Urban Floods:A Special Reference to River Musi by M. S. V. S. Rao
Scheme of Chapters1. Introduction2. Urban Floods3. Urban Flood Management4. National Perspective of Urban Floods-15. National Perspective of Urban Floods-26. State Perspective of Urban Floods7. Local Perspective of Urban Floods8. Case Study of Hyderabad Floods9. Findings and Recommendations
Problem Definition• Floods in major cities especially during the rainy season, are proving to be disastrous not only to the urban environment but also have serious implications for human life and property.
Research QuestionHow have urban floods been mitigated?
Aim• To design a flood mitigation plan based on the assessment of previous experiences of the disaster with special reference to people’s responses in coping with flood havoc.
Objectives1. To identify the causes of flooding in Hyderabad.2. To describe the overall impact of flooding (in terms of extent of damage to property and the temporary displacement of people in the wake of floods).3. To formulate a strategy for the flood affected areas in Hyderabad, with reference to preparedness and mitigation measures
Likely Implications1. Prevention of loss of life, property and livelihoods.2. Damage control in the event of flood related disasters.3. Evolving a utilitarian strategy for flood management in urban areas.
Limitations and Scope1. Reference is made only to River Musi of Hyderabad.2. Urban floods are discussed in terms of impact on life and property.
Research Methodology• Review of flood prone areas National Perspective• Urban regions with more than 5 million population• Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore and Ahmedabad• Brief review of floods with the help of secondary sources of data Regional Perspective• Urban Regions with more than 3 million population• Vijayawada and Visakha urban regions• Brief review of floods with the help of secondary sources of data Local Perspective• Hyderabad Flooding• Case Study of River Musi• Historical review of floods with the help of secondary data sources• Primary field survey in and around catchment area of the River Musi
Review of Literature ‘Urban Floods: are they inevitable?’ ‘News clippings on reports that appeared on urban floods in various urban areas across the country between April 1999 and July 2000. The compilation was alarming. Newspapers had reported floods in Ahmedabad, Bangalore, Calcutta, Chennai, Delhi, Hyderabad and Mumbai. Such incidences in lesser known cities and towns probably go unreported because these are not covered by the national- level media’.Source:http://www.rainwaterharvesting.org/catchwater/oct2000/newslet9_1.htm
Hyderabad Floods• ‘The most disastrous one was the great floods of the River Musi in 1908 that killed around 15,000 people, demolishing 80,000 dwellings just in 48 hours. The monsoon floods were usually confined to the banks. The fair weather flow for 8 months in the year is insignificant. But meteorologists found that suddenly at an interval of 20 to 30 years, the river becomes swollen for a few hours, overflows and submerges the settlements along the banks. Again once in 50 to 100 years a more serious flood occurs, sweeping away a great width of the city and levying a heavy toll of human life, cattle and property’ K. Chandraiah (1996).Source: ‘Hyderabad 400 Glorious Years’
‘Urban Study From Hyderabad’• ‘Meanwhile, in the year 2000, the Musi River experienced one of the worst floods in decades and then funding for the project (Nandanavanam) which was to come partly from the Danish government was cut off and the project was shelved’.• In 2005, the new government revived the project (Save Musi Campaign) on a much more ambitious scale and this time, the government seems to have a much more sophisticated strategy to overcome the resistance’. (M. Anant, 2005). Source: http://mail.sarai.net/pipermail/urbanstudygroup/2005-June/000468.html
Analytical Framework Constitutional Framework Not mentioned in the three lists in the Seventh Schedule of Constitution. Dealt by the Union Government under Entry 97 of the Union List The only two entries in the State List; one of them is entry 17, which deals with water, including water supply, drainage and embankments. Legal Framework There is no enactment either of the Union or of any State Government to deal with the management of disasters of all types in a comprehensive manner. The HPC has prepared a ‘National Calamity Management Act’ The formation of a National Centre for Calamity Management for the purpose of effective management of all disasters arising out of calamities. Organizational Framework National Framework Regional Framework Local Framework Methodological Framework
National Framework High Powered National Crisis Management Committee (NCMC)Committee (HPC) Chaired by Prime Minister and headed by Cabinet Secretary Union Cabinet Ministry of Home Affairs National Crisis Management National Centre for Disaster Management (NCDM) (NCM) Central Relief Commissioner (Crisis Management Group (CMG)) State Relief Commissioner Indian Meteorological Department (IMD), (State Level CMG) Central Water Commission and other departments Source: NCDM, Delhi
Regional FrameworkState Level Monitoring Committee Revenue Commissioner (Chaired by Chief Minister and (Additional Charges of Relief and headed by Chief Secretary) Rehabilitation) State Cabinet Additional Revenue / Relief Commissioner Other (Secretariat) Departments District Collector / Magistrate / Commissioner NGOsSource: NCDM
Local Framework District Level Administration MPs, Headed by District Collector MLAs, Members of local governing bodies District Level Relief Committee Sub-divisional Officers (Tehsildars) Block Development Officers (at Block Level) NGOs /Voluntary Village Level Officers (at Village Level) Orgs (for Example Patwaris) Source: NCDM
Methodological Framework Identification of the Issue Objective 1 Objective 2Identify the causes of floods Describe the overall impact Secondary Data Sources Primary Data Sources Problem Identification Inadequacies in flood management and the impact on people Analysis, Interpretation and Recommendations Objective 3 To formulate a strategy for the flood affected areas around the River Musi in Hyderabad, with reference to preparedness measures and mitigation measures, in terms of organizational framework at local level
Causes of Urban Flooding• Rapid urbanization and uncontrolled developments• Encroachments and illegal structures in river / stream catchments area• Inadequate drainages• Dumping of solid wastes and plastics in open drains• Heavy Rainfall• Cyclones• Tsunamis
Flood Impacts• Human Loss• Property Loss• Affects the Major Roads• Disruption of Air / Train / Bus services• Spread of Water-borne Communicable Diseases• Communication Breakdown• Electricity Supply Cut off• Economic and Social Disruption• Increase in Air / Water Pollution
Market Potential Value (MPV) The third RK Swamy BBDO ‘Guide to the Urban Market’ which was released 17th March 2004 gives extensive and multi-faceted information on purchasing power at the town level. (784 towns with 50,000 plus population). Swamy has classified Indian urban centers by town prosperity and also ranks them in order of prosperity at both state and all India level. Swamy has classified the country into AAA, AA, A, B, C and D towns outlining the purchasing power of each town. The aggregate purchasing power in a special measure called the Market Potential Value (MPV) – a unique composite measure. The information that has been collated from 14 different sources, such as the Census 2001, Economic Census, Market Information Survey Report, the Indian Readership Survey and more, provides a clear guide post to focus resources and thus help marketers achieve their stake.• Source: www.Indiantelevision.com
MPV Values City Grade MPVGreater Mumbai AAA 1000.00Delhi AAA 789.50Kolkata AAA 613.19Chennai AA 362.84Greater Hyderabad AA 257.90Greater Bangalore AA 254.52Ahmedabad AA 220.63Source: RK Swamy, Guide to Urban Markets - Ready Reckoner
MPV ValuesCity / Town Grade MPV All India RankVisakha Urban RegionGreater Visakha A 53.43 22Vizianagaram C 5.98 195Vijayawada Urban RegionVijayawada B 37.17 35Guntur B 18.91 66Tenali C 5.82 201 Source: RK Swamy, Guide to Urban Markets - Ready Reckoner
National Perspective of Floods City / Urban Region Rivers Year of FloodingGreater Mumbai Mithi, Ulhas, 2006, 2005 Posar, DahisarDelhi Yamuna, Sahibi 2002, 1995, 1988, 1977,1967,1947Kolkata Hoogly 2006, 2005, 2000, 1999, 1978Chennai Adayar, Cooum 2005, 2004 (Tsunami)Bangalore Akravathi, 2005 VrishabhavathiAhmedabad Sabarmati 2006
Local Perspective of Floods 23rd and 24th August, 2000 24cm rainfall for 24 hours 77 slums washed away 35,000 affected 142 people killed 90 residential areas under water (10 – 15 feet) More than 100 colonies submerged in water 28th September, 1908 15,000 people killed 19,000 houses demolished 80,000 dwellings demolished Average flood water level 15 – 20 feet Construction of Osman Sagar (1914), Himayat Sagar (1927).
Proposals on River MusiSource: Musi Conservation Study Pilot Project – NRMSH Report
Nandanavanam ProjectThe proposal was from Puranapul to Chaderghat Bridge, a length of 4 km. Source: Musi Conservation Study Pilot Project – NRMSH Report
Architect Hafeez Contractor’s ProposalTwo stretches, Heritage Precinct from High Court to Salarjung Museum,a length of 1.5 km long and Garden zone from Amberpet to Nagole Ringroad bridge, a length of 2 km long. Source: Musi Conservation Study Pilot Project – NRMSH Report
Save Musi CampaignThree continuous stretches as follows:1. Ecological Precinct from Tippukhan Bridge to Puranapul, a length of 7 km,2. Heritage Precinct from Puranapul to Chaderghat Bridge, a length of 4 km, and3. Metropolitan Precinct Chaderghat Bridge to Nagole Ring Road Bridge, a length of 8 km respectively. Source: Musi Conservation Study Pilot Project – NRMSH Report
Slums / Bastees / Colonies South Bank – 21 bastees / colonies / slums North Bank – 24 bastees / colonies / slumsSource: Musi Conservation Study Pilot Project – NRMSH Report
Findings and RecommendationsEncroachments and illegal These should be removed on warConstructions in the Catchments footing basis.area of River Musi and steams.Violation of GO No. 111 and GO Government should respect those GOs.No. 50Lack of embankments in the Embankments should be builtvulnerable areas depending on priority.Absence of Disaster Mitigation Unit DMU should also deal urban flooding(DMU) for dealing Urban Flooding. along with coastal flooding.No specific policy framework for A specific policy framework should beeither floods or urban floods in required to deal urban floods inIndia. All are dealt in Disaster national / regional and local (city / town)Management policy only. levels.Lack of perpetual pits at houses / Perpetual Pits should be mandatory atapartments to minimize flood houses / apartments.damage.Frequent flooding on roads even Separate Storm water drains orfor a small and medium rain. pipelines should be required.
Urban Framework (Proposed) Municipal Commissioner MPs, (Municipal Corporation / Council) MLAs Urban Municipal City Level Development Corporators / Relief Authorities Councillors Committee Revenue Department Water and Sewage Board Health Department Electricity Board Transport DepartmentPollution Control Board Communication Department Police Department Voluntary Local / Organizations Global (NCC / NSS/ Bharat Scouts etc) Indian Army NGOs
Conclusions• Political leaders, government officials and people should notice the significance of rivers and streams. A dead-one can be proved to be disastrous at times in monsoon. Encroachments and illegal constructions can be a greater threat to the sustainability of cities (or towns). ‘Protect nature to protect ourselves’.