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Clauses & Phrases
PREPARED BY
UMAIR
Clauses & Phrases
Clauses
Cluster of words that contain:
subject + verb
 I am Standing.
 He reached university.
 He is laughing.
Clause
Two or more clauses in a sentence
 I am Standing.
 He is laughing.
 I am happy, because I won a prize.
 I like Mathematics, but my brother likes Biology,
because he wants to become a doctor.
Clause
Phrase
 I am standing near a table.
 He reached university in time.
 He is laughing at a joker.
Clause
INDEPENDENT
Dependent
Noun
Adjective
Adverb
Subject + verb = complete thought
 He is wearing a shirt.
 I like Chinese rice.
 I bought a computer.
Examples
 He is wearing a shirt which look very nice.
 I like Chinese rice which tastes good.
 I bought a computer that cost is 15000.
Examples
Subject + verb + subordinating conjunction
Definition:-
“A clause in a complex sentence that cannot stand alone as a
complete sentence and that functions within the sentence as a noun or adjective or
adverb”.
Example:-
He likes Chinese rice which tastes good.
DEPENDENT CLAUSE
On the basis of their function in a sentence, subordinate clauses can be divided in to
following types
Noun Clause
Adjective
Clause.
Adverb Clause
TYPES
“A dependent clause that functions as a noun in a sentence is called noun
clause.”
A noun clause performs same function like a noun in a sentence.
What he did made a problem for his family.
Noun Clause:-
Example:-
A noun clause starts with words “that, what, whatever, who, whom, whoever,
whomever”.
Examples:-
Whatever you learn will help you in future. (noun clause as a
subject)
What you said made me laugh. (noun clause as a
subject)
He knows that he will pass the test. (noun clause as an
object)
Now I realize what he would have thought. (noun clause as an
object)
Adjective Clause:-
“A dependent clause that functions as an
adjective in a sentence is called adjective clause.”
Example:-
He wears a shirt which looks nice.
Adjective (relative) clauses can be restrictive clause
or non-restrictive clause.
“A restrictive clause limits the meaning of preceding noun
or pronoun”.
“A non-restrictive clause tells us something about preceding
noun or pronoun but does not limit the meaning of preceding
noun or pronoun”.
Restrictive Clauses:-
Non-restrictive
Clauses:-
•The student in the class who studied a lot passed the test. (restrictive clause)
•The student in the class, who had attended all the lectures, passed
the test. (non-restrictive clause)
Example:-
“A dependent clause that functions as an adverb in a sentence is called
adverb clause”
It modifies(describes) the situation in main clause in terms of
“time, frequency (how often), cause and effect, contrast,
condition, intensity (to what extent).”
Adverb Clause :-
Examples:-
Don’t go before he comes.
He takes medicine because he is ill.
You are safe as long as you drive carefully.
Time: when, whenever, since,
Cause and effect: because, since,
Contrast: although, even
Condition: If, unless, only if,
Phrases
Definition Of Phrase
A phrase is a collection of words that may have
nouns or verbs, but it does not have a subject doing
a verb.
Characteristics of Phrases
 Mostly Phrases do not have subject and a verb
 E.G
 on the way
 Under the table etc.
 Phrases may have Subject or a Verb but not at a same
point in time, means Phrase cannot have a subject,
doing a verb.
 E.g.
 leaving behind the dog (verb but no Subject)
 smashing into a fence (verb but no Subject)
 A man on the roof (Contains Subject but not verb)
 The DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A CLAUSE and a phrase is that a
clause consists of both subject and verb, but a phrase lacks a
subject and verb.
 Phrase Is not a complete sentence it does not convey a proper
meaning. Phrase is a part of sentence. Normally phrase and clause
combine together to make a complete sentence.
 Example
He reached school in time.
They are singing in a loud voice.
Characteristics of Phrases (Cont.)
Phrase
Clause
TYPES OF PHRASE
Noun Phrase
Prepositional
Phrase Adverb
Phrase Adjective
Phrase Absolute
Phrase Infinite
Phrase Participle
Phrase Gerund
Phrase
Noun Phrase
 A noun phrase consists of a noun and other related words
(usually modifiers and determiners) which modify the noun.
 Noun Phrase = noun + modifiers
(the modifiers can be after or before noun)
 Examples
 He is wearing a nice red shirt. (as noun/object)
 The boy with brown hair is laughing. (as noun/subject)
Prepositional phrase.
 A prepositional phrase consists of a preposition, object
of preposition (noun or pronoun) and may also consist
of other modifiers.
 E.G.
 On a table,
 near a wall,
 in the room,
Prepositional phrase (cont.)
 A single sentence may also contain two or three prepositional
phrases
Examples
Allama Iqbal
was a man having
great wisdom.
The king lives in
a palace made of
white marble.
Adverb phrases
An adverb phrase is a group of words that performs the function of an adverb.
an adverb is a word used to qualify any part of speech except a noun or
pronoun.
She replied politely. (politely is an adverb)
Examples
She replied
in a polite manner.
He works
without considering his health.
Examples
TYPES OF PHRASES
Participle Phrase
Gerund Phrase
Infinitive Phrase
Absolute Phrase
A participle is a type of verbal. A participle acts as
an adjective to modify a noun or pronoun.
Participle act as an adjective and end in ing -ed-en-
d-t-n
 Present participle end in ing
 Past participle end in ed – en -n –d -t
Participle
A participle phrase is an adjective phrase that starts with
a participle. It usually follows the noun (or pronoun)
which it modifies.
A participial phrase is a group of words consisting of a
participle and the modifier(s) and/or (pro)noun(s) or
noun phrase(s) that function as the direct object(s),
indirect object(s), or complement(s) of the action or
state expressed in the participle, such as
 Removing his coat , Jack rushed to the river.
 Is that Arthur running for the bus?
 We saw a car, damaged in a car accident.
 Children interested in music early develop strong
intellectual skills.
Examples
Gerund
Gerund is a verb that ends in ing and used as
a verbal noun
It performs the function of both noun and
verb
A gerund can be used both as as an object
and subject of the sentense
Examples:
Dancing is enjoyable and
creative vocation
He loves eating
chocolates.
A gerund phrase acts as a noun in a sentence. A gerund phrase is
a group of words that consist of a gerund ,object and modifiers.
Gerund Object Modifiers
Gerund
Phrase
Gerund Phrase
An infinitive phrase will begin with an infinitive [to +
simple form of the verb]. It will include objects
and/or modifiers.
Examples :
To smash a spider
To kick the ball past the dazed goalie
Infinitive phrases can function
as nouns, adjectives, or adverbs.
 He likes to read books.
(As noun/object)
 To earn money is a desire of everyone.
(As noun/subject)
 He shouted to inform people about fire.
(As adverb, modifies verb shout)
 He made a plan to buy a car.
(As adjective, modifies noun plan)
An absolute phrase combines a noun and a participle with any
accompanying modifiers or objects.
NOUN + PARTICIPLE + OPTIONAL MODIFIER(S) AND/OR OBJECT(S)
Examples:
Legs quivering
Her arms folded across her chest, Professor Hill warned the
class about the penalties of plagiarism.
He looks sad, his face expressing worry.
Absolute Phrase

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Clauses & phrases

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  • 7. Cluster of words that contain: subject + verb  I am Standing.  He reached university.  He is laughing. Clause
  • 8. Two or more clauses in a sentence  I am Standing.  He is laughing.  I am happy, because I won a prize.  I like Mathematics, but my brother likes Biology, because he wants to become a doctor. Clause
  • 9. Phrase  I am standing near a table.  He reached university in time.  He is laughing at a joker.
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  • 12. Subject + verb = complete thought  He is wearing a shirt.  I like Chinese rice.  I bought a computer. Examples
  • 13.  He is wearing a shirt which look very nice.  I like Chinese rice which tastes good.  I bought a computer that cost is 15000. Examples Subject + verb + subordinating conjunction
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  • 15. Definition:- “A clause in a complex sentence that cannot stand alone as a complete sentence and that functions within the sentence as a noun or adjective or adverb”. Example:- He likes Chinese rice which tastes good. DEPENDENT CLAUSE
  • 16. On the basis of their function in a sentence, subordinate clauses can be divided in to following types Noun Clause Adjective Clause. Adverb Clause TYPES
  • 17. “A dependent clause that functions as a noun in a sentence is called noun clause.” A noun clause performs same function like a noun in a sentence. What he did made a problem for his family. Noun Clause:- Example:-
  • 18. A noun clause starts with words “that, what, whatever, who, whom, whoever, whomever”. Examples:- Whatever you learn will help you in future. (noun clause as a subject) What you said made me laugh. (noun clause as a subject) He knows that he will pass the test. (noun clause as an object) Now I realize what he would have thought. (noun clause as an object)
  • 19. Adjective Clause:- “A dependent clause that functions as an adjective in a sentence is called adjective clause.” Example:- He wears a shirt which looks nice. Adjective (relative) clauses can be restrictive clause or non-restrictive clause.
  • 20. “A restrictive clause limits the meaning of preceding noun or pronoun”. “A non-restrictive clause tells us something about preceding noun or pronoun but does not limit the meaning of preceding noun or pronoun”. Restrictive Clauses:- Non-restrictive Clauses:-
  • 21. •The student in the class who studied a lot passed the test. (restrictive clause) •The student in the class, who had attended all the lectures, passed the test. (non-restrictive clause) Example:-
  • 22. “A dependent clause that functions as an adverb in a sentence is called adverb clause” It modifies(describes) the situation in main clause in terms of “time, frequency (how often), cause and effect, contrast, condition, intensity (to what extent).” Adverb Clause :-
  • 23. Examples:- Don’t go before he comes. He takes medicine because he is ill. You are safe as long as you drive carefully. Time: when, whenever, since, Cause and effect: because, since, Contrast: although, even Condition: If, unless, only if,
  • 25. Definition Of Phrase A phrase is a collection of words that may have nouns or verbs, but it does not have a subject doing a verb.
  • 26. Characteristics of Phrases  Mostly Phrases do not have subject and a verb  E.G  on the way  Under the table etc.  Phrases may have Subject or a Verb but not at a same point in time, means Phrase cannot have a subject, doing a verb.  E.g.  leaving behind the dog (verb but no Subject)  smashing into a fence (verb but no Subject)  A man on the roof (Contains Subject but not verb)
  • 27.  The DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A CLAUSE and a phrase is that a clause consists of both subject and verb, but a phrase lacks a subject and verb.  Phrase Is not a complete sentence it does not convey a proper meaning. Phrase is a part of sentence. Normally phrase and clause combine together to make a complete sentence.  Example He reached school in time. They are singing in a loud voice. Characteristics of Phrases (Cont.) Phrase Clause
  • 28. TYPES OF PHRASE Noun Phrase Prepositional Phrase Adverb Phrase Adjective Phrase Absolute Phrase Infinite Phrase Participle Phrase Gerund Phrase
  • 29. Noun Phrase  A noun phrase consists of a noun and other related words (usually modifiers and determiners) which modify the noun.  Noun Phrase = noun + modifiers (the modifiers can be after or before noun)  Examples  He is wearing a nice red shirt. (as noun/object)  The boy with brown hair is laughing. (as noun/subject)
  • 30. Prepositional phrase.  A prepositional phrase consists of a preposition, object of preposition (noun or pronoun) and may also consist of other modifiers.  E.G.  On a table,  near a wall,  in the room,
  • 31. Prepositional phrase (cont.)  A single sentence may also contain two or three prepositional phrases
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  • 33. Examples Allama Iqbal was a man having great wisdom. The king lives in a palace made of white marble.
  • 34. Adverb phrases An adverb phrase is a group of words that performs the function of an adverb. an adverb is a word used to qualify any part of speech except a noun or pronoun. She replied politely. (politely is an adverb)
  • 35. Examples She replied in a polite manner. He works without considering his health.
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  • 38. TYPES OF PHRASES Participle Phrase Gerund Phrase Infinitive Phrase Absolute Phrase
  • 39. A participle is a type of verbal. A participle acts as an adjective to modify a noun or pronoun. Participle act as an adjective and end in ing -ed-en- d-t-n  Present participle end in ing  Past participle end in ed – en -n –d -t Participle
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  • 41. A participle phrase is an adjective phrase that starts with a participle. It usually follows the noun (or pronoun) which it modifies. A participial phrase is a group of words consisting of a participle and the modifier(s) and/or (pro)noun(s) or noun phrase(s) that function as the direct object(s), indirect object(s), or complement(s) of the action or state expressed in the participle, such as
  • 42.  Removing his coat , Jack rushed to the river.  Is that Arthur running for the bus?  We saw a car, damaged in a car accident.  Children interested in music early develop strong intellectual skills. Examples
  • 43. Gerund Gerund is a verb that ends in ing and used as a verbal noun It performs the function of both noun and verb A gerund can be used both as as an object and subject of the sentense
  • 44. Examples: Dancing is enjoyable and creative vocation He loves eating chocolates.
  • 45. A gerund phrase acts as a noun in a sentence. A gerund phrase is a group of words that consist of a gerund ,object and modifiers. Gerund Object Modifiers Gerund Phrase Gerund Phrase
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  • 47. An infinitive phrase will begin with an infinitive [to + simple form of the verb]. It will include objects and/or modifiers. Examples : To smash a spider To kick the ball past the dazed goalie Infinitive phrases can function as nouns, adjectives, or adverbs.
  • 48.  He likes to read books. (As noun/object)  To earn money is a desire of everyone. (As noun/subject)  He shouted to inform people about fire. (As adverb, modifies verb shout)  He made a plan to buy a car. (As adjective, modifies noun plan)
  • 49. An absolute phrase combines a noun and a participle with any accompanying modifiers or objects. NOUN + PARTICIPLE + OPTIONAL MODIFIER(S) AND/OR OBJECT(S) Examples: Legs quivering Her arms folded across her chest, Professor Hill warned the class about the penalties of plagiarism. He looks sad, his face expressing worry. Absolute Phrase