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1. On the wharves, San Francisco, 1900. Henry Peabody Collection. U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. 2. Morens DM, Fauci AS. The Forgotten Forefather: Joseph James Kinyoun and the Founding of the National Institutes of Health. mBio. 2012;3(4):e00139-12. doi:10.1128/mBio.00139-12. 3. Plague Commisioners, photograph taken during commissioner“bureau”meeting, 4
February 1901. Standing from left: Lewellys Barker, Frederick Novy; sitting Simon Flexner. [From Frederick G. Novy Papers, Box 4. Located at Bentley Historical Library, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor; Bentley Library.] 4. University of Michigan Faculty History Project. http://um2017.org/faculty-history/faculty/frederick-george-novy 5. Page from Novy’s laboratory notebook. The methy-
lene blue stain performed on the fluid aspirated from the spleen of the deceased patient, Wong Chi Lin, on February 7, shows characteristic bipolar staining bacteria. He incubated the fluid in agar media on February 7, and on February 9, cultures yielded colonies of Bacillus pestis. On February 9, he inoculated a test animal (guinea pig) with the bacteria isolated from pure culture, as well
as fluid from the spleen. The guinea pig died on February 13. An aspirate of the guinea pig spleen yielded B. pestis on stain, and an agar streak yielded a pure culture, thereby satisfying Koch’s postulates. [From Frederick G. Novy Papers. Box 4. Located at Bentley Historical Library, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.] 6A. Rat Dissection: National Library of Medicine, History of Medicine
Images Collection. 6B. Receiving Station set up as part of the War on Rats led by the U.S. Public Health Service. Plague, from the Why Files. University of Wisconsin @ http://whyfiles.org/. 7A. FIGHTING THE PLAGUE IN SAN FRANCISCO. Collier’s Weekly Journal of Current Events. New York, June 23, 1900. From The Library of Congress, digital collection. In: Chronicling America: American His-
toric Newspapers. 7B. Hiding the Sick. From the San Francisco Chronicle Archive circa 1900. 8A. San Francisco Quarantine. May 30 from San Francisco Chronicle Archive. 8B. San Francisco’s Chinatown with barbed wire fences circa 1900. The Library of Congress American Memory Image Archive. 9.“Board of Health Confesses to Favorite Expert That There Is No Bubonic Plague In This City,”
The San Francisco call. (San Francisco [Calif.]), 29 May 1900. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn85066387/1900-05-29/ed-1/seq-1/. 10. The Pacific commercial advertiser. (Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands), 17 April 1901. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. http://chroniclingameri-
ca.loc.gov/lccn/sn85047084/1901-04-17/ed-1/seq1/.
1. On the wharves, San Francisco, 1900.
10. San Francisco Quarantine. May 30, 1900.
11. San Francisco’s Chinatown with barbed wire
fences circa 1900.
8. Hiding the Sick.
9. Fighting the Plague in
San Francisco.
2. Joseph James Kinyoun MD: Central to the
discovery of the San Francisco plague of
1900-1904
6. Receiving Station set up as part of the War on Rats led
by the U.S. Public Health Service.
7. Rat Dissection.
4. Frederick Novy: Showed plague was present by
performing fluid aspirated from the spleen of the
deceased patient, Wong Chi Lin.
5. Page from Novy’s laboratory notebook.
12. Official Report Upon the Plague in San
Francisco. the Pacific commercial advertiser, April
17, 1901.
13. The San Francisco Call. May 29th, 1900.
3. Plague Commissioners. Photograph taken
during commmissioner “bureau” meeting on
February 4th, 1901. From left: Lewellys
Barker, Simon Flexner, Frederick Novy.
Merle Rosenzweig, Anna Cupito, Elise Wescom, Chase Masters

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Plague Hits San Francisco: Politics, Economics, Racism

  • 1. 1. On the wharves, San Francisco, 1900. Henry Peabody Collection. U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. 2. Morens DM, Fauci AS. The Forgotten Forefather: Joseph James Kinyoun and the Founding of the National Institutes of Health. mBio. 2012;3(4):e00139-12. doi:10.1128/mBio.00139-12. 3. Plague Commisioners, photograph taken during commissioner“bureau”meeting, 4 February 1901. Standing from left: Lewellys Barker, Frederick Novy; sitting Simon Flexner. [From Frederick G. Novy Papers, Box 4. Located at Bentley Historical Library, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor; Bentley Library.] 4. University of Michigan Faculty History Project. http://um2017.org/faculty-history/faculty/frederick-george-novy 5. Page from Novy’s laboratory notebook. The methy- lene blue stain performed on the fluid aspirated from the spleen of the deceased patient, Wong Chi Lin, on February 7, shows characteristic bipolar staining bacteria. He incubated the fluid in agar media on February 7, and on February 9, cultures yielded colonies of Bacillus pestis. On February 9, he inoculated a test animal (guinea pig) with the bacteria isolated from pure culture, as well as fluid from the spleen. The guinea pig died on February 13. An aspirate of the guinea pig spleen yielded B. pestis on stain, and an agar streak yielded a pure culture, thereby satisfying Koch’s postulates. [From Frederick G. Novy Papers. Box 4. Located at Bentley Historical Library, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.] 6A. Rat Dissection: National Library of Medicine, History of Medicine Images Collection. 6B. Receiving Station set up as part of the War on Rats led by the U.S. Public Health Service. Plague, from the Why Files. University of Wisconsin @ http://whyfiles.org/. 7A. FIGHTING THE PLAGUE IN SAN FRANCISCO. Collier’s Weekly Journal of Current Events. New York, June 23, 1900. From The Library of Congress, digital collection. In: Chronicling America: American His- toric Newspapers. 7B. Hiding the Sick. From the San Francisco Chronicle Archive circa 1900. 8A. San Francisco Quarantine. May 30 from San Francisco Chronicle Archive. 8B. San Francisco’s Chinatown with barbed wire fences circa 1900. The Library of Congress American Memory Image Archive. 9.“Board of Health Confesses to Favorite Expert That There Is No Bubonic Plague In This City,” The San Francisco call. (San Francisco [Calif.]), 29 May 1900. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn85066387/1900-05-29/ed-1/seq-1/. 10. The Pacific commercial advertiser. (Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands), 17 April 1901. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. http://chroniclingameri- ca.loc.gov/lccn/sn85047084/1901-04-17/ed-1/seq1/. 1. On the wharves, San Francisco, 1900. 10. San Francisco Quarantine. May 30, 1900. 11. San Francisco’s Chinatown with barbed wire fences circa 1900. 8. Hiding the Sick. 9. Fighting the Plague in San Francisco. 2. Joseph James Kinyoun MD: Central to the discovery of the San Francisco plague of 1900-1904 6. Receiving Station set up as part of the War on Rats led by the U.S. Public Health Service. 7. Rat Dissection. 4. Frederick Novy: Showed plague was present by performing fluid aspirated from the spleen of the deceased patient, Wong Chi Lin. 5. Page from Novy’s laboratory notebook. 12. Official Report Upon the Plague in San Francisco. the Pacific commercial advertiser, April 17, 1901. 13. The San Francisco Call. May 29th, 1900. 3. Plague Commissioners. Photograph taken during commmissioner “bureau” meeting on February 4th, 1901. From left: Lewellys Barker, Simon Flexner, Frederick Novy. Merle Rosenzweig, Anna Cupito, Elise Wescom, Chase Masters