speak in front of public and on the media, each having their own opinion: for or against the idea of global warming. The latest and most controversial debate has been the one after the launch of Al Gore’s “An Inconvenient Truth” documentary movie. The movie mainly documented Al Gore’s activities as a slideshow speaker who presents his investigation of data and predictions on climate change, along with the potential for disaster. Its thesis is to believe that global warming is factual, potentially disastrous, and human-caused. It is supported by an alleged specific data, including: 1. The Keeling curve – the measurement of CO2 from the Mauna Loa Observatory. 2. The withdrawal of frequent glaciers shown in before-and-after photographs. 3. A study by researchers at the Physics Institute at the University of Bern and the European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica presenting data from Antarctic ice cores showing carbon dioxide concentrations higher than at any time during the past 650,000 years (Sigenthaler, 2005) Mierza Miranti Page 2
  3. 3. Incorporating the Global Warming Issue into a KTSP-Based ELT 4. A record of temperature since 1880 showing that the ten hottest years ever measured in this atmospheric record have all occurred in the last fourteen years. 5. A 2004 survey, by Naomi Oreskes of 928 peer-reviewed scientific articles on global climate change published between 1993 and 2003. The survey, published as an editorial in a Science journal, found that every article reviewed supported whether a consensus of human-caused global warming or no comment at all. (Oreskes, 2004) 6. A2004 study by Max and Jules Boykoff showing 53% of articles that appeared in major US newspapers over a fourteen year period gave roughly equal attention to scientists who expressed views that global warming was caused by humans as they did to global warming skeptics, creating a false balance. (FAIR, 2004) Credits and further international awareness of global warming has followed the documentary in many parts of the world based on a survey in 47 countries conducted by means of internet by The Nielsen Company and Oxford University in July 2007. The survey showed that there are 60% viewers who claimed to have watched “An Inconvenient Truth” said the film had “changed their mind” about global warming and 89% percent said watching the movie made them more aware of the problem. The movie itself has received some accolades, one of them is Academy Award in 2007, as Al Gore himself is credited a Nobel Prize winner in 2007 along with the organizing pf an event called Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The movie continues to influence other sectors, even education. Some colleges and high schools in some countries have begun to use the film in science curricula. The UK Government, Welsh Assembly Government and Scottish Executive announced between January–March 2007 that copies of An Inconvenient Truth would be sent to all secondary schools in England, Wales and Scotland, as part of a nationwide "Sustainable Schools Year of Action" launched in late 2006, The film was placed into the science curriculum for fourth and sixth-year students in Scotland as a joint initiative between Learning and Teaching Scotland and Scottish Power. (Leask, 2007). In Spain, after a meeting with Gore, Prime Minister José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero said the government will make the movie available to schools. In Burlington, Ontario, Canada, the Halton District School Board made “An Inconvenient Truth” available at schools and as an educational resource (Halton District School Board, 2007). Besides credits, the movie, especially the alleged scientific facts used in it, has been challenged and even questioned by some scientists for its accuracy. The debatable claim used in the movie, such as global sea levels could rise by more than 20 feet (6 meters) with the loss of shelf ice in Greenland and Antarctica, devastating coastal areas worldwide, is doubted. Some scientists disagree on prediction of the event as recent Nature study suggested that Greenland's ice sheet will begin to melt if the temperature there rises by 3ºC (5.4ºF) within the next hundred years, which is quite possible, according to leading temperature-change estimates. The most notable debate the correlation of CO2 and temperature, which is not considered part of this evidence. For example, one argument against global warming claims that rising levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases (GHGs) do not correlate with global warming (Idso, 2007). Going to a larger extent of the discussion, there are some debates on the 2008 report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), "Climate Change and Water," saying climate Mierza Miranti Page 3
  4. 4. Incorporating the Global Warming Issue into a KTSP-Based ELT models "project precipitation increases in high latitudes and part of the tropics." In other areas, the IPCC reports only "substantial uncertainty in precipitation forecasts." Most scientists argue that models cannot be compared with observation. Therefore, it is considered not factual (Reynolds, 2010). Despite all of the debates and controversy that mostly happen on the media, Indonesia seems not to take too much concern on the matter. Only few media accessible in the country reveals both sides of the issues. The side which has been exposed is the alleged in support of global warming, especially after Indonesia ratified Flexible Mechanism agreement which was noted in Kyoto Protocol in 1997 (Hutagalung, 2007). Therefore, there is almost no room for Indonesian students, except the ones having a close relation with the field itself, to develop their critical thinking toward the issue. They can be lead by the media if there is no sufficient exposure to deal with the bias.Even more when there no such formal education to educate the students on media literacy. 2. The Planning The writer works in a school applying KTSP. She also believes that at the moment it is still the best one, especially if teachers can design the best plan for their class using this curriculum There is a claim for it that it has some advantages to compare with the previous ones, especially on some aspects of application as it promotes the school autonomy to creatively develop the curriculum based on the needs of the students and even the demands of globalization (Hanafie, 2007). As for English, even though the curriculum suggests to have the four language skills: writing, reading, speaking, and listening, the writer believes that teachers are not supposed to separate the strands of language. Some activities, of course, are sometimes combined together to achieve communication goals – which are known as the three main strains of a language, i.e. oral communication, written communication, and visual communication. The activities promoting the global awareness should be carefully chosen and planned. One consideration that can be taken as a benchmark is to have activities that encourage students to discover, explore, extend, and communicate their own values, adjustments, opinions, and even arguments, while listening to other people’s point of view as a practice of respect. Learning to develop their objectivity will help improving their critical thinking skill. Following is the integration formulated from the Minimum Standard lined in KTSP of English lesson for 12 graders. Learning Indicators Taken From KTSP Meeting Main Activities Reading: Being capable of identifying the Students are provided with some texts purpose, rhetorical steps, as well analyzing related to the topic, i.e. Acid Rain and the content in explanation texts. The Melting Geysers, and asked to identify the purpose and rhetorical 1 steps as well as to skim and scan the text to analyze the content since they will be lead to the global warming issue. Mierza Miranti Page 4
  5. 5. Incorporating the Global Warming Issue into a KTSP-Based ELT Learning Indicators Taken From KTSP Meeting Main Activities Listening and Speaking: Being capable of Students are reintroduced to the topic identifying and utilizing the expressions on: by having a short discussion using the How To Discuss Possibilities expressions related to the function of Asking for possibilities an expression after they listen to a - Do you think it is possible …? short conversation. Here, the teacher - Is there any possibility …? elicits answer from the students by 2 giving questions related to global - Would there be any possibility …? warming as well as the cause and - Is it possible …? effects that they have already learnt in - Would It Be Possible...? their science class. Saying something is possible - I think there is a little possibility … - It’s (quite) possible/probable … Students watch “An Inconvenient - Maybe/Perhaps/Probably … Truth” to find out the language of - I assume/believe … possibilities found and having a short Saying something is not possible discussion on the things they have jot 3 - I don’t think … down for the next activity: writing. - It’s impossible/not possible … They will also be asked to find the - Maybe/Perhaps/Probably not. other resources for their writing. - (Sorry, but) it’s not likely … Writing: Being capable of composing an In pairs, students create an explanation explanation text by going through writing text scheme or cycle and continue it process including proofreading, editing, 4 with writing by dividing the paragraph revising, to publishing. to be written individually. Exchanging the written works to be 5 proofread and edited by the other pairs. Revising the edited work to be 6 published. Reading: Being capable of identifying the Providing students texts related to the purpose, rhetorical steps, as well analyzing topic, i.e. Global Warming: Scam or the content in discussion texts. Reality, and asked to identify the 7 purpose and rhetorical steps as well as to skim and scan the text to analyze the content. Listening and Speaking: Being capable of Exposing students to a recording of a identifying and utilizing the expression debate having this expression to be used in a debate such as on: identified and as well as to have a drill 1. How to define a motion 8 using the condition in students’ life and 2. How to present an argument continue to use the facts found in a 3. How to support the reason for the short YouTube© video entitled “We argument Debate, You Decide”. Writing: Being capable of composing a Working in pairs in the school’s discussion text by going through writing Learning and Resource Center, process, including drafting before the 9 students find resources before starting writing process, continued with to draft and write. proofreading, editing, revising, to Exchanging the written works to be 10 publishing. proofread and edited by the other pairs. Revising the edited work to be 11 published. Mierza Miranti Page 5
  6. 6. Incorporating the Global Warming Issue into a KTSP-Based ELT Learning Indicators Taken From KTSP Meeting Main Activities Speaking: Using the expressions learnt in a Having five groups of four in the debate discussing about the issue of global classroom, in which each group takes a 12 warming. stand on one opinion against the whole class. 3. The Practice a. Day One The first meeting – where they will have explanation text reading – will be very beneficial to give some exposures for the students on the elements related to the global warming issue. Here, the best method chosen is inquiry learning in which the students themselves who become the subjects who have to figure out what topic through the choices of the materials used. Grouping can be started from this meeting. The writer prefers to have a fixed arrangement throughout the issue to ensure the efficiency of learning time. A group of four would be preferable since there group will be divided to two in some pair works. The two pairs in one group, however, are allowed to discuss and share information about the material given. Collaborative learning and peer teaching are strongly encouraged by the teacher. Initial agreement on the expected behavior in learning as a group must be made between the class and the teacher to guarantee the effectiveness on the knowledge grasp without distractions. The first activity is skimming in which the students are asked to find the main idea every paragraph in pairs for the first text: “Acid Rain” text. Here, the teacher does not spoon-feed any information about the type of text since the goal would be for the students to find the information by themselves. After sharing it with the class, they are asked to work in groups to find the type of text. It is expected that the students come up with any term, such as a “pattern”, as found in the text, i.e. a pattern to explain about a process. The discussion is then brought into a class discussion to share about the pattern and checked by the teacher. After teacher checks the students’ understanding and make sure they really get more than juts memorizing the term. In order to formally assess the students’ understanding, the second text – “Melting Geysers” – is distributed. But this time the instruction is modified into only finding the main idea and generic structure since they have known the type of text. This type, they will have to do it individually and share the finding with the class after they swap their answer sheet with their peers. Here, the teacher must carefully analyze whether the students need a remedial session should they still encounter problem before going to the next activity. Afterward, the teacher can move on to the second activity: scanning. By using the same text, she gives some questions in order to find out students’ understanding about the two texts. The first text is to be done in pairs, while the second one is individual. After conducting a class discussion for the text, the teacher gives follow-up questions to lead them to the next activity next meeting: Global Warming. Mierza Miranti Page 6
  7. 7. Incorporating the Global Warming Issue into a KTSP-Based ELT b. Day Two The second meeting is to have a new language strand: listening. The first activity is to have the students listening to a short discussion about the melting geyser phenomenon. In groups, they have to find out the type of expression they hear on the recording. After a class discussion, teacher elicits more answer on the type of expressions – asking for possibilities as well as stating whether something is possible or not – using the global warming topic. Furthermore, the students are asked to find any causes and effects they have got as their prior knowledge and use them to drill the use of the expression. By this time, the teacher makes sure that the students realize the topic of the next meeting. c. Day Three In the third meeting, the students still sit with their group. They are given a set of questions to make sure they understand what they have to find in Al Gore’s documentary movie “An Inconvenient Truth”, which are to find out the expressions of possibilities and about the movie itself. They are also asked to write important information to be used in their writing in the next activity. Subsequently, a group discussion is conducted. Then, the group shared their finding with the class. Here, the teachers bring a checklist rubric at the time the students conducted a class discussion to find out their understanding on the use of the expression and the movie itself. By the end of the lesson, the teacher gives students group homework that is to find any resource about any process they could find in the movie. It is expected that the students will come up with a more detailed finding, not only about the process of global warming. d. Day Four In this meeting, students wok in pairs but sitting with their group so they can share the information and use the dictionary together. By using the finding they have got from the movie and other resources, students create an explanation text scheme or cycle. So that the next step – writing – will be based on the plan they have made. In this stage, they still work in pairs. After they have finished writing their scheme, the students will still be asked to produce one text in pairs. Here, the teacher will assess their individual work by choosing which paragraph they want to write based on their plan. They will have to write their initial by the end of the paragraph they have written. e. Day Five In this meeting, the students are asked to swap their work with the other pairs to be proofread and edited. They are given the same rubric as their teacher’s as their guidance in assessing their friend’s work. Following is the rubric used in the meeting: Mierza Miranti Page 7
  8. 8. Incorporating the Global Warming Issue into a KTSP-Based ELT f. Day Six In this meeting, the edited work is the given to the owner to be revised. They may or may not take the suggestion given by the editors. The revision itself takes the whole day since the students are asked to decorate the paper as well to be visually beautiful to be posted on the class soft board. The same rubric as the one used by the editor will be applied by the teacher to assess the final work. An additional criterion on the presentation is added to the rubric. g. Day Seven The first activity in this meeting is skimming. The students are asked to find the main idea in every paragraph in pairs for the first text: “Global Warming: Scam or Reality” text. Having almost the same method like when discussing explanation text, the teacher does not provide any information about the type of text. After sharing it with the class, they are asked to work in groups. It is the “pattern” of the text that they need to find. After that, a class discussion is conducted to share about the pattern and be checked by the teacher. Mierza Miranti Page 8
  9. 9. Incorporating the Global Warming Issue into a KTSP-Based ELT The next activity is scanning. By using the same text, questions are given in order to find out students’ understanding about the text. It is meant to be an individual work. Afterward, teacher starts a class discussion for the text and follow-up questions to lead them to the next activity next meeting: discussing whether Global Warming a myth or reality. h. Day Eight The meeting starts with listening to a recording of a debate. Here, the students are asked to identify the expressions used to define a motion, present an argument, and support the reason for the argument. After they have got the expressions, a class discussion is conducted to check their findings. Afterward, the class continues with a class discussion to find out another variety of expression to be used. In order to make sure that the students are able to make use of the expressions well, the teacher drills the use by opening a debate using the daily situation in the students’ life. Here, teacher still plays an important role. Soon after their competence is confirmed, teacher continues to play a short YouTube© video entitled “We Debate, You Decide” and ask the students to write down the important information to be used as their practice for a brief debate. Here, teacher still checks whether the students have really understood the use of the terms. i. Day Nine In this meeting the students are asked to go the school’s Learning and Resource Center – a place where they can browse for information in some literatures and on the internet. They are asked to find the scientific support for every stance written in their work. After they have enough information, they continue to work in pairs to draft their writing. Here, they will work in pairs. j. Day Ten This meeting is to have the students revise their own edited work to be published. Again, the same rubric as the one used by the editor will be applied by the teacher to assess the final work. An additional criterion is given on the presentation of the rubric, such as neatness and decoration since it will be published on the class soft board. j. Day Eleven The same as the time when they conducted the discussion text writing, the students are asked to proofread and edit their friends’ work. The same rubric as their teacher’s is given for their guidance in assessing the work. Following is the rubric used to assess: INTRODUCTION Background Position Thesis Mierza Miranti 0 Details are unclear or not related. Thesis or problem is vague or unclear. 1 Introduction adequately explains the background of the problem, but lacks detail. Thesis states the problem. 2 Introduction creates interest and contains background information. Thesis states the problem. 3 Introduction engages the reader. It creates interest and contains detailed background and a clear explanation of the problem. Thesis states a significant and compelling position. Page 9
  10. 10. Incorporating the Global Warming Issue into a KTSP-Based ELT 0 MAIN POINTS Fewer than three Body support main points. Anticipation of Lacks sufficient other position development of ideas. Does not anticipate and refute other positions. Conclusion does not summarize main points. ORGANIZATION Poor Structure organization. Transitions Transitions are not present. 1 Three or more main points are present, but they may be insufficiently developed or even irrelevant. May refute other positions. MECHANICS AND STYLE Sentence flow, variet Diction Spelling, punctuation, capitalization, usage Writing is clear, but sentences may lack variety. Diction is appropriate. A few errors in punctuation, spelling, capitalization. No more than one structural error(fragment, run-on, etc.) Writing may be hard to follow. Contains fragments and/or run-on sentences. Diction may be inappropriate. May have distracting errors in punctuation, spelling, capitalization. Organization is clear. Transitions are present. 2 Three or more main points are related to the thesis, but may lack details. Acknowledges the opposing view and summarizes points. Conclusion summarizes main points. Logical progression of ideas. Transitions are present and smoothly presented. Writing is clear varied sentence structure. Diction is appropriate. Punctuation, spelling, capitalization are generally correct, with few errors. 3 Main points are directly related to the thesis. Support is concrete and detailed and enhances the thesis. Anticipates and logically refutes opposing view. Conclusion more than restates the thesis. Logical progression of ideas with a clear structure that enhances the thesis. Transitions are mature and graceful. Writing is smooth and skillful. Sentences are expressive with varied structure. Diction is consistent and words well chosen. Punctuation, spelling, capitalization are correct. There are no errors. The meeting is ended by asking each group to take their stand on one opinion: the ones who believe global warming is a fact and the ones who perceive it as a theory. This is to prepare them for the next meeting in a debate so they can provide themselves sufficient information. k. Day Twelve In this session, each presenting group will go against one class. Each group is given 2 minutes to define a motion and the rest of the 23 minutes to have a debate. The debate will be assessed by using a rubric evaluating their performance and the use of the expressions. The most important system applied here is called “delegation system” in which every member is given opportunities to speak. Should a member has anything to say; he or she must “delegate” it to the other member to speak on behalf of his or hers. The way they conduct the system will be assessed as well. 3. The Reflection By the time this paper is written, the writer is still in the middle of a process of applying the plan. Therefore, she could only take partial reflection form the activities. The reflection that can be taken is that teachers need to combine four important things in order to achieve a successful integration: Mierza Miranti Page 10
  11. 11. Incorporating the Global Warming Issue into a KTSP-Based ELT 1. Sufficient exposures, which is not only from the quantity but also the quality, i.e. the ones that can draw students’ attention. 2. Careful planning, since carefully planned activities will mostly lead to successful application. 3. Cautious time-management to ensure that all objectives can be achieved punctually. 4. Continuous individualized assessment to ensure that the students have the equal right to grasp the knowledge and skill. 5. Always try to elicit questions to make sure that the learners have sufficient time to develop their critical thinking. By having this way, hopefully the objective of inquiry learning is achieved. Optimistically, by considering all of the above points, teaching English can be more meaningful than just teaching a language. One of the benefits for the students is that they could sharpen their awareness on what is happening globally as well as to be a critical reader and viewers by improving their media literacy. As for the teacher, integrating current issue means learning new things beyond teaching itself. References Boykoff, M.; Boykoff, J. (2004). Balance as bias: global warming and the US prestige press. Global Environmental Change Part A 14: 125–136. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2003.10.001. Retrieved: 10 November 2010 Crane, John. (1997). Global Warming - Myth or Reality? Florida: Water Resources Journal. Depdiknas. (2002). Manajemen Peningkatan Mutu Berbasis Sekolah. Jakarta: Direktorat Pendidikan Dasar dan Menengah. FAIR. (2004) "Journalistic Balance as Global Warming Retrieved :10 November 2010 Bias. FAIR. 2004-11. Halton District School Board (2007-04-24). Screening of An Inconvenient Truth set to educate students on climate change. Press release. Retrieved 10 November 2010 Houghton, J. T, B A Calendar, and S K Varney. (1992) Climate Change 1992: The Supplementary Report. Cambridge University Press. Houghton, J T,, L. G Meira Filho, J. Bruce, Hoesing Lee, B, A Callandar, E. Haites, N Harris, and K Maskell. 1994. Radiative Forcing of Climate Change and an Evaluation of the IPCC IS92 Emissions Scenarios. Cambridge University Press. Houghton, J T., Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs. Noguer, P, J. Van der Linden, X. Dai, K. Maskell, and C A Johnson (Ed) 2001. Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Cambridge University Press. Hutagalung, Michael. (2007-12-1). Indonesia dan Global Warming. Majari Magazine. Retrieved: 10 November 2010. Idso, C. D.; K. E. Idso. Carbon Dioxide and Global Warming — Where We Stand on the Issue". Mierza Miranti Page 11
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