Nursing: An Historical Perspective (Dr. Hall, rev 6-27-13)


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Nursing: An Historical Perspective (Dr. Hall, rev 6-27-13)

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Nursing: An Historical Perspective (Dr. Hall, rev 6-27-13)

  1. 1. Nursing: An Historical Perspective
  2. 2. Nursing: An Historical Perspective Nursing is an art; and if it is to be made an art, it requires as exclusive a devotion, as hard a preparation, as any painter’s or sculptor’s work; for what is the having to do with dead canvas or cold marble, compared with having to do with the living body – the temple of God’s spirit? It is one of the Fine Arts; I had almost said, the finest of the Fine Arts. ~ Florence Nightingale Florence Nightingale
  3. 3. Nursing: An Historical Perspective Although many nursing programs start out discussing the history of nursing by talking about Florence Nightingale and her contribution to modern day nursing, but there were many men and women of all races who contributed to the development of the nursing profession. Some highlights: Ancient Rome  Nosocomi were men who provided nursing care in ancient Rome. Early Religious Orders  Men in religious orders were also providing nursing care in the Middle Ages, e.g., St. Benedictine nursing order, Knights of Hospitalers, Teutonic Knights. Knights of St. Lazarus
  4. 4. Nursing: An Historical Perspective  Crimean War 1854-1856  Thirty eight voluntary nurses, amongst them Florence Nightingale, travelled to Turkey to help provide medical care for wounded British soldiers.  Male “orderlies” also provided nursing care during the war.  American Civil War 1861-1873  No professional nurses were available, so the Sisters of Charity responded to the care for the wounded soldiers.  Men served as nurses. One notable nurse during this time was Walt Whitman, a poet and writer, who volunteered as a hospital nurse in Washington, D.C.  President Lincoln responded to the need by establishing the United States Sanitary Commission and appointing Dorothea L. Dix Superintendent of Army Nurses. Walt Whitman
  5. 5. Nursing: An Historical Perspective  The Alexian Brothers (U.S.) 1866 – 1869  In 1866, the Alexians built their first hospital in Chicago, Illinois and in 1869, opened a second hospital in St. Louis, Missouri. The Alexian Brothers began as informal groups of laymen about 1300 A.D., providing nursing care for the poor.  The American Red Cross 1881- 1910  Clara Barton established in Washington, D.C. on May 21, 1881 to provide emergency assistance, disaster relief and education inside the United States  Jane Delano founded the American Red Cross Nursing Science in 1910 as the reserve of the Army Nurse Corps to be ready just before the entry of the United States into World War I. Clara Barton
  6. 6. Nursing: An Historical Perspective  First Nursing Schools 1873  Bellevue Training School for Nurses in New York City  Connecticut Training School for Nurses in New Haven  Boston Training School for Nurses at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston  Nursing Schools for Men 1888  The Mills School for Nursing and St. Vincent's Hospital School for Men were founded in New York in 1888. The Pennsylvania Hospital opened a school for female nurses in 1914 and simultaneously opened a separate men's nursing school. Men only schools of nursing existed until the early 1960’s.
  7. 7. Nursing: An Historical Perspective  Mary Eliza Mahoney (1845-1926)  In 1878, when she was 33 years old, she began nurses' training there at the first institution in the United States to provide it. One of the first women doctors in the country, Dr. Marie Zakrzewska (1829- 1902), established the program. Mahoney received her nursing diploma on August 1, 1879. Henry Street Settlement 1893  A not-for-profit social service agency founded by nurse Lillian Wald that marked the rise of public health nursing and promoted an increased acceptance of nurses in many roles. Mary Eliza Mahoney
  8. 8. Nursing: An Historical Perspective  American Society of Superintendents of Training Schools of Nursing 1893  American nursing’s first national professional organization established to elevate the standards of nursing education; later became the National League for Nursing Education (1912), and ultimately, the National League for Nursing (1952)(NLN).  The United States Army Nurse Corps 1901  Established by the United States Congress to provide qualified nursing staff in support of the Department of Defense medical plans.  Edward Lyon made history as the first man to be commissioned in the U.S. Army Nurse Corps in 1955. He was named second lieutenant and broke the mold for all male nurses, who play a very important role in nursing military services.
  9. 9. Nursing: An Historical Perspective  State Licensure 1903  The initiation of state licensure in 1903 heralded the standardization of nursing education programs.
  10. 10. Nursing: An Historical Perspective  Cadet Nurse Corps Program 1943  Supervised by the United States Public Health Service to train nurses during World War II. After American entered the war, the demand for nurses increased dramatically, outstripping the supply and creating a shortage.  The American Assembly for Men in Nursing 1971  The purpose of AAMN is to provide a framework for nurses as a group to meet, discuss, and influence factors which affect men as nurses
  11. 11. Nursing: The Evolution of the Profession  Two thousand years ago, nursing school was for men only. Only men were considered "pure" enough to enter what is thought to be the world's first nursing school, which was founded in India about 250 B.C., according to Bruce Wilson, Ph.D., RN, and associate professor at the University of Texas-Pan American in Edinburg, Texas. For the next two millennia, nursing remained male-dominated.  It took warfare in the 19th and 20th centuries to transform nursing from being considered a man's job to a women's profession. One of the biggest shifts in the profession came in 1901 when the military nursing corps was reorganized. Men were no longer allowed to serve as nurses, furthering the process of the feminization of nursing.
  12. 12. Nursing: The Evolution of the Profession  Now, at the dawn of the third millennium, more men are going into a profession they helped create some 2,000 years ago. Nurses, and the patients they serve, will benefit if they do, according to a report released last year by the Institute of Medicine (IOM). Men provide unique perspectives and skills that are important to the profession and society at large. There are 2,909,357 licensed RNs in the United States. Men comprise approximately 7% of the total nursing population. Nursing must be viewed as a people profession and not a women’s profession. ~Anonymous
  13. 13. Nursing: Moving the Profession Forward The nursing profession must reflect the diversity of ethnicity, race, culture, religion, age, and gender of the patients for which it cares. “Patients are much more receptive to health care providers of similar cultural and ethnic backgrounds, and that may well translate to gender as well.” ~ Vernell DeWitty, PhD, MBA, RN and Deputy Director of New Careers in Nursing.
  14. 14. References Diversity in Gender: The Y Factor, Ernest J. Grant, RN, MSN, FAAN,University of North Carolina Healthcare, Director of Burn Outreach and Prevention Nursing History and Social Context, Rosemary F. Hall, PhD, RN, MSN, BSN, University of Miami School of Nursing & Health Studies Men in Nursing Historical Timeline Ten Pioneering Male Nurses - Ten African American Nurses Who Changed the Course of History Minority Nurse. Nursing Statistics Fact Sheet http/ Male Nurses Brake Through Barriers to Diversify Profession rwjf/newsroom/newsroom-content/2011/09/male-nurses-break-through-barriers-to-diversify-profession.html Gender –Based Barriers for Male Students in Nursing Education Programs: Prevalence and Perceived Importance, O’Lynn, C. E. J Nur. Ed. 43 (2004) Men in Nursing: The Importance of Gender Diversity, Sullivan, E. J., J Pro. Nur. 16,5, 253-254 (2000) Men In Nursing: History, Challenges and Opportunities, Tranbarger and O’Lynn (eds), Springer Pub. Co. (2006)