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Chapter 29Disorders of Hepatobiliary and Exocrine Pancreas Function     Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincot...
Liver Structure• Blood from  hepatic portal  vein and hepatic  artery mix in  sinusoids• The sinusoids  empty into central...
Liver Structure                       (cont.)• Hepatic cells lie  along the sinusoids  and pick up  chemicals from  the bl...
Liver Structure                          (cont.)• At the back end of  each hepatic cell,  bile is released into  a canalic...
Liver Structure    (cont.)• Many sinusoids  come together to  empty into one  vein• The section of the  liver emptying int...
QuestionTell whether the following statement is true or  false.The gallbladder stores bile that has been  produced by the ...
True                  AnswerRationale: The liver makes bile and secretes it  into the small intestine via the common bile ...
Metabolic Functions of the Liver• Carbohydrate, protein, and lipid metabolism   – Sugars  stored as glycogen, converted t...
Metabolic Functions of the Liver (cont.)• Drug and hormone metabolism   – Biotransformation into water-soluble forms   – D...
QuestionWhich of the following substances makes bile   more susceptible to digestive enzymes?b. Carbohydratec. Proteind. F...
a. Fat                AnswerRationale: Bile (produced in the liver) emulsifies   fat molecules so that they are easier to ...
ScenarioMr. M had a donut for breakfast.Question:• Explain how the sugar in the donut left his small  intestine and ended ...
ScenarioMs. B was prescribed an oral medication for her skin problem.  She took it twice a day.• The day after she started...
Liver Failure• Hematologic disorders   – Anemia, thrombocytopenia, coagulation defects,     leukopenia• Endocrine disorder...
Liver Failure (cont.)• Skin disorders   – Jaundice, red palms, spider nevi• Hepatorenal syndrome   – Azotemia, increased p...
QuestionWhat causes jaundice?b. Increased bilirubin levelsc. Anemiad. Thrombocytopeniae. Leukopenia
Answera. Increased bilirubin levelsRationale: Erythrocytes are normally broken down   in the spleen at the end of their li...
Hepatitis•   Viral hepatitis•   Hepatitis A virus (HAV)•   Hepatitis B virus (HBV)•   Hepatitis B–associated delta virus (...
DiscussionWhich hepatitis viruses are most likely to be the problem in:• An asymptomatic drug abuser?• A nursing student w...
Chronic Viral Hepatitis• Caused by HBV, HCV, and HDV• Principal worldwide cause of chronic liver disease, cirrhosis,  and ...
Alcoholic Liver Disease• Fatty liver (steatosis)   – Liver cells contain fat deposits; liver is enlarged• Alcoholic hepati...
QuestionWhich of the following is the least virulent strain   of hepatitis?b. HAVc. HBVd. HCVe. HDV
a. HAV                AnswerRationale: HBV, HCV, and HDV are all virulent   strains that may lead to chronic viral   hepat...
Veins Draining into the Hepatic               Portal System• Portal  hypertension  causes pressure  in these veins to  inc...
Portal Hypertension
Cholestasis and Intrahepatic Biliary              Disorders• Bile flow in the liver slows down• Bile accumulates and forms...
unconjugated The Fate of Bilirubin              bilirubin in                                       blood• Hemoglobin from ...
Biliary Tract   Gallbladder                                    Hepatic      Cystic duct                   duct    Common b...
Disorders of the Gallbladder• Cholelithiasis (gallstones)   – Cholesterol, calcium salts, or mixed• Acute and chronic chol...
Bile in the Intestines• Emulsifies fats so they can be digested• Passes on to the large intestine   – Bacteria convert it ...
The Pancreas           Pancreas      Exocrine                       Endocrine      pancreas                        pancrea...
Exocrine Pancreas• Acini produce:  – Inactive digestive    enzymes  – Trypsin inactivator  – Bicarbonate (antacid)• These ...
QuestionTell whether the following statement is true or  false.The exocrine pancreas produces insulin.
False                AnswerRationale: Beta cells of the endocrine pancreas  produce insulin; the exocrine pancreas  produc...
Biliary Reflux                                    5. Bile in1. Gallbladder                                    pancreascont...
Autodigestion of the Pancreas• Activated enzymes begin to digest the pancreas cells   – Severe pain results   – Inflammati...
Chronic Pancreatitis and Pancreatic•                       Cancer to acute pancreatitis  Have signs and symptoms similar• ...
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Hepato biliaryrevised

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Hepato biliaryrevised

  1. 1. Chapter 29Disorders of Hepatobiliary and Exocrine Pancreas Function Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  2. 2. Liver Structure• Blood from hepatic portal vein and hepatic artery mix in sinusoids• The sinusoids empty into central veins, which send the blood to the hepatic vein and inferior vena cava
  3. 3. Liver Structure (cont.)• Hepatic cells lie along the sinusoids and pick up chemicals from the blood• They modify the blood’s composition
  4. 4. Liver Structure (cont.)• At the back end of each hepatic cell, bile is released into a canaliculus• The bile is carried to the bile duct and then to the gallbladder
  5. 5. Liver Structure (cont.)• Many sinusoids come together to empty into one vein• The section of the liver emptying into one vein is a lobule
  6. 6. QuestionTell whether the following statement is true or false.The gallbladder stores bile that has been produced by the liver.
  7. 7. True AnswerRationale: The liver makes bile and secretes it into the small intestine via the common bile duct. Excess bile is stored in the gallbladder, where it also enters the small intestine through the common bile duct when it is needed.
  8. 8. Metabolic Functions of the Liver• Carbohydrate, protein, and lipid metabolism – Sugars  stored as glycogen, converted to glucose, used to make fats – Proteins  synthesized from amino acids; ammonia made into urea – Fats  oxidized for energy, synthesized, packaged into lipoproteins
  9. 9. Metabolic Functions of the Liver (cont.)• Drug and hormone metabolism – Biotransformation into water-soluble forms – Detoxification or inactivation• Bile production
  10. 10. QuestionWhich of the following substances makes bile more susceptible to digestive enzymes?b. Carbohydratec. Proteind. Fate. All of the above
  11. 11. a. Fat AnswerRationale: Bile (produced in the liver) emulsifies fat molecules so that they are easier to digest. An emulsion is a mixture of two immiscible (unblendable) substances, in this case bile and fat.
  12. 12. ScenarioMr. M had a donut for breakfast.Question:• Explain how the sugar in the donut left his small intestine and ended up as fat in his carotid artery, giving the: – Anatomical structures – Chemical processes – Hormones that controlled them
  13. 13. ScenarioMs. B was prescribed an oral medication for her skin problem. She took it twice a day.• The day after she started the medication, Ms. B drank wine with a friend right after taking the prescribed dosageQuestion:• Ms. B got terribly ill. Why? She said, “I drink that kind of wine all the time.”
  14. 14. Liver Failure• Hematologic disorders – Anemia, thrombocytopenia, coagulation defects, leukopenia• Endocrine disorders – Fluid retention, hypokalemia, disordered sexual functions – Which hormones would cause these endocrine disorders?
  15. 15. Liver Failure (cont.)• Skin disorders – Jaundice, red palms, spider nevi• Hepatorenal syndrome – Azotemia, increased plasma creatinine, oliguria• Hepatic encephalopathy – Asterixis, confusion, coma, convulsions
  16. 16. QuestionWhat causes jaundice?b. Increased bilirubin levelsc. Anemiad. Thrombocytopeniae. Leukopenia
  17. 17. Answera. Increased bilirubin levelsRationale: Erythrocytes are normally broken down in the spleen at the end of their life span. The end product of RBC metabolism is bilirubin. Bilirubin is sent to the liver to be metabolized; if the liver is not functioning properly, the bilirubin accumulates and causes jaundice (an abnormal yellowing of the skin and mucous membranes).
  18. 18. Hepatitis• Viral hepatitis• Hepatitis A virus (HAV)• Hepatitis B virus (HBV)• Hepatitis B–associated delta virus (HDV)• Hepatitis C virus (HCV)• Hepatitis E virus (HEV)
  19. 19. DiscussionWhich hepatitis viruses are most likely to be the problem in:• An asymptomatic drug abuser?• A nursing student who has spent the last two months volunteering in an orphanage in Mali?• An infant whose mother has hepatitis?
  20. 20. Chronic Viral Hepatitis• Caused by HBV, HCV, and HDV• Principal worldwide cause of chronic liver disease, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular cancer• Chief reason for liver transplantation in adults
  21. 21. Alcoholic Liver Disease• Fatty liver (steatosis) – Liver cells contain fat deposits; liver is enlarged• Alcoholic hepatitis – Liver inflammation and liver cell failure• Cirrhosis – Scar tissue partially blocks sinusoids and bile canaliculi
  22. 22. QuestionWhich of the following is the least virulent strain of hepatitis?b. HAVc. HBVd. HCVe. HDV
  23. 23. a. HAV AnswerRationale: HBV, HCV, and HDV are all virulent strains that may lead to chronic viral hepatitis. HAV is most commonly transmitted by the fecal-oral route (e.g., contaminated food or poor hygiene) and does not typically have a chronic stage (it does not cause permanent liver damage).
  24. 24. Veins Draining into the Hepatic Portal System• Portal hypertension causes pressure in these veins to increase• Varicosities and shunts develop• Organs engorge with blood
  25. 25. Portal Hypertension
  26. 26. Cholestasis and Intrahepatic Biliary Disorders• Bile flow in the liver slows down• Bile accumulates and forms plugs in the ducts – Ducts rupture and damage liver cells • Alkaline phosphatase released into blood• Liver is unable to continue processing bilirubin – Increased bile acids in blood and skin • Pruritus (itching)
  27. 27. unconjugated The Fate of Bilirubin bilirubin in blood• Hemoglobin from old red blood cells becomes bilirubin bilirubinemia liver links it• The liver converts to bilirubin into bile gluconuride• Why would a man with jaundice liver failure develop jaundice? conjugated bilirubin bile
  28. 28. Biliary Tract Gallbladder Hepatic Cystic duct duct Common bile ductAmpulla of VaterSphincter of Oddi Pancreatic duct
  29. 29. Disorders of the Gallbladder• Cholelithiasis (gallstones) – Cholesterol, calcium salts, or mixed• Acute and chronic cholecystitis – Inflammation caused by irritation due to concentrated bile• Choledocholithiasis – Stones in the common bile duct• Cholangitis – Inflammation of the common bile duct
  30. 30. Bile in the Intestines• Emulsifies fats so they can be digested• Passes on to the large intestine – Bacteria convert it to urobilinogen º Some is lost in feces º Most is reabsorbed into the blood  Returned to the liver to be reused  Filtered out by the kidneys  urine
  31. 31. The Pancreas Pancreas Exocrine Endocrine pancreas pancreas releases digestive juices through a releases hormones duct into the blood to the duodenum
  32. 32. Exocrine Pancreas• Acini produce: – Inactive digestive enzymes – Trypsin inactivator – Bicarbonate (antacid)• These are sent to the duodenum when it releases secretin and cholecystokinin• In the duodenum, the digestive enzymes are activated
  33. 33. QuestionTell whether the following statement is true or false.The exocrine pancreas produces insulin.
  34. 34. False AnswerRationale: Beta cells of the endocrine pancreas produce insulin; the exocrine pancreas produces digestive enzymes that are secreted into the small intestine through the common bile duct.
  35. 35. Biliary Reflux 5. Bile in1. Gallbladder pancreascontracts disrupts2. Bile is sent tissues;down common digestivebile duct enzymes activated3. Blockage formsin ampulla of Vater: 4. Bilebile cannot enter goes upduodenum pancreatic duct
  36. 36. Autodigestion of the Pancreas• Activated enzymes begin to digest the pancreas cells – Severe pain results – Inflammation produces large volumes of serous exudate  hypovolemia• Enzymes (amylase, lipase) appear in the blood• Areas of dead cells undergo fat necrosis – Calcium from the blood deposits in them º Hypocalcemia
  37. 37. Chronic Pancreatitis and Pancreatic• Cancer to acute pancreatitis Have signs and symptoms similar• Often have: – Digestive problems because of inability to deliver enzymes to the duodenum – Glucose control problems because of damage to islets of Langerhans – Signs of biliary obstruction because of underlying bile tract disorders or duct compression by tumors

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