Final change


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final change

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Final change

  1. 1.  Definition: “Any event that occurs when something passes from one stage to another.” Organizational Change: “Any alterations in the people, structure, or technology of an organization.”
  2. 2. “Forces outside the organization” Marketplace:o Introduction of companieso Change in behavior of competitorso New ads technology Governmental Laws & Regulations:o Environmental Laws.
  3. 3.  Technology:o Computerso New Plants Labor markets: Economic changes:o Inflationo Deflation
  4. 4. “Forces inside the organization”o Changes in organizational strategyo New equipmento Employee attitudes
  5. 5.  Change activities that are intentional and goal- oriented. Person who act as catalysts and assume the responsibility for managing change activities.
  6. 6. This process consists of three stepso Unfreezing the status quoo Changing to a new stateo Refreezing to make the change permanent
  7. 7. o The lack of environmental stabilityo Managers manage change actively to survive
  8. 8. “Controlling the change for the benefit ofthe organization carried out by manager actingas change agents or by non-managers experts ofthe field.”
  9. 9. .◦ Personality◦ Perception◦ Habit◦ Security◦ Economic Factors◦ Fear of unknown.◦ Threat to power and influence
  10. 10. o Education & Communicationo Participationo Facilitation & Supporto Negotiatingo Manipulation & Cooptation.o Selecting people who accept change.o Coercion.
  11. 11.  Changing Organizational Cultures Understanding the Situational forces A dramatic crises occurs The Organization is young and small The Culture is weak
  12. 12. Handling Employee Stress due Change
  13. 13. “The Physical and Psychological tensionan individual feels when confronted withextraordinary demands or opportunities.”
  14. 14. Potential Sources Individual Consequences Differences. •Perception. Physiological Environmental •Job Experience. Symptoms .. factors. Headaches. Economic uncertainty. •Social Support. High Blood Pressure. Political uncertainty. •Belief in locus of Heart Disease. Technological change. control. •Self-efficacy. •Hostility. PsychologicalOrganizational Symptoms .. Anxiety.factors. Depression. Task Demand. Role Demand. Experienced Stress Decrease in job satisfaction. Interpersonal demand.. Behavioral Symptoms .. Productivity.Personal factors. Absenteeism. Family problem. Turnover. Economic Problems. Personality. A Model of Stress
  15. 15.  Work related stressors ◦ Physical Environment Stressors ◦ Role related stressors ◦ Interpersonal stressors ◦ Organizational stressors Non-work stressors ◦ Time based conflict ◦ Strain based conflict ◦ Role behavior conflict
  16. 16.  Physical Environmental Stressors ◦ Some stressors are found in the physical environment such as, Excessive Noise, Poor Lightening and Safety Hazards etc Role Related Stressors ◦ Role related stressors include conditions where employees have difficulty understanding, reconciling or performing the various roles in their lives. ◦ Role conflict an employee may have two roles that are in conflict with each other or may receive contradictory messages from different people about how to perform a task. ◦ Role ambiguity when employees are uncertain about their job duties, performance expectation, level of authority and other job conditions ◦ Workload work under load – receiving too little work or having tasks that do not sufficiently use your talents. Work overload is a more common stressors these days. ◦ Task control employees are more stressed when they perform their tasks and the pace of their activity
  17. 17.  Interpersonal Stressors ◦ Interpersonal stressors include ineffective supervision, office politics and other conflicts that people experience  Workplace violence/Workplace Bullying Organizational Stressors ◦ Mergers of a company, Downsizing, Survivors of lay offs
  18. 18.  Time Based Conflict ◦ Many employees have to contend with time based conflict – the challenge of balancing the time demanded by work with family and other non-work activities Strain Based Conflict ◦ This conflict occurs when stress from one domain spills over to the other. Relationship problems, financial difficulties and loss of a loved one usually top the list of non work stressors. Role Behavior Conflict ◦ Occurs when people are expected to enact different work and non work roles.
  19. 19. Remove Stressors Withdraw fromReceive Social Stress TheSupport Management Stressors Strategies Control Stress Change Stress Consequences Perception
  20. 20.  Remove the stressors ◦ The main cause of the stress should be investigated and removed ◦ Role related stressors can be minimized ◦ Empower employees ◦ Open communication with employees to reduce ambiguities  Work-life balance initiative  Flexible work time  Job sharing  Telecommuting  Personal leave programs  Childcare facilities
  21. 21.  Withdraw from the stressors ◦ Removing the stressors may be ideal solution, but it is often not feasible. An alternative strategy is to permanently or temporarily remove employees from the stressors. Permanent withdrawal occurs when employees are transferred to jobs that better fit their competencies and values Change stress perception ◦ Stress can be minimized by changing perceptions of situation by strengthening self efficacy and self esteem Control the consequences of stress ◦ Physical exercise reduces the physiological consequences of stress by helping employees to lower their respiration rate, muscle tension, heart beat and stomach acidity Receive social support ◦ Social support refers to a person’s interpersonal transaction with others and involves providing either emotional or informational support to buffer the stress experience