What is pharmacogenomics?• Pharmacogenomics is the branch of pharmacology which deals with the influence of genetics on drug response.
Drug Metabolism• Several genes are known is influence drug metabolism: • Cytochrome P450 (CYP450) • Many drugs undergo metabolism through this pathway
Pharmacogenetics• Refers to the genetic differences in metabolic pathways which affect the response of individual people to drugs.• Often the terms pharmacogenomics and pharmacogenetics are used interchangeably however they have different definitions.
Current Issues inPharmacogenomics/Pharmacogenetics • Great emphasis on drug-to-drug and drug-to- human interactions. • Importance to provide patient safety! • Approximately 2.2 million serious events are caused by adverse drug reactions in the US. • Research in this area would reduce the number of serious events!
Clinical Uses of Pharmacogenetics• Vitamin E • People with certain genotypes who intake Vitamin E have been found to have a lower risk of cardiovascular disease if they had diabetes.• CYP2C19 • This gene plays a role in patients who cannot normally metabolize plavix.
Clinical Uses of Pharmacogenetics• IL28b • Patients with hepatitis C carrying certain variant allelles near the IL28b gene are more likely to achieve sustained virological response (SVR)• N-acetyltransferase • This gene variation explains “slow acetylators” and “fast acetylators” • This affects drugs such as isoniazid and procainamide