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# Electronusa Mechanical System

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### Electronusa Mechanical System

1. 1. Electronusa Mechanical System [Research Center for Electronic and Mechanical]1 | P a g eThe Impedance Matching in The Audio Signal ProcessingUmar Sidik.BEng.MSc*Director of EngineeringElectronusa Mechanical System (CTRONICS)*umar.sidik@engineer.com1. IntroductionCommonly, impedance is obstruction to transfer energy in the electronic circuit. Therefore, theimpedance matching is required to achieve the maximum power transfer. Furthermore, theimpedance matching equalizes the source impedance and load impedance. In other hand, theemitter-follower (common-collector) provides the impedance matching delivered from the base(input) to the emitter (output). The emitter-follower has high input resistance and low outputresistance. In the emitter-follower, the input resistance depends on the load resistance, while theoutput resistance depends on the source resistance. In addition, this study implements the radialelectrolytic capacitor 1000ߤ‫ܨ‬ 100ܸ⁄ .2. Analytical WorkIn this study, ܴଵ and ܴଶ form the Thevenin voltage, while ‫ܥ‬ଵ and ‫ܥ‬ଶ deliver ac signal as ‫ݒ‬௜௡ and‫ݒ‬௢௨௧(figure 1).(a) (b)Figure 1. (a). The concept of circuit analyzed in the study(b). The equivalent circuit2.1 Analysis of dcFirst step, we have to calculate the Thevenin’s voltage in figure 1:்ܸு ൌܴଶܴଵ ൅ ܴଶൈ ܸ஼஼For this circuit, ܸ஼஼ is 5ܸ, then:்ܸு ൌ24݇Ω10݇Ω ൅ 24݇Ωൈ 5்ܸܸு24݇Ω34݇Ωൈ 5்ܸܸு ൌ ሺ0.71ሻ ൈ 5்ܸܸு ൌ 3.55ܸ
2. 2. Electronusa Mechanical System [Research Center for Electronic and Mechanical]2 | P a g eActually, in this circuit ்ܸு ൌ ܸ஻, so ܸ஻ ൌ 3.55ܸ.The second step, we have to calculate ܸா:ܸா ൌ ܸ஻ െ ܸ஻ாܸா ൌ 3.55ܸ െ 0.7ܸܸா ൌ 2.85ܸThe third step, we have to calculate ‫ܫ‬ா:‫ܫ‬ா ൌܸாܴா‫ܫ‬ா ൌ2.85ܸ150Ω‫ܫ‬ா ൌ 19݉‫ܣ‬2.2 Analysis of acIn the analysis of ac, we involve the capacitor to pass the ac signal and we also involve the internalresistance of emitter known as ‫ݎ‬௘ (figure 2).(a) (b)Figure 2. (a). The ac circuit(b). The equivalent circuit for ac analysisThe first step, we have to calculate ‫ݎ‬௘ in the figure 2:‫ݎ‬௘ ൌ25݉‫ݒ‬‫ܫ‬ா‫ݎ‬௘ ൌ25ܸ݉19݉‫ܣ‬‫ݎ‬௘ ൌ 1.32ΩThe second step, we have to calculate ‫ݎ‬௜௡ሺ௕௔௦௘ሻ:‫ݎ‬௜௡ሺ௕௔௦௘ሻ ൌ ሺߚ ൅ 1ሻ൫ሺܴଷ ൅ ܴସሻԡ‫ݎ‬௘൯‫ݎ‬௜௡ሺ௕௔௦௘ሻ ൌ ሺ200 ൅ 1ሻ൫ሺ150Ω ൅ 8.2Ωሻԡ1.32Ω൯
3. 3. Electronusa Mechanical System [Research Center for Electronic and Mechanical]3 | P a g e‫ݎ‬௜௡ሺ௕௔௦௘ሻ ൌ ሺ201ሻ൫ሺ158.2Ωሻԡ1.32Ω൯‫ݎ‬௜௡ሺ௕௔௦௘ሻ ൌ ሺ201ሻ ൬1158.2Ω൅11.32Ω൰‫ݎ‬௜௡ሺ௕௔௦௘ሻ ൌ ሺ201ሻ ൬1.32208.824Ω൅158.2208.824Ω൰‫ݎ‬௜௡ሺ௕௔௦௘ሻ ൌ ሺ201ሻ ൬159.52208.824Ω൰‫ݎ‬௜௡ሺ௕௔௦௘ሻ ൌ ሺ201ሻሺ0.764Ωሻ‫ݎ‬௜௡ሺ௕௔௦௘ሻ ൌ 153.564ΩThe third step is to calculate ݅௕:݅௕ ൌ‫ݒ‬௜௡‫ݎ‬௜௡ሺ௕௔௦௘ሻ݅௕ ൌ1ܸ݉153.564Ω݅௕ ൌ 0.0065݉‫ܣ‬݅௕ ൌ 6.5ߤ‫ܣ‬The fourth step is to calculate ݅௖:݅௖ ൌ ߚ݅௕݅௖ ൌ ሺ200ሻሺ0.0065݉‫ܣ‬ሻ݅௖ ൌ 1.3݉‫ܣ‬The last step is to calculate ‫ݒ‬௢௨௧:‫ݒ‬௢௨௧ ൌ ݅௖‫ݎ‬௢௨௧‫ݒ‬௢௨௧ ൌ ሺ1.3݉‫ܣ‬ሻሺ0.764Ωሻ‫ݒ‬௢௨௧ ൌ 0.9932ܸ݉‫ݒ‬௢௨௧ ൌ 993.2ߤܸ3. Simulation WorkThe simulation work can be classified into the dc analysis and the ac analysis.3.1 Analysis of dcIn the simulation, ்ܸு is 3ܸ (figure 3), while in the analytical work ்ܸு is 3.55ܸ.The different of the analytical work and the simulation work is:ሺ%ሻ݂݂݀݅݁‫݁ܿ݊݁ݎ‬ ൌ்ܸுሺ௔௡௔௟௬௧௜௖௔௟ሻ െ ்ܸுሺ௦௜௠௨௟௔௧௜௢௡ሻ்ܸுሺ௔௡௔௟௬௧௜௖௔௟ሻൈ 100%ሺ%ሻ݂݂݀݅݁‫݁ܿ݊݁ݎ‬ ൌ3.55ܸ െ 3ܸ3.55ܸൈ 100%
4. 4. Electronusa Mechanical System [Research Center for Electronic and Mechanical]4 | P a g eሺ%ሻ݂݂݀݅݁‫݁ܿ݊݁ݎ‬ ൌ0.55ܸ3.55ܸൈ 100%ሺ%ሻ݂݂݀݅݁‫݁ܿ݊݁ݎ‬ ൌ 18.33%Figure 3. ்ܸு in the simulationIn the simulation, ܸா is 2.25ܸ (figure 4), while in the analytical work ܸா is 2.85ܸ. The different of theanalytical work and the simulation work is:ሺ%ሻ݂݂݀݅݁‫݁ܿ݊݁ݎ‬ ൌܸாሺ௔௡௔௟௬௧௜௖௔௟ሻ െ ܸாሺ௦௜௠௨௟௔௧௜௢௡ሻܸாሺ௔௡௔௟௬௧௜௖௔௟ሻൈ 100%ሺ%ሻ݂݂݀݅݁‫݁ܿ݊݁ݎ‬ ൌ2.85ܸ െ 2.25ܸ2.85ܸൈ 100%ሺ%ሻ݂݂݀݅݁‫݁ܿ݊݁ݎ‬ ൌ0.6ܸ2.85ܸൈ 100%ሺ%ሻ݂݂݀݅݁‫݁ܿ݊݁ݎ‬ ൌ 21.05%Figure 4. ܸா in the simulationIn the simulation, ‫ܫ‬ா is 15݉‫ܣ‬ (figure 5), while in the analytical work ‫ܫ‬ா is 19݉‫.ܣ‬ The difference is:ሺ%ሻ݂݂݀݅݁‫݁ܿ݊݁ݎ‬ ൌ‫ܫ‬ாሺ௔௡௔௟௬௧௜௖௔௟ሻ െ ‫ܫ‬ாሺ௦௜௠௨௔௧௜௢௡ሻ‫ܫ‬ாሺ௔௡௔௟௬௧௜௖௔௟ሻൈ 100%ሺ%ሻ݂݂݀݅݁‫݁ܿ݊݁ݎ‬ ൌ19݉‫ܣ‬ െ 15݉‫ܣ‬19݉‫ܣ‬ൈ 100%ሺ%ሻ݂݂݀݅݁‫݁ܿ݊݁ݎ‬ ൌ4݉‫ܣ‬19݉‫ܣ‬ൈ 100%ሺ%ሻ݂݂݀݅݁‫݁ܿ݊݁ݎ‬ ൌ 21.05%
5. 5. Electronusa Mechanical System [Research Center for Electronic and Mechanical]5 | P a g eFigure 5. ‫ܫ‬ா in the simulation3.2 Analysis of acIn the analytical ݅௕ is 6.5ߤ‫ܣ‬ (0.0065݉‫ܣ‬ሻ, while in the simulation ݅௕ is 0.07݉‫ܣ‬ (figure 6). Thedifference is:ሺ%ሻ݂݂݀݅݁‫݁ܿ݊݁ݎ‬ ൌ݅௕ሺ௦௜௠௨௟௔௧௜௢௡ሻ െ ݅௕ሺ௔௡௔௟௬௧௜௖௔௟ሻ݅௕ሺ௦௜௠௨௟௔௧௜௢௡ሻൈ 100%ሺ%ሻ݂݂݀݅݁‫݁ܿ݊݁ݎ‬ ൌ0.07݉‫ܣ‬ െ 0.0065݉‫ܣ‬0.07݉‫ܣ‬ൈ 100%ሺ%ሻ݂݂݀݅݁‫݁ܿ݊݁ݎ‬ ൌ0.06350.07ൈ 100%ሺ%ሻ݂݂݀݅݁‫݁ܿ݊݁ݎ‬ ൌ 90.71%(a) (b) (c)(d) (e)Figure 6. (a). ݅௕ in the simulation at 1Hz(b). ݅௕ in the simulation at 10Hz(c). ݅௕ in the simulation at 100Hz(d). ݅௕ in the simulation at 1kHz(e). ݅௕ in the simulation at 10kHz
6. 6. Electronusa Mechanical System [Research Center for Electronic and Mechanical]6 | P a g eIn the simulation, ݅௖ is 14.9݉‫ܣ‬ (figure 7), while in the analytical ݅௖ is 1.3݉‫.ܣ‬ The difference is:ሺ%ሻ݂݂݀݅݁‫݁ܿ݊݁ݎ‬ ൌ݅௖ሺ௦௜௠௨௟௔௧௜௢௡ሻ െ ݅௖ሺ௔௡௔௟௬௧௜௖௔௟ሻ݅௖ሺ௦௜௠௨௟௔௧௜௢௡ሻൈ 100%ሺ%ሻ݂݂݀݅݁‫݁ܿ݊݁ݎ‬ ൌ14.9݉‫ܣ‬ െ 1.3݉‫ܣ‬14.9݉‫ܣ‬ൈ 100%ሺ%ሻ݂݂݀݅݁‫݁ܿ݊݁ݎ‬ ൌ13.6݉‫ܣ‬14.9݉‫ܣ‬ൈ 100%ሺ%ሻ݂݂݀݅݁‫݁ܿ݊݁ݎ‬ ൌ 91.275%(a) (b) (c)(d) (e)Figure 7. (a). ݅௖ in the simulation at 1Hz(b). ݅௖ in the simulation at 10Hz(c). ݅௖ in the simulation at 100Hz(d). ݅௖ in the simulation at 1kHz(e). ݅௖ in the simulation at 10kHzIn the simulation, ݅௢௨௧ is 0ߤ‫ܣ‬ at 1Hz, is 0ߤ‫ܣ‬ at 10Hz, is 0.05ߤ‫ܣ‬ at 100Hz, is 0.94ߤ‫ܣ‬ at 1kHz, 9.61ߤ‫ܣ‬ at10kHz, and 15.2ߤ‫ܣ‬ at 16kHz (figure 8). The difference is:For 1Hz,ሺ%ሻ݂݂݀݅݁‫݁ܿ݊݁ݎ‬ ൌ݅௢௨௧ሺ௔௡௔௟௬௧௜௖௔௟ሻ െ ݅௢௨௧ሺ௦௜௠௨௟௔௧௜௢௡ሻ݅௢௨௧ሺ௔௡௔௟௬௧௜௖௔௟ሻൈ 100%ሺ%ሻ݂݂݀݅݁‫݁ܿ݊݁ݎ‬ ൌ1.3݉‫ܣ‬ െ 5.75ߤ‫ܣ‬1.3݉‫ܣ‬ൈ 100%ሺ%ሻ݂݂݀݅݁‫݁ܿ݊݁ݎ‬ ൌ1.30000݉‫ܣ‬ െ 0.00575݉‫ܣ‬1.3݉‫ܣ‬ൈ 100%ሺ%ሻ݂݂݀݅݁‫݁ܿ݊݁ݎ‬ ൌ1.29425݉‫ܣ‬1.3݉‫ܣ‬ൈ 100%ሺ%ሻ݂݂݀݅݁‫݁ܿ݊݁ݎ‬ ൌ 95.57%
7. 7. Electronusa Mechanical System [Research Center for Electronic and Mechanical]7 | P a g eFor 10Hz,ሺ%ሻ݂݂݀݅݁‫݁ܿ݊݁ݎ‬ ൌ݅௢௨௧ሺ௔௡௔௟௬௧௜௖௔௟ሻ െ ݅௢௨௧ሺ௦௜௠௨௟௔௧௜௢௡ሻ݅௢௨௧ሺ௔௡௔௟௬௧௜௖௔௟ሻൈ 100%ሺ%ሻ݂݂݀݅݁‫݁ܿ݊݁ݎ‬ ൌ1.3݉‫ܣ‬ െ 37.9ߤ‫ܣ‬1.3݉‫ܣ‬ൈ 100%ሺ%ሻ݂݂݀݅݁‫݁ܿ݊݁ݎ‬ ൌ1.3000݉‫ܣ‬ െ 0.0379݉‫ܣ‬1.3000݉‫ܣ‬ൈ 100%ሺ%ሻ݂݂݀݅݁‫݁ܿ݊݁ݎ‬ ൌ1.2621݉‫ܣ‬1.3000݉‫ܣ‬ൈ 100%ሺ%ሻ݂݂݀݅݁‫݁ܿ݊݁ݎ‬ ൌ 97.08%For 100Hz,ሺ%ሻ݂݂݀݅݁‫݁ܿ݊݁ݎ‬ ൌ݅௢௨௧ሺ௔௡௔௟௬௧௜௖௔௟ሻ െ ݅௢௨௧ሺ௦௜௠௨௟௔௧௜௢௡ሻ݅௢௨௧ሺ௔௡௔௟௬௧௜௖௔௟ሻൈ 100%ሺ%ሻ݂݂݀݅݁‫݁ܿ݊݁ݎ‬ ൌ1.3݉‫ܣ‬ െ 83.2ߤ‫ܣ‬1.3݉‫ܣ‬ൈ 100%ሺ%ሻ݂݂݀݅݁‫݁ܿ݊݁ݎ‬ ൌ1.3000݉‫ܣ‬ െ 0.0832݉‫ܣ‬1.3000݉‫ܣ‬ൈ 100%ሺ%ሻ݂݂݀݅݁‫݁ܿ݊݁ݎ‬ ൌ1.2168݉‫ܣ‬1.3000݉‫ܣ‬ൈ 100%ሺ%ሻ݂݂݀݅݁‫݁ܿ݊݁ݎ‬ ൌ 93.6%For 1kHz,ሺ%ሻ݂݂݀݅݁‫݁ܿ݊݁ݎ‬ ൌ݅௢௨௧ሺ௔௡௔௟௬௧௜௖௔௟ሻ െ ݅௢௨௧ሺ௦௜௠௨௟௔௧௜௢௡ሻ݅௢௨௧ሺ௔௡௔௟௬௧௜௖௔௟ሻൈ 100%ሺ%ሻ݂݂݀݅݁‫݁ܿ݊݁ݎ‬ ൌ1.3݉‫ܣ‬ െ 84.8ߤ‫ܣ‬1.3݉‫ܣ‬ൈ 100%ሺ%ሻ݂݂݀݅݁‫݁ܿ݊݁ݎ‬ ൌ1.3000݉‫ܣ‬ െ 0.0848݉‫ܣ‬1.3000݉‫ܣ‬ൈ 100%ሺ%ሻ݂݂݀݅݁‫݁ܿ݊݁ݎ‬ ൌ1.2152݉‫ܣ‬1.3000݉‫ܣ‬ൈ 100%ሺ%ሻ݂݂݀݅݁‫݁ܿ݊݁ݎ‬ ൌ 93.47%For 10kHz,ሺ%ሻ݂݂݀݅݁‫݁ܿ݊݁ݎ‬ ൌ݅௢௨௧ሺ௔௡௔௟௬௧௜௖௔௟ሻ െ ݅௢௨௧ሺ௦௜௠௨௟௔௧௜௢௡ሻ݅௢௨௧ሺ௔௡௔௟௬௧௜௖௔௟ሻൈ 100%ሺ%ሻ݂݂݀݅݁‫݁ܿ݊݁ݎ‬ ൌ1.3݉‫ܣ‬ െ 84.8ߤ‫ܣ‬1.3݉‫ܣ‬ൈ 100%ሺ%ሻ݂݂݀݅݁‫݁ܿ݊݁ݎ‬ ൌ1.3000݉‫ܣ‬ െ 0.0848݉‫ܣ‬1.3000݉‫ܣ‬ൈ 100%ሺ%ሻ݂݂݀݅݁‫݁ܿ݊݁ݎ‬ ൌ1.2152݉‫ܣ‬1.3000݉‫ܣ‬ൈ 100%
8. 8. Electronusa Mechanical System [Research Center for Electronic and Mechanical]8 | P a g eሺ%ሻ݂݂݀݅݁‫݁ܿ݊݁ݎ‬ ൌ 93.47%For 16kHz,ሺ%ሻ݂݂݀݅݁‫݁ܿ݊݁ݎ‬ ൌ݅௢௨௧ሺ௔௡௔௟௬௧௜௖௔௟ሻ െ ݅௢௨௧ሺ௦௜௠௨௟௔௧௜௢௡ሻ݅௢௨௧ሺ௔௡௔௟௬௧௜௖௔௟ሻൈ 100%ሺ%ሻ݂݂݀݅݁‫݁ܿ݊݁ݎ‬ ൌ1.3݉‫ܣ‬ െ 84.8ߤ‫ܣ‬1.3݉‫ܣ‬ൈ 100%ሺ%ሻ݂݂݀݅݁‫݁ܿ݊݁ݎ‬ ൌ1.3000݉‫ܣ‬ െ 0.0848݉‫ܣ‬1.3000݉‫ܣ‬ൈ 100%ሺ%ሻ݂݂݀݅݁‫݁ܿ݊݁ݎ‬ ൌ1.2152݉‫ܣ‬1.3000݉‫ܣ‬ൈ 100%ሺ%ሻ݂݂݀݅݁‫݁ܿ݊݁ݎ‬ ൌ 93.47%(a) (b) (c)(d) (e) (f)Figure 8. (a). ݅௢௨௧ in the simulation at 1Hz(b). ݅௢௨௧ in the simulation at 10Hz(c). ݅௢௨௧ in the simulation at 100Hz(d). ݅௢௨௧ in the simulation at 1kHz(e). ݅௢௨௧ in the simulation at 10kHz(f). ݅௢௨௧ in the simulation at 16kHzIn the simulation, ‫ݒ‬௢௨௧ is 0ߤܸ at 1Hz, is 0ߤܸ at 10Hz, is 0.32ߤܸ at 100Hz, is 5.36ߤܸ at 1kHz, is 53.8ߤܸat 10kHz, and 85.3ߤܸ at 16kHz (figure 9). The difference is:For 1Hz,ሺ%ሻ݂݂݀݅݁‫݁ܿ݊݁ݎ‬ ൌ‫ݒ‬௢௨௧ሺ௔௡௔௟௬௧௜௖௔௟ሻ െ ‫ݒ‬௢௨௧ሺ௦௜௠௨௟௔௧௜௢௡ሻ‫ݒ‬௢௨௧ሺ௔௡௔௟௬௧௜௖௔௟ሻൈ 100%ሺ%ሻ݂݂݀݅݁‫݁ܿ݊݁ݎ‬ ൌ993.2ߤܸ െ 30ߤܸ993.2ߤܸൈ 100%ሺ%ሻ݂݂݀݅݁‫݁ܿ݊݁ݎ‬ ൌ963.2ߤܸ993.2ߤܸൈ 100%ሺ%ሻ݂݂݀݅݁‫݁ܿ݊݁ݎ‬ ൌ 96.979%
9. 9. Electronusa Mechanical System [Research Center for Electronic and Mechanical]9 | P a g eFor 10Hz,ሺ%ሻ݂݂݀݅݁‫݁ܿ݊݁ݎ‬ ൌ‫ݒ‬௢௨௧ሺ௔௡௔௟௬௧௜௖௔௟ሻ െ ‫ݒ‬௢௨௧ሺ௦௜௠௨௟௔௧௜௢௡ሻ‫ݒ‬௢௨௧ሺ௔௡௔௟௬௧௜௖௔௟ሻൈ 100%ሺ%ሻ݂݂݀݅݁‫݁ܿ݊݁ݎ‬ ൌ993.2ߤܸ െ 212ߤܸ993.2ߤܸൈ 100%ሺ%ሻ݂݂݀݅݁‫݁ܿ݊݁ݎ‬ ൌ781.2ߤܸ993.2ߤܸൈ 100%ሺ%ሻ݂݂݀݅݁‫݁ܿ݊݁ݎ‬ ൌ 78.65%For 100Hz,ሺ%ሻ݂݂݀݅݁‫݁ܿ݊݁ݎ‬ ൌ‫ݒ‬௢௨௧ሺ௔௡௔௟௬௧௜௖௔௟ሻ െ ‫ݒ‬௢௨௧ሺ௦௜௠௨௟௔௧௜௢௡ሻ‫ݒ‬௢௨௧ሺ௔௡௔௟௬௧௜௖௔௟ሻൈ 100%ሺ%ሻ݂݂݀݅݁‫݁ܿ݊݁ݎ‬ ൌ993.2ߤܸ െ 466ߤܸ993.2ߤܸൈ 100%ሺ%ሻ݂݂݀݅݁‫݁ܿ݊݁ݎ‬ ൌ527.2ߤܸ993.2ߤܸൈ 100%ሺ%ሻ݂݂݀݅݁‫݁ܿ݊݁ݎ‬ ൌ 53.08%For 1kHz,ሺ%ሻ݂݂݀݅݁‫݁ܿ݊݁ݎ‬ ൌ‫ݒ‬௢௨௧ሺ௔௡௔௟௬௧௜௖௔௟ሻ െ ‫ݒ‬௢௨௧ሺ௦௜௠௨௟௔௧௜௢௡ሻ‫ݒ‬௢௨௧ሺ௔௡௔௟௬௧௜௖௔௟ሻൈ 100%ሺ%ሻ݂݂݀݅݁‫݁ܿ݊݁ݎ‬ ൌ993.2ߤܸ െ 475ߤܸ993.2ߤܸൈ 100%ሺ%ሻ݂݂݀݅݁‫݁ܿ݊݁ݎ‬ ൌ518.2ߤܸ993.2ߤܸൈ 100%ሺ%ሻ݂݂݀݅݁‫݁ܿ݊݁ݎ‬ ൌ 52.17%For 10kHz,ሺ%ሻ݂݂݀݅݁‫݁ܿ݊݁ݎ‬ ൌ‫ݒ‬௢௨௧ሺ௔௡௔௟௬௧௜௖௔௟ሻ െ ‫ݒ‬௢௨௧ሺ௦௜௠௨௟௔௧௜௢௡ሻ‫ݒ‬௢௨௧ሺ௔௡௔௟௬௧௜௖௔௟ሻൈ 100%ሺ%ሻ݂݂݀݅݁‫݁ܿ݊݁ݎ‬ ൌ993.2ߤܸ െ 475ߤܸ993.2ߤܸൈ 100%ሺ%ሻ݂݂݀݅݁‫݁ܿ݊݁ݎ‬ ൌ518.2ߤܸ993.2ߤܸൈ 100%ሺ%ሻ݂݂݀݅݁‫݁ܿ݊݁ݎ‬ ൌ 52.17%For 16kHz,ሺ%ሻ݂݂݀݅݁‫݁ܿ݊݁ݎ‬ ൌ‫ݒ‬௢௨௧ሺ௔௡௔௟௬௧௜௖௔௟ሻ െ ‫ݒ‬௢௨௧ሺ௦௜௠௨௟௔௧௜௢௡ሻ‫ݒ‬௢௨௧ሺ௔௡௔௟௬௧௜௖௔௟ሻൈ 100%ሺ%ሻ݂݂݀݅݁‫݁ܿ݊݁ݎ‬ ൌ993.2ߤܸ െ 475ߤܸ993.2ߤܸൈ 100%ሺ%ሻ݂݂݀݅݁‫݁ܿ݊݁ݎ‬ ൌ518.2ߤܸ993.2ߤܸൈ 100%
10. 10. Electronusa Mechanical System [Research Center for Electronic and Mechanical]10 | P a g eሺ%ሻ݂݂݀݅݁‫݁ܿ݊݁ݎ‬ ൌ 52.17%In this study, the simulation shows that the ݅௢௨௧ and ‫ݒ‬௢௨௧ became stable started at 1 kHz.(a) (b) (c)(d) (e) (f)Figure 9. (a). ‫ݒ‬௢௨௧ in the simulation at 1Hz(b). ‫ݒ‬௢௨௧ in the simulation at 10Hz(c). ‫ݒ‬௢௨௧ in the simulation at 100Hz(d). ‫ݒ‬௢௨௧ in the simulation at 1kHz(e). ‫ݒ‬௢௨௧ in the simulation at 10kHz(f). ‫ݒ‬௢௨௧ in the simulation at 16kHz