Global Warming<br />Greatest Threat To Humanity<br />T. Umapathysivam<br />10. 08. 2010<br />
Our Focus  <br />Global warming – Overview<br />Causes of global warming<br />Effects of global warming<br />Control globa...
What is Global Warming? <br />Global warming is when the earth heats up (the temperature rises). <br /> It happens when gr...
Global Warming - Examples<br />Dec 2003<br />June 2002<br />Colorado River, Arizona<br />
Global Warming - Examples<br />1914<br />2004<br />Portage Glacier, <br />Alaska<br />
Why it is happening?<br />
Main cause<br />Raise in normal temperature<br />Imbalance in greenhouse effect<br />
Greenhouce Gases<br />Carbon dioxide<br />Nitrous oxide<br />Methane<br />Sulfur hexafluoride<br />Water<br />
Greenhouse Effect<br />The Sun’s energy passes through the car’s windshield.<br />This energy (heat) is trapped inside the...
Why it happens?<br />C+O2=CO2<br />Burning carbon-containing fossil fuels produces carbon dioxide<br />
CO2   Significant greenhouse pollutant <br /><ul><li>Humans have increased carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere by more ...
The most carbon dioxide(385 ppm) in 800,000 years.        -  Prof. Thomas Blunier,  Univ. of Copenhagen; Monaco Declaratio...
Global Warming - Effects<br /><ul><li>Geographical  effects
Climate change
Wildlife
humans</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>23% smaller than previous minimum; 39% smaller than average
 Ice 53% thinner  in region of North Pole between 2001 and 2007 (NOAA Report Card 2008)
Ice only 3 feet thick  in most locations   (NOAA FAQ, 2007
In September 2007 an area the size of Florida (69,000 square miles) melted in six days (NSIDC 2007)
 Humpback whales spotted in Arctic Ocean for first time in 2007</li></ul>Melting Sea Ice<br />7<br />
Melting Sea Ice<br />The Arctic Ocean could be ice-free in summer by 2040<br />(U.S National Center for Atmospheric Resear...
Sea-level rise  projections : a few inches to a few feet<br /><ul><li>2 ft: U.S. would lose 10,000 square miles
3 ft: Would inundate Miami
Affects erosion, loss of wetlands, freshwater supplies
Half of the world’s population lives along coasts
Big question:  Ice sheets</li></li></ul><li>Spread of disease<br /><ul><li>As northern countries warm, disease carrying in...
Increased probability and intensity of droughts and heat waves<br />
Increase in frequent volcanic eruptions due to rise in temperatures<br />
Forest fire increased due to hot winds <br />
Nitrous oxide from fertilizers and other chemicals<br />
Climate Change<br />Important factor affected  as a result of global warming<br />Climate change happens when there is a c...
Weather Vs Climate<br />Photo courtesy of Parker Rittgers / ADN reader submission<br />“Climate is what we expect, weather...
Wildlife effects<br />
Wildlife effects<br />Effects of global warming on animals is one of serious threat to <br />Biodiversity<br />Extinction ...
Polar Bear<br />Polar bear who depend on sea ice announced as an endangered species<br />The numbers in the western Hudson...
Brown Bear<br />Factors of Concern:<br /><ul><li>Diet impairment: fish and berries (Kenai Brown Bears – fish 90% of diet v...
Hibernation disturbances for reproducing females (Jan-May)
2 months to implant
Cub growth
Flooding of dens
Reduction in productivity and survival rates following salmon decline in </li></li></ul><li>Caribou <br /><ul><li>The West...
Since 1989, the Porcupine Caribou Herd has declined at 3.5% per year </li></ul>       to a low of 123,000 animals <br />  ...
Changing rivers
Less tundra</li></li></ul><li>Birds Threatened <br /><ul><li>  Birds flying higher, farther away
  Lakes and rivers too low
  Fewer birds seen</li></li></ul><li>Migratory Birds<br /><ul><li>Population appears to be “in peril”(Consensus Report, 2006)
Declined from over 7 million  to 3.39 million
Record low in 2006: 3.2 million
70% breed in western boreal forest;
  Fastest rate of decline there “Declines reflect breeding season events.
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Global warming

  1. 1. Global Warming<br />Greatest Threat To Humanity<br />T. Umapathysivam<br />10. 08. 2010<br />
  2. 2. Our Focus <br />Global warming – Overview<br />Causes of global warming<br />Effects of global warming<br />Control global warming<br />
  3. 3. What is Global Warming? <br />Global warming is when the earth heats up (the temperature rises). <br /> It happens when greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, water vapor, nitrous oxide, and methane) trap heat and light from the sun in the earth’s atmosphere, which increases the temperature.<br /> This hurts many people, animals, and plants. Many cannot take the change, so they die.<br />
  4. 4. Global Warming - Examples<br />Dec 2003<br />June 2002<br />Colorado River, Arizona<br />
  5. 5. Global Warming - Examples<br />1914<br />2004<br />Portage Glacier, <br />Alaska<br />
  6. 6. Why it is happening?<br />
  7. 7. Main cause<br />Raise in normal temperature<br />Imbalance in greenhouse effect<br />
  8. 8. Greenhouce Gases<br />Carbon dioxide<br />Nitrous oxide<br />Methane<br />Sulfur hexafluoride<br />Water<br />
  9. 9. Greenhouse Effect<br />The Sun’s energy passes through the car’s windshield.<br />This energy (heat) is trapped inside the car and cannot pass back through the windshield, causing the inside of the car to warm up.<br />
  10. 10. Why it happens?<br />C+O2=CO2<br />Burning carbon-containing fossil fuels produces carbon dioxide<br />
  11. 11. CO2 Significant greenhouse pollutant <br /><ul><li>Humans have increased carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere by more than 37% since the Industrial Revolution. - NOAA 2008
  12. 12. The most carbon dioxide(385 ppm) in 800,000 years. - Prof. Thomas Blunier, Univ. of Copenhagen; Monaco Declaration 2008.</li></li></ul><li>Methane from rice paddies both ends of animals, garbage in landfills and mining operations<br />
  13. 13. Global Warming - Effects<br /><ul><li>Geographical effects
  14. 14. Climate change
  15. 15. Wildlife
  16. 16. humans</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>23% smaller than previous minimum; 39% smaller than average
  17. 17. Ice 53% thinner in region of North Pole between 2001 and 2007 (NOAA Report Card 2008)
  18. 18. Ice only 3 feet thick in most locations (NOAA FAQ, 2007
  19. 19. In September 2007 an area the size of Florida (69,000 square miles) melted in six days (NSIDC 2007)
  20. 20. Humpback whales spotted in Arctic Ocean for first time in 2007</li></ul>Melting Sea Ice<br />7<br />
  21. 21. Melting Sea Ice<br />The Arctic Ocean could be ice-free in summer by 2040<br />(U.S National Center for Atmospheric Research, 2006)<br />“Society can stillminimize the impacts on Arctic ice.”<br />Dr. Marika Holland, National Center for Atmospheric Research<br />2000<br />2040<br />
  22. 22. Sea-level rise projections : a few inches to a few feet<br /><ul><li>2 ft: U.S. would lose 10,000 square miles
  23. 23. 3 ft: Would inundate Miami
  24. 24. Affects erosion, loss of wetlands, freshwater supplies
  25. 25. Half of the world’s population lives along coasts
  26. 26. Big question: Ice sheets</li></li></ul><li>Spread of disease<br /><ul><li>As northern countries warm, disease carrying insects migrate north, bringing swine flu and other disease with them. </li></li></ul><li>Warmer waters and more hurricanes<br />As the temperature of oceans rise, so will the probability of more frequent and stronger hurricanes. <br />
  27. 27. Increased probability and intensity of droughts and heat waves<br />
  28. 28. Increase in frequent volcanic eruptions due to rise in temperatures<br />
  29. 29. Forest fire increased due to hot winds <br />
  30. 30. Nitrous oxide from fertilizers and other chemicals<br />
  31. 31. Climate Change<br />Important factor affected as a result of global warming<br />Climate change happens when there is a change in<br />Sun’s output<br />Earth’s orbit<br />Drifting continents<br />Volcanic eruptions<br />Greenhouse gases<br />
  32. 32. Weather Vs Climate<br />Photo courtesy of Parker Rittgers / ADN reader submission<br />“Climate is what we expect, weather is what we get.” Mark Twain<br />US National Weather Service<br />
  33. 33.
  34. 34. Wildlife effects<br />
  35. 35. Wildlife effects<br />Effects of global warming on animals is one of serious threat to <br />Biodiversity<br />Extinction <br />Some species migrates from one place to other for survival<br />
  36. 36. Polar Bear<br />Polar bear who depend on sea ice announced as an endangered species<br />The numbers in the western Hudson bay down by 22% in 17 years<br />The cubs perished from 61 to 22 per 100 females<br />Increase in cannibalism<br />
  37. 37. Brown Bear<br />Factors of Concern:<br /><ul><li>Diet impairment: fish and berries (Kenai Brown Bears – fish 90% of diet v. black bears 10%)
  38. 38. Hibernation disturbances for reproducing females (Jan-May)
  39. 39. 2 months to implant
  40. 40. Cub growth
  41. 41. Flooding of dens
  42. 42. Reduction in productivity and survival rates following salmon decline in </li></li></ul><li>Caribou <br /><ul><li>The Western Arctic Caribou Herd shrank by 113,000
  43. 43. Since 1989, the Porcupine Caribou Herd has declined at 3.5% per year </li></ul> to a low of 123,000 animals <br /> in 2001<br /><ul><li>Freezing rain coats lichen
  44. 44. Changing rivers
  45. 45. Less tundra</li></li></ul><li>Birds Threatened <br /><ul><li> Birds flying higher, farther away
  46. 46. Lakes and rivers too low
  47. 47. Fewer birds seen</li></li></ul><li>Migratory Birds<br /><ul><li>Population appears to be “in peril”(Consensus Report, 2006)
  48. 48. Declined from over 7 million to 3.39 million
  49. 49. Record low in 2006: 3.2 million
  50. 50. 70% breed in western boreal forest;
  51. 51. Fastest rate of decline there “Declines reflect breeding season events.
  52. 52. 19% wetland loss in Yukon Flats
  53. 53. Where ponds lose 20% or more surface, scaup food sources decline </li></li></ul><li>Effects on human beings<br />
  54. 54. Global warming and Human Health<br />Global warming will affect human health in a number of different ways<br />The spread of infectious diseases will be affected<br />Agriculture will be affected<br />Extreme weather patterns will be affected<br />The amount of smog near the ground will be affected<br />The supply of freshwater available to humans will be affected<br />
  55. 55. The infectious diseases<br />Infectious diseases can be carried by many different organisms, among them are ticks, flies and mosquitoes.<br />When the climate becomes warmer such organisms called vectors such as ticks, flies and mosquitoes can breed easier in the warmer wetter climates.<br />As climate change begins to affect our planet to a greater extent the infectious disease carrying organisms will be able to reach higher altitudes and will have a longer season of breeding, increasing the likelihood of a human being in contact with the disease<br />Also, as the climate warms the amount of algae and fish that produce toxins poisonous to humans will increase<br />
  56. 56. Human Health and Extreme Weather Patterns<br /><ul><li>A study done in relation to the city of New York shows that the number of people who die heat related deaths annually there would increase to around 1,700 people annually also by only 2050
  57. 57. Also, there a potential trend for more hurricanes when the temperature of the seas increase because hurricanes are fueled by warm ocean waters
  58. 58. Although the actual number of hurricanes may not increase as a result of global warming, it is their intensity that is thought to increase, or their potential energy
  59. 59. As a result of an potential increase in the intensity and thus possibly the amount of damage many hurricanes could be capable of doing, insurance agencies who are paying for increased amounts of damage due to hurricanes could even go bankrupt as a result</li></li></ul><li>Human Health and Agriculture<br />A good part of the world and its countries rely on agriculture as their main source of income and of food<br />In a first scenario precipitation is expected to increase due to global warming, meaning that many crops will receive too much water and will be drowned as fields flood due to a projected rise of 40 centimeters in sea level<br />In a second scenario the amount of evaporation is expected to increase due to global warming, meaning that even more crops will die due to a lack of water<br />
  60. 60. For many countries this change could mean death, in fact that projected number of starving people worldwide is expected to be 40-300 million people in addition to the 600 million already projected to be starving in 2060<br />
  61. 61. Human Health and Water Supply<br />Due to global warming the amount of annual precipitation and the amount of ice converted to freshwater from the polar ice caps is projected to increase<br />A rise in sea level is projected for 2100 of as much as 40 centimeters<br />This rise in sea level could not only destroy human dwellings and human places of agricultural production but could also destroy many sea-side aquifers which would deplete the general water supply for humankind<br />
  62. 62. Human Health and Air Conditions<br />Due to global warming, the amount of smog that is created by nitrous oxide, or ozone that is near the ground, will increase<br />An increase in the amount of smog near the ground level could potentially result in fatally warm summer days for those humans sensitive to such gases<br />As gases such as smog enter human lungs, they can increase the potential of lung infection which can lead to death<br />
  63. 63. What can we do?<br />Ways to stop/control global warming<br />
  64. 64. Energy Conservation<br />It is one of the most important task that should be considered<br />Using alternate sources of energy in daily life is better way to conserve energy<br />
  65. 65.
  66. 66. REDUCE<br />USE<br />Plastic bags and cups do not decompose so harmful to environment<br />Paper bags and cups are eco friendly and easily decomposable <br />Reduce the usage of cars for short distances<br />Walk /use cycles for short distances <br />
  67. 67. Turn to compact florescent light which saves more than 80% of energy<br />
  68. 68. Conserve electricity! <br /> DO NOT leave appliances <br /> on standby<br />Turn off the lights when you leave. <br />Avoid turning up the air conditioner. Instead dress lightly or use a fan.<br />Keep rooms cool by closing the <br /> blinds, shades, or curtains. <br />
  69. 69. REUSE<br /><ul><li>Paper can be reused for various purposes
  70. 70. Covers and boxes which comes with products can be used for decorative purposes
  71. 71. Plastic bags can be used for carrying small things</li></li></ul><li>RECYCLE & REUSE<br />What Can Be Recycled?<br />Paper Items<br /> Paper Cardboard Envelopes Phone Books Post-it Notes Magazine<br />Bottles and Cans<br />Cans Plastic Bottles Glass Bottles Aluminum Foil Yogurt and Cottage Cheese containers<br />
  72. 72. Use alternate energy courses <br /><ul><li>Alternate energy sources</li></ul>Nuclear<br />Wind<br />Geothermal<br />Hydroelectric<br />Solar<br />Fusion<br />
  73. 73. Advantages of 3R’s<br />Increase in energy<br />Reduction of <br />wastages<br />Less pollution <br />Efficient use of resources<br />
  74. 74. TRY TO SAVE OUR<br />PLANET<br />

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