A good hypothesis should be:A definite statementBased on observations and knowledgePredict the results very clearTestable with straight forward experiment
Quantitative Research Process
In the name of Allah Kareem,Most Beneficent, Most Gracious,the Most Merciful !
Quantitative ResearchQuantitative research is "a formal, objective, systematic process inwhich numerical data are utilised to obtain information about theworld" (Burns and Grove cited by Cormack 1991). Quantitativeresearch is inclined to be deductive. In other words it tests theory.General aims of quantitative research •To generalize •To be objective •To test theories SUPERIOR GROUP OF COLLEGES
Quantitative Research Process 1. Theory 2. Hypothesis 3. Research Design 4. Devise measures of concepts 5. Select research site / Respondents 6. Data Collection 7. Preparation of data 8. Analysis and interpretations 9. Drawing Conclusions 10. Report Writing
1. THEORY Theory is a standardized principle on which basis we can explain the relationship between two or more concepts or variables.PURPOSE OF THEORY 1. Prediction 2. UnderstandingLEVELS OF THEORY 1. Abstract level 2. Empirical levelPROCESS OF THEORY DEVELOPMENT 1. Induction 2. Deduction
2. Hypothesis / Research Questions A predictive statement of a relationship between two or more variable, which may then be tested through researchTYPES OF HYPOTHESIS 1. Null Hypothesis Ho 2. Alternative Hypothesis H1A good hypothesis should be:A definite statementBased on observations and knowledgePredict the results very clearTestable with straight forward experiment
3. Research Design1. Introduction2. Purpose Statement3. Significance4. Objectives5. Use of theory6. Research Questions/Hypotheses7. Limitations Delimitations8. Ethical Consideration
4. Devise Measure of ConceptsConcept: Abstract realities or generalized ideas about objects, attributes, occurrence or processes, that can not be measured directly. Concepts are the building blocks of theory. Examples level of motivationVariable Empirical realities that may have varied (different) values that can be measured directly is called variables Example: Gender (male or female) Temperature ( 98o , 95o , 100o ) etc
Cont…..OperationalizationOperationalization is the process ofdefining a concept so that it becomesmeasurable variable, which isachieved by looking at behavioraldimensions and categorizing theminto observable and measurableelements.
Cont…..Gender Motivation Temperature Time 1. Highly Motivated o1. Male 1. 97 C 1. 10 seconds 2. Moderately Motivated o2. Female 2. 98 C Means 10 3. Less Motivated 3. 99 o C seconds more than 0
Cont….. Comparison Chart Scale Definition Properties Base Example • Gender A scale in which objects or individual is Nominal broken into categories that have no Identity Difference • Nationality scale numerical properties. • Religion A scale in which objects or individuals are Ordinal categorized and the categories form a Directional Order A is longer than B Scale rank order along a continuum. Scale Definition Properties Base Example A scale in which the units of Interval Equal unit measurement (intervals) between the Magnitude A is 2 feet longer than B Scale numbers on the scale are all equal. Size A scale in which, in addition to order and A is 2 feet long means 2 feet more equal units of measurement, there is an than “0”Ratio Scale absolute zero that indicates an absence Ratio Absolute zero of the variables being measure.
Cont….. Response formats for scalesBinary Response My job is usually interesting enough to keep me from getting bored formats • agree • disagreeNumerical Response My job is usually interesting enough to keep me for getting bored formats 5 4 3 2 1 Verbal formats May job is usually interesting enough to keep me from getting bored Strongly agree__ agree__ undecided__ disagree___ strongly disagree__ Bipolar numerical I love my job 5 4 3 2 1I hate my job formatsFrequency formats My job is usually interesting enough to keep me from getting bored • All of the time ____ • often _____ • fairly often ____ • occasionally ___ • none of the time ____
Cont…..Validity Face Validity (Validity where measure apparently reflects the content of the concept in question) Predictive (Researcher employs the criterion whereby Validity a new scale predicts a future event) (Are we Measuring the Right thing) Concurrent (Researcher employs the criterion whereby a new scale measures a current event) Convergent (A test has convergent validity if it has a high correlation with another test that measures the same construct)
5.Selecting Research respondents Population the universe of units(nations, cities, regions, firms, students employees etc.) from which the sample is to be selected. Sample the segment of the population that is selected for the investigation. It is a subset of the population. The method of selection may be based on a probability or a non-probability approach (see below). Sampling frame the listing of all the units in the population from which the sample will be selected. Representative Sample a sample that reflects the population accurately so that it is a microcosm of the population. Sampling error the difference between a sample and the population from which it is selected, even though a probability sample has been selected.
5.Cont….. Sampling Sampling TechniqueProbability Non-Probability Simple random sample Convenience sampling Stratified random sample Snowball sampling Systematic sample Quota sampling
Methods of Data CollectionSurveys Survey is a quantitative research strategy that involves the structured collection of data from a pre-determined sample. It involves following methods 1.Structured interview 2.Structured Observation 3.Questionnaire Survey Structured Questionnaire Structured Observation Interview Self administered On-lineTelephone Face to face Participant Non -Participant questionnaires questionnairesInterviews interview Observation Observation Postal questionnaires
Structured Interviewing Structured interviewing is the process of administering an interview schedule by an interviewer.The aim is for all interviewees to be given exactly the same context ofquestioning. In this way the interviewers are supposed to read questionsexactly.Types of Structured interviewing 1. Telephonic Interview 2. Face to face Interview Structured Observations
QUESTIONNAIRES“Questionnaire is pre-formulated written set of questions to whichrespondents record their answers”. Questionnaires can be: On-line questionnaires Postal questionnaires Self administered questionnaire
Variety of factors influence questionnaireThe choice of questionnaire will be influenced by a variety of factors relatedto your Research question (s) Research objective Characteristics of respondents Size of sample Dimensions of the concept to be measured And availability of required resources.
DESIGNING A QUESTIONNAIREDesigning a questionnaire is based on following principles 1- Principle of wordingi. The nature of the variable will determine what kind and number of questions will be asked i.e. ranking, rating or dichotomousii. The wording should be simple, easy and appropriateiii. Closed ended questions will be used with the intention to have ease, and enhanced comparability.iv. Add both positively as well as negatively worded questions v. Always avoid double barreled, ambiguous, recall dependent, leading or loaded questions vi. The sequence of questions in the questionnaire should be from general to specific, and easy to more difficult. It is also called funnel approach.
2- Principle of Measurement:i. Interval and Ratio scales should be used in preference to nominal or ordinal scalesii. The measure must be assessed through tests of validity and reliability3- General Getup:1. Start with good Introduction2. Questions should be well organized with instructions and guidance3. Only relevant personal information should be demanded that is not sensitive,4. End with a courteous note.
Mode of Description Disadvantages data Advantages Can establish rapport and motivate respondents Takes personal timePersonal or face- The interviewer and Can clarify the questions, clear doubts add new Costs more when a wide geographic region isto-face interviewee confronted each questions coveredinterviews other Can read nonverbal cues Respondents may be concerned about confidentiality Can use visual aids to clarify points. of information given Rich data can be obtained Interviewers need to be trained CAPI can be used and responses entered in a ‘can introduce interviewer biases portable computer Respondents can terminate the interview any timeTelephone Interview which were Less costly and speedier that personal Nonverbal cues cannot be readInterviews conducted through interviews. Interviews will have to be kept short communication. Can reach a wide geographic area Obsolete telephone number could be contacted, and Greater anonymity than personal interviews. unlisted ones omitted from the sampleSelf-completion Self-questionnaire is a Can establish rapport and motivate respondent Organizations may be reluctant to give up companyquestionnaire questionnaire in which Doubts can be clarified time for the survey with group of employees interviewee answer the Less expensive when administered to groups assembled for the purpose question by himself Almost 100 % response rate ensured Anonymity of respondent is highPostal It is a type of Anonymity is high Response rate is almost always Cannot clarifyQuestionnaire questionnaire which can Wide geographic regions can be reached. questions be sending to the Token gifts can be enclosed to seek Follow-up procedures for no responses are necessary respondent through mail compliance or any other postal mode. Respondent can take more time to respond at convenience Can be administered electronically, if desiredElectronic The questionnaire which Easy to administer Computer literacy in a mustQuestionnaire you send through Can reach globally Respondents must have access to the facility internet Very inexpensive Respondent must be willing to complete the survey Fast delivery Convenient for RespondentsParticipants Researcher participates Better accuracy Participant observation takes time and commitmentObservation in the activities of the Less cost Usually does not examine motivation, attitude or group being observed in Researcher is collecting observed data not feeling toward particular behavior the same manner reported data Time cost Can obtain data from those unable to communicate in written or oral formNon-Participants Researcher do not get The individual may simply be unaware of how The lack of interaction may, however make itObservation involved in the activities they behave in a particular situation. difficult for the researcher to be able to clarify or of the group but remains Safe the researcher time interrupt the phenomena been investigated
Mystery ShoppingMystery shopping is a popular technique used in consumer researchthat involves sending people (mystery shoppers) into a shop to buyproducts with the intention to evaluate the effectiveness of retail staff.After the interaction, the shoppers typically fill out rating sheetdetailing the nature of the interaction and service they receive. It’s atype of field stimulation.