RESPIRATORY  SYSTEM
FUNCTIONS   AIR CONDUCTION   AIR FILTRATION   GASEOUS EXCHANGE   SENSE OF SMELL   PHONATION   ENDOCRINE
CONDUCTING PART   HYALINE CARTILAGE   MUCOSA   EPITHELIUM    PSEUDOST. CILIATED COL./ St. Sq.    Ciliated columnar, gob...
CONDUCTING PART   RESPIRATORY PART   NASAL CAVITIES       RESPIRATORY   NASO &                BRONCHIOLES    OROPHARYNX...
NASAL CAVITIES   Two halves median nasal septum   Nares & Choanae   Roof, Floor, Medial & lateral wall   Lateral wall,...
VESTIBULE   Anterior dilated part   ST. Sq. E. with HAIR & SEBACOUS glands    (traps larger particles)   Post part– pse...
RESPIRATORY SEGMENT   LARGEST PART   MEDIAL & LATERAL WALLS   CONCHA   MUCOSA (warms moistens & filters)   EPITHELIUM...
OLFACTORY SEGMENT   ROOF   YELLOWISH BROWN   EPITHELIUM    Bipolar APICAL & BASAL POLES    APICAL dendritic olfactory v...
TRACHEA
TRACHEA   SHORT FLEXIBLE TUBE   LOWER BORDER OF CRICOID TO    STERNAL ANGLE   2.5cm / 10cm   AIR PASSAGE & CONDITIONIN...
MICROSCOPIC ANATOMY   MUCOSA   SUBMUCOSA   CARTILAGENOUS LAYER   ADVENTITIA
MUCOSA   EPITHELIUM ----RESPIRATORY    CILIATED COLUMNAR    GOBLET CELLS    BRUSH CELLS    BASAL CELLS    GRANULE CELLS  ...
SUB MUCOSA   LOOSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE   SUBMUCOSAL GLANDS       TUBULOALVEOLAR       MIXED       POST. PART   LARGER ...
CARTILAGE   HYALINE NON ARTCULAR CARTILAGE   PERICHONDRIUM    FIBROUS    CELLULAR LAYER ( chondrgenic cells)   MATRIX  ...
TRACHEAL CARTILAGE   C SHAPED HYALINE CARTILAGES   TRACHEALIS
ADVENTITIA   LOOSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE   BLOOD VESSELS, LYMPHATICS,    NERVES & ADIPOSE TISUE
CONDUCTING PART   PRINCIPAL BRONCHI    RIGHT & LEFT   LOBAR OR SECONDRY BRONCHI    3 RIGHT, 2 LEFT   SEGMENTAL OR TERTI...
RESPIRATORY PART   RESPIRATORY BRONCHIOLES   ALVEOLAR DUCTS   ALVEOLAR SACS   ALVEOLI
BRONCHI EXTRA PULMONARY BRONCHI STRUCTURE SIMILAR  TO TRACHEA INTRAPULMONARY BRONCHI 5 LAYERS < DIAMETER  MUCOSA      EP...
BRONCHIOLES   Conducting part   < 5mm, no cartilage or glands pulmonary lobule   Epithelium simple ciliated columnar < ...
CLARA CELLS   NONCILIATED CELLS WITH A    ROUNDED UPPER PART CONTAINING    SECRETORY GRANULES   SURFACE ACTIVE AGENT –lu...
RESPIRATORY BRONCIOLES   TRANSITIONAL ZONE   CUBOIDAL EPITHELIUM    INITIALLY ciliated, granule & brush    LATER CLARA C...
ALVEOLAR DUCTSLINEAR DUCTS LINED BY ALVEOLI,  SMOOTH MUSCLE DISSAPPEAR   ONLY ELASTIC & RETICULAR            FIBERS
ALVEOLAR SACS   CLUSTER OF ALVEOLISHARING A COMMON OPENING
PULMONARY ALVEOLI   Thin epithelium resting on a basal lamina   Type I 95% SIMPLE Sq. occluding junctions   TYPE II 5% ...
INTER ALVEOLAR SEPTUM   LINNING CELLS OF ADJACENT    ALVEOLI & INTERVENING    STRUCTURES   EPI, B.L.—C.T.—B.L., EPI   C...
PULMONARY CAPILLARIES   THIN ENDOTHELIAL CELLS CAVEOLE   CLEAR & THROMBI   METABOLISM OF CHYLOMICRONS   ANGIOTENSIN I—...
ALVEOLAR PORES    PORES OF KOHN,    10– 15 micrometer,  OBST. LUNG DISEASE
ALVEOLAR MEMBRANE   GASSEOUS EXCANGE   THICK & THIN PART   EPI.– B/L.   C.T.   B/L. ENDOTHELIUM
BLOOD SUPPLY   PULMONARY ARTERY--- CAPILLARIES--    VEINS   BRONCHIOLAR ARTERIES---VEINS
Trachea by Dr. Nabila KMSMC Sialkot
Trachea by Dr. Nabila KMSMC Sialkot
Trachea by Dr. Nabila KMSMC Sialkot
Trachea by Dr. Nabila KMSMC Sialkot
Trachea by Dr. Nabila KMSMC Sialkot
Trachea by Dr. Nabila KMSMC Sialkot
Trachea by Dr. Nabila KMSMC Sialkot
Trachea by Dr. Nabila KMSMC Sialkot
Trachea by Dr. Nabila KMSMC Sialkot
Trachea by Dr. Nabila KMSMC Sialkot
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Trachea by Dr. Nabila KMSMC Sialkot

  1. 1. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
  2. 2. FUNCTIONS AIR CONDUCTION AIR FILTRATION GASEOUS EXCHANGE SENSE OF SMELL PHONATION ENDOCRINE
  3. 3. CONDUCTING PART HYALINE CARTILAGE MUCOSA EPITHELIUM PSEUDOST. CILIATED COL./ St. Sq. Ciliated columnar, goblet, brush, Granule, basal Metaplasia, Smokers, Kartegner syndrome LAMINA PROPRIA
  4. 4. CONDUCTING PART RESPIRATORY PART NASAL CAVITIES  RESPIRATORY NASO & BRONCHIOLES OROPHARYNX  ALVEOLAR DUCTS LARYNX  ALVEOLAR SACS TRACHEA  ALVEOLI BRONCHI BRONCHIOLES
  5. 5. NASAL CAVITIES Two halves median nasal septum Nares & Choanae Roof, Floor, Medial & lateral wall Lateral wall, Choncha Mucosa Vestibule Respiratory segment Olfactory segment
  6. 6. VESTIBULE Anterior dilated part ST. Sq. E. with HAIR & SEBACOUS glands (traps larger particles) Post part– pseudostratified-- glands absent Filtration
  7. 7. RESPIRATORY SEGMENT LARGEST PART MEDIAL & LATERAL WALLS CONCHA MUCOSA (warms moistens & filters) EPITHELIUM PSEUDO STRATIFIED CILIATED COLUMNAR WITH GOBLET CELLS LAMINA PROPRIA (vascular network capillary loops- engorged- swelling of mucosa , mucous glands with demilunes)
  8. 8. OLFACTORY SEGMENT ROOF YELLOWISH BROWN EPITHELIUM Bipolar APICAL & BASAL POLES APICAL dendritic olfactory vesicle & cilia BASAL axonal Supporting cells MECHANICAL & METABOLIC SUPORT Basal cells Brush cells Glands LAMINA PROPRIA Blood & lymph vessels, non myelinated & myelinated nerves & olfactory glands bowmans gland
  9. 9. TRACHEA
  10. 10. TRACHEA SHORT FLEXIBLE TUBE LOWER BORDER OF CRICOID TO STERNAL ANGLE 2.5cm / 10cm AIR PASSAGE & CONDITIONING OF AIR
  11. 11. MICROSCOPIC ANATOMY MUCOSA SUBMUCOSA CARTILAGENOUS LAYER ADVENTITIA
  12. 12. MUCOSA EPITHELIUM ----RESPIRATORY CILIATED COLUMNAR GOBLET CELLS BRUSH CELLS BASAL CELLS GRANULE CELLS MAST CELLS & LYMPHOCYTES BASEMENT MEMBRANE  THICKCh. cough. Cigerette smoking LAMINA PROPRIA--- LOOSE C.T. CELLULAR LYMPHOID TISSUE, ELASTIC FIBERS, ELASTIC MEMBRANE
  13. 13. SUB MUCOSA LOOSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE SUBMUCOSAL GLANDS  TUBULOALVEOLAR  MIXED  POST. PART LARGER BLOOD VESSELS & LYMPHATIC DIFFUSED & NODULAR LYMPHOID TISSUE
  14. 14. CARTILAGE HYALINE NON ARTCULAR CARTILAGE PERICHONDRIUM FIBROUS CELLULAR LAYER ( chondrgenic cells) MATRIX GROUND SUBSTANCE, territorial & interterritorial > SO4 FIBER collagen type II, IX, X, XI CELLS CHONDROBLAST CHONDROCYTES LACUNAE
  15. 15. TRACHEAL CARTILAGE C SHAPED HYALINE CARTILAGES TRACHEALIS
  16. 16. ADVENTITIA LOOSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE BLOOD VESSELS, LYMPHATICS, NERVES & ADIPOSE TISUE
  17. 17. CONDUCTING PART PRINCIPAL BRONCHI RIGHT & LEFT LOBAR OR SECONDRY BRONCHI 3 RIGHT, 2 LEFT SEGMENTAL OR TERTIARY BRONCHI BRONCHPULMONARY SEGMENT BRONCHIOLES--- TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES PULMONARY LOBULES
  18. 18. RESPIRATORY PART RESPIRATORY BRONCHIOLES ALVEOLAR DUCTS ALVEOLAR SACS ALVEOLI
  19. 19. BRONCHI EXTRA PULMONARY BRONCHI STRUCTURE SIMILAR TO TRACHEA INTRAPULMONARY BRONCHI 5 LAYERS < DIAMETER MUCOSA EPITHELIUM < height of cells, < thickness of basement membrane LAMINA PROPRIA reduced rich in elastic fibers MUSCULARIS SUBMUCOSA CARTILAGE PLATES ADVENTITIA
  20. 20. BRONCHIOLES Conducting part < 5mm, no cartilage or glands pulmonary lobule Epithelium simple ciliated columnar < goblet cells, Thick layer of smooth muscle Submucosa no glands No cartilage Terminal bronchioles pulmonary acinus, simple cuboidal epithelium, clara cells
  21. 21. CLARA CELLS NONCILIATED CELLS WITH A ROUNDED UPPER PART CONTAINING SECRETORY GRANULES SURFACE ACTIVE AGENT –luminal adhesion CCI6 ---pulmonary marker
  22. 22. RESPIRATORY BRONCIOLES TRANSITIONAL ZONE CUBOIDAL EPITHELIUM INITIALLY ciliated, granule & brush LATER CLARA CELLS SCATTERED ALVEOLI
  23. 23. ALVEOLAR DUCTSLINEAR DUCTS LINED BY ALVEOLI, SMOOTH MUSCLE DISSAPPEAR ONLY ELASTIC & RETICULAR FIBERS
  24. 24. ALVEOLAR SACS CLUSTER OF ALVEOLISHARING A COMMON OPENING
  25. 25. PULMONARY ALVEOLI Thin epithelium resting on a basal lamina Type I 95% SIMPLE Sq. occluding junctions TYPE II 5% CUBOIDAL SURFACTANT ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES TAR BODIES, HEART FAILURE CELLS
  26. 26. INTER ALVEOLAR SEPTUM LINNING CELLS OF ADJACENT ALVEOLI & INTERVENING STRUCTURES EPI, B.L.—C.T.—B.L., EPI COLLAGEN & ELASTIC FIBERS FIXED & FREE CELLS CAPILLARIES
  27. 27. PULMONARY CAPILLARIES THIN ENDOTHELIAL CELLS CAVEOLE CLEAR & THROMBI METABOLISM OF CHYLOMICRONS ANGIOTENSIN I—II THROMBOPLASTIN, PROSTAGLANDIN INACTIVATE SEROTININ
  28. 28. ALVEOLAR PORES PORES OF KOHN, 10– 15 micrometer, OBST. LUNG DISEASE
  29. 29. ALVEOLAR MEMBRANE GASSEOUS EXCANGE THICK & THIN PART EPI.– B/L. C.T. B/L. ENDOTHELIUM
  30. 30. BLOOD SUPPLY PULMONARY ARTERY--- CAPILLARIES-- VEINS BRONCHIOLAR ARTERIES---VEINS

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