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Materials And Construction


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Materials And Construction

  1. 1. <ul><ul><li>BUILDING MATERIALS </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. INDEX <ul><li>Building Materiales. </li></ul><ul><li>Types: </li></ul><ul><li>Stone Materials </li></ul><ul><li>Binder Materials </li></ul><ul><li>Ceramic Materials </li></ul><ul><li>-Processes of elaborating ceramics </li></ul><ul><li>Other materials </li></ul><ul><li>Construction of Buildings </li></ul>
  3. 3. INDEX <ul><li>Enviromental Impact of Building </li></ul><ul><li>Construction of better Buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Congragulations to... </li></ul>
  4. 4. Building Materials <ul><li>DEFINITION: They´re any materials used for construction purpose. </li></ul><ul><li>TYPES: </li></ul><ul><li>Stone materials </li></ul><ul><li>Bindec materials </li></ul><ul><li>Concrete </li></ul><ul><li>Ceramic materials </li></ul><ul><li>Other materials </li></ul>
  5. 5. Stone materials <ul><li>In construction two types of stones are used: </li></ul><ul><li>Compact rocks: They are blocks of stones of limestone, marble, granite, etc... They are called ashlars, masonry, paving stones and flagstones. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Stone materials <ul><li>Broken rocks: They are pieces of stones of different sizes. Two types are used in construction: </li></ul><ul><li>Clay: Caracterised by their capacity of absorbing water. </li></ul><ul><li>Arids: May be thin or thick. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Binder materials <ul><ul><li>They are materials that are mixed with water. Then they get pasty an when they solidify they get hard. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The most importants ones are: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lime: It is obtained by heating limestone rocks. For example to make bricks. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gypsum: It's a mineral powder which is mixed with water and it is used to cover walls and ceilings. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Binder materials <ul><ul><li>Cement: It is the most used in binder materials. There are different types. The most used is the Portland cement. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The concrete: it´s a mixture between arids and binders and water. There are three types: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-in mass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-ciclopean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-celular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-armed (pretensed or postensed)‏ </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Ceramic materials <ul><ul><li>Ceramics are things such as tiles, fixtures, etc. Ceramics are mostly used as coverings in buildings. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Processes of elaborating ceramics <ul><ul><li>-Mixturing and moulding. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Firing in continious furnaces. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The ceramics more used are: bricks, tiles (tejas), porcelane, gres and tiles (azulejos). </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Other Materiales <ul><li>METAL is used as structural framework for larger buildings such as skyscrapers, or as an external surface covering. There are many types of metals used for building. </li></ul><ul><li>STEEL is a metal alloy (Aleación) whose major component is iron, and is the usual choice for metal structural building materials. It is strong, flexible, and lasts a long time. </li></ul><ul><li>The lower density and better corrosion resistance of ALUMINIUM alloys makes it expensive. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Other Materiales <ul><li>WOOD. It is deacreasing in use. Example: doors, windows, floor... </li></ul><ul><li>Plastics. It is increasing in use. Example: Electric material (switches). </li></ul><ul><li>Glass. It´s different kinds are used in windows, doors, decoration... </li></ul>
  13. 13. Construction Of Buildings. <ul><li>The construction of buildings is the process of adding or giving structure to real property (Inmueble). </li></ul><ul><li>Levels of Construction: </li></ul><ul><li>-Preparing the land through demoliting, take away the sand, and leveling. </li></ul><ul><li>-Consolidation. To make the base of the building. This part is underground. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Construction Of Buildings. <ul><li>-Rising up the structure. Pilars and sheets are built which make the flats of the building. </li></ul><ul><li>Some structures are of griders (vigas) of steel and the major are of armed concrete. </li></ul><ul><li>-Covering of water. It consists of puting the cover or roof of the building. Its caracteristics depend on the climate of the zone. </li></ul><ul><li>The materiales which are used to make roofs are tiles, flagstones of slate and sheets of zinc. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Construction Of Buildings. <ul><li>- Layout the pavings. With materials like marbol, stoneware (Gres), wood, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>-Rising the walls. In this phase the walls and partitions (tabiques) are made. They close and divide the flat to insulate it from the exterior. </li></ul><ul><li>They are made with normal bricks. </li></ul><ul><li>-Putting facilities (instalaciones). For water, gas, etc. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Construnction Of Buildings. <ul><li>-Finishings. The building is adopted for its use like houses, offices, industries... . </li></ul>
  17. 17. Construction machinery <ul><li>Excavators </li></ul><ul><li>Bulldozers </li></ul><ul><li>Steamrollers </li></ul><ul><li>Dumpers </li></ul><ul><li>Crane </li></ul><ul><li>Cement mixers </li></ul>
  18. 18. Environmental impact of buildings <ul><li>Buildings are very important constructions in owr lifes. Also buildings form a very important part of owr culture. </li></ul><ul><li>The study of the constructive proceses on the environment is very complex. </li></ul><ul><li>The buildings damage the environment because they use machinery that comsume crude oil and because of other reasons. Also the buildings take the space of the beaches because people want to live near to the beach and constructors construct buildings where they thinck that would be saled. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Construction of better buildings <ul><li>If anybody has to build a building, he has to cosiderate several points: </li></ul><ul><li>The ti m e it´s very important, a building can live between 30 or 300 years </li></ul><ul><li>The resources are li m ited so we have to construct using a strategy that lets us construct according to thrifty resources. </li></ul>
  20. 20. The End <ul><li>By Umar and Juan . </li></ul>