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AGGREGATE SUPPLY
PREPARED BY
UMAIR
AGGREGATE SUPPLY
The aggregate supply curve depicts the quantity of real GDP
that is supplied by the economy at different price levels.
AGGREGATE SUPPLY
 The reasoning used to construct the aggregate supply
curve differs from the reasoning used to construct the
supply curves for individual goods and services.
 The supply curve for an individual good is drawn under
the assumption that input prices remain constant. As the
price of good X rises, sellers' per unit costs of providing
good X do not change, and so sellers are willing to
supply more of good X‐hence, the upward slope of the
supply curve for good X.
AGGREGATE SUPPLY
 But an increase in the price will also have a second
effect; it will eventually lead to increases in input prices
as well, which, ceteris paribus, will cause producers to
cut back.
 So, there is some uncertainty as to whether the economy
will supply more real GDP as the price level rises.
 In order to address this issue, it has become customary
to distinguish between two types of aggregate supply
curves, the short‐run aggregate supply curve and the
long‐run aggregate supply curve.
SHORT‐RUN AGGREGATE SUPPLY (SRAS)
CURVE
 The short‐run aggregate supply (SAS) curve is
considered a valid description of the supply schedule of
the economy only in the short‐run.
 The short‐run is the period that begins immediately
after an increase in the price level and that ends when
input prices have increased in the same proportion to the
increase in the price level.
SHORT‐RUN AGGREGATE SUPPLY (SRAS)
CURVE
 Input prices are the prices paid to the providers of input
goods and services.
 These input prices include the wages paid to workers, the
interest paid to the providers of capital, the rent paid to
landowners, and the prices paid to suppliers of
intermediate goods.
 When the price level of final goods rises, the cost of
living increases for those who provide input goods and
services.
 Once these input providers realize that the cost of living
has increased, they will increase the prices that they
charge for their input goods and services in proportion to
the increase in the price level for final goods.
SHORT‐RUN AGGREGATE SUPPLY (SRAS)
CURVE
 The presumption underlying the SAS curve is that input providers
do not or cannot take account of the increase in the general price
level right away so that it takes some time–referred to as the
short‐run–for input prices to fully reflect changes in the price level
for final goods.
 For example, workers often negotiate multi‐year contracts with their
employers. These contracts usually include a certain allowance for
an increase in the price level, called a cost of living adjustment
(COLA).
 The COLA, however, is based on expectations of the future price
level that may turn out to be wrong. Suppose, for example, that
workers underestimate the increase in the price level that occurs
during the multi‐year contract.
 Depending on the terms of the contract, the workers may not have
the opportunity to correct their mistaken estimates of inflation until
the contract expires. In this case, their wage increases will lag
behind the increases in the price level for some time.
SHORT‐RUN AGGREGATE SUPPLY (SRAS)
CURVE
 During the short‐run, sellers of final goods are receiving
higher prices for their products, without a proportional
increase in the cost of their inputs.
 The higher the price level, the more these sellers will be
willing to supply.
 The SAS curve—depicted in Figure is therefore upward
sloping, reflecting the positive relationship that exists
between the price level and the quantity of goods
supplied in the short‐run.
SHORT‐RUN AGGREGATE SUPPLY (SRAS)
CURVE
LONG‐RUN AGGREGATE SUPPLY (LRAS)
CURVE
 The long‐run aggregate supply (LAS) curve describes
the economy's supply schedule in the long‐run.
 The long‐run is defined as the period when input prices
have completely adjusted to changes in the price level of
final goods.
 In the long‐run, the increase in prices that sellers receive
for their final goods is completely offset by the
proportional increase in the prices that sellers pay for
inputs.
 The result is that the quantity of real GDP supplied by all
sellers in the economy is independent of changes in the
price level.
LONG‐RUN AGGREGATE SUPPLY (LRAS)
CURVE
 A long run production function for a country is often written
as follows:
Y*t = f (Lt, Kt, Mt)
 Y* is a measure of potential output
 t is the time period
 L represents the quantity and ability of labour input available
 Kt represents the available capital stock
 Mt represents the availability of natural resources
 LRAS is determined by the stock of a country’s resources
and by the productivity of factor inputs (labour, land and
capital).
 Changes in the technology also affect potential real national
output
LONG‐RUN AGGREGATE SUPPLY (LRAS)
CURVE
 The LAS curve—depicted in Figure is a vertical line,
reflecting the fact that long‐run aggregate supply is not
affected by changes in the price level.
 Note that the LAS curve is vertical at the point labeled as
the natural level of real GDP.
 The natural level of real GDP is defined as the level of
real GDP that arises when the economy is fully
employing all of its available input resources.
LONG‐RUN AGGREGATE SUPPLY (LRAS)
CURVE
CHANGES IN SRAS
 Commodity Prices:
 Changes to raw material costs and other components e.g. the
prices of oil, copper, rubber, iron ore, aluminium and other
inputs will affect a firm’s costs
 For example, the price of oil, an input good, increased
dramatically in the 1970s due to efforts by oil‐exporting
countries to restrict the quantity of oil sold.
 Many final goods and services use oil or oil products as
inputs. Suppliers of these final goods and services faced rising
costs and had to reduce their supply at all price levels.
 The decrease in aggregate supply, caused by the increase in
input prices, is represented by a shift to the left of the SAS
curve because the SAS curve is drawn under the assumption
that input prices remain constant. An increase in aggregate
supply due to a decrease in input prices is represented by a
shift to the right of the SAS curve.
CHANGES IN SRAS
 Government taxation and subsidies:
 An increase in taxes to meet environmental objectives will
cause higher costs and an inward shift in the SRAS curve
 Lower duty on petrol and diesel would lower costs and cause
an outward shift in SRAS
 The price of imports:
 Cheaper imports from a lower-cost country has the effect of
shifting out SRAS
 A reduction in a tariff on imports or an increase in the size of
an import quota will also boost the supply available at each
price level
 The exchange rate affects how much a business must pay for
imported raw materials and components
CHANGES IN LRAS
 In the long run, the ability of an economy to produce
goods and services to meet demand is based on the state
of production technology and the availability and
quality of factor inputs.
 Any change in the economy that alters the natural rate
of growth of output shifts LRAS. Improvements in
productivity and efficiency or an increase in the stock of
capital and labour resources cause the LRAS curve to
shift out.
CHANGES IN LRAS
 Positive economic growth results from an increase in
productive resources, such as labor and capital.
 With more resources, it is possible to produce more final
goods and services, and hence, the natural level of real
GDP increases.
 Positive economic growth is therefore represented by a
shift to the right of the LAS curve.
 Similarly, negative economic growth decreases the
natural level of real GDP, causing the LAS curve to shift
to the left.
CLASSICAL AGGREGATE SUPPLY CURVE
Classical Aggregate Supply Curve is vertical indicating
that the same amount of goods will be supplied whatever
the price level.
CLASSICAL AGGREGATE SUPPLY CURVE
 It is based on the assumption that the resources are fully
employed.
 In a single market, manufacturers faced with high
demand can raise the price and go out and buy more
materials, labor and so forth.
 This has the side effect of shifting factors of production
away from the lower demand sectors to high demand
sectors.
 However, if the high demand is economy wide and all
the factors of production are already at work, it is not
possible to increase production but the price level
increases.
KEYNESIAN AGGREGATE SUPPLY CURVE
Keynesian Aggregate Supply Curve is horizontal
indicating that the firms will supply whatever amount of
goods is demanded at the existing price level.
KEYNESIAN AGGREGATE SUPPLY CURVE
 The underlying assumption is that the resources are not
fully employed or there is unemployment.
 Firms can obtain as much labor as they want at the
current wage rate.
 The average cost of production does not change as the
output level rises.
 The firms are willing to supply as much as demanded at
the existing price level.
 As a result, the aggregate supply curve is quite flat in the
short run.

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Understanding Aggregate Supply Curves

  • 1.
  • 3. AGGREGATE SUPPLY The aggregate supply curve depicts the quantity of real GDP that is supplied by the economy at different price levels.
  • 4. AGGREGATE SUPPLY  The reasoning used to construct the aggregate supply curve differs from the reasoning used to construct the supply curves for individual goods and services.  The supply curve for an individual good is drawn under the assumption that input prices remain constant. As the price of good X rises, sellers' per unit costs of providing good X do not change, and so sellers are willing to supply more of good X‐hence, the upward slope of the supply curve for good X.
  • 5. AGGREGATE SUPPLY  But an increase in the price will also have a second effect; it will eventually lead to increases in input prices as well, which, ceteris paribus, will cause producers to cut back.  So, there is some uncertainty as to whether the economy will supply more real GDP as the price level rises.  In order to address this issue, it has become customary to distinguish between two types of aggregate supply curves, the short‐run aggregate supply curve and the long‐run aggregate supply curve.
  • 6. SHORT‐RUN AGGREGATE SUPPLY (SRAS) CURVE  The short‐run aggregate supply (SAS) curve is considered a valid description of the supply schedule of the economy only in the short‐run.  The short‐run is the period that begins immediately after an increase in the price level and that ends when input prices have increased in the same proportion to the increase in the price level.
  • 7. SHORT‐RUN AGGREGATE SUPPLY (SRAS) CURVE  Input prices are the prices paid to the providers of input goods and services.  These input prices include the wages paid to workers, the interest paid to the providers of capital, the rent paid to landowners, and the prices paid to suppliers of intermediate goods.  When the price level of final goods rises, the cost of living increases for those who provide input goods and services.  Once these input providers realize that the cost of living has increased, they will increase the prices that they charge for their input goods and services in proportion to the increase in the price level for final goods.
  • 8. SHORT‐RUN AGGREGATE SUPPLY (SRAS) CURVE  The presumption underlying the SAS curve is that input providers do not or cannot take account of the increase in the general price level right away so that it takes some time–referred to as the short‐run–for input prices to fully reflect changes in the price level for final goods.  For example, workers often negotiate multi‐year contracts with their employers. These contracts usually include a certain allowance for an increase in the price level, called a cost of living adjustment (COLA).  The COLA, however, is based on expectations of the future price level that may turn out to be wrong. Suppose, for example, that workers underestimate the increase in the price level that occurs during the multi‐year contract.  Depending on the terms of the contract, the workers may not have the opportunity to correct their mistaken estimates of inflation until the contract expires. In this case, their wage increases will lag behind the increases in the price level for some time.
  • 9. SHORT‐RUN AGGREGATE SUPPLY (SRAS) CURVE  During the short‐run, sellers of final goods are receiving higher prices for their products, without a proportional increase in the cost of their inputs.  The higher the price level, the more these sellers will be willing to supply.  The SAS curve—depicted in Figure is therefore upward sloping, reflecting the positive relationship that exists between the price level and the quantity of goods supplied in the short‐run.
  • 11. LONG‐RUN AGGREGATE SUPPLY (LRAS) CURVE  The long‐run aggregate supply (LAS) curve describes the economy's supply schedule in the long‐run.  The long‐run is defined as the period when input prices have completely adjusted to changes in the price level of final goods.  In the long‐run, the increase in prices that sellers receive for their final goods is completely offset by the proportional increase in the prices that sellers pay for inputs.  The result is that the quantity of real GDP supplied by all sellers in the economy is independent of changes in the price level.
  • 12. LONG‐RUN AGGREGATE SUPPLY (LRAS) CURVE  A long run production function for a country is often written as follows: Y*t = f (Lt, Kt, Mt)  Y* is a measure of potential output  t is the time period  L represents the quantity and ability of labour input available  Kt represents the available capital stock  Mt represents the availability of natural resources  LRAS is determined by the stock of a country’s resources and by the productivity of factor inputs (labour, land and capital).  Changes in the technology also affect potential real national output
  • 13. LONG‐RUN AGGREGATE SUPPLY (LRAS) CURVE  The LAS curve—depicted in Figure is a vertical line, reflecting the fact that long‐run aggregate supply is not affected by changes in the price level.  Note that the LAS curve is vertical at the point labeled as the natural level of real GDP.  The natural level of real GDP is defined as the level of real GDP that arises when the economy is fully employing all of its available input resources.
  • 15. CHANGES IN SRAS  Commodity Prices:  Changes to raw material costs and other components e.g. the prices of oil, copper, rubber, iron ore, aluminium and other inputs will affect a firm’s costs  For example, the price of oil, an input good, increased dramatically in the 1970s due to efforts by oil‐exporting countries to restrict the quantity of oil sold.  Many final goods and services use oil or oil products as inputs. Suppliers of these final goods and services faced rising costs and had to reduce their supply at all price levels.  The decrease in aggregate supply, caused by the increase in input prices, is represented by a shift to the left of the SAS curve because the SAS curve is drawn under the assumption that input prices remain constant. An increase in aggregate supply due to a decrease in input prices is represented by a shift to the right of the SAS curve.
  • 16. CHANGES IN SRAS  Government taxation and subsidies:  An increase in taxes to meet environmental objectives will cause higher costs and an inward shift in the SRAS curve  Lower duty on petrol and diesel would lower costs and cause an outward shift in SRAS  The price of imports:  Cheaper imports from a lower-cost country has the effect of shifting out SRAS  A reduction in a tariff on imports or an increase in the size of an import quota will also boost the supply available at each price level  The exchange rate affects how much a business must pay for imported raw materials and components
  • 17. CHANGES IN LRAS  In the long run, the ability of an economy to produce goods and services to meet demand is based on the state of production technology and the availability and quality of factor inputs.  Any change in the economy that alters the natural rate of growth of output shifts LRAS. Improvements in productivity and efficiency or an increase in the stock of capital and labour resources cause the LRAS curve to shift out.
  • 18. CHANGES IN LRAS  Positive economic growth results from an increase in productive resources, such as labor and capital.  With more resources, it is possible to produce more final goods and services, and hence, the natural level of real GDP increases.  Positive economic growth is therefore represented by a shift to the right of the LAS curve.  Similarly, negative economic growth decreases the natural level of real GDP, causing the LAS curve to shift to the left.
  • 19. CLASSICAL AGGREGATE SUPPLY CURVE Classical Aggregate Supply Curve is vertical indicating that the same amount of goods will be supplied whatever the price level.
  • 20. CLASSICAL AGGREGATE SUPPLY CURVE  It is based on the assumption that the resources are fully employed.  In a single market, manufacturers faced with high demand can raise the price and go out and buy more materials, labor and so forth.  This has the side effect of shifting factors of production away from the lower demand sectors to high demand sectors.  However, if the high demand is economy wide and all the factors of production are already at work, it is not possible to increase production but the price level increases.
  • 21. KEYNESIAN AGGREGATE SUPPLY CURVE Keynesian Aggregate Supply Curve is horizontal indicating that the firms will supply whatever amount of goods is demanded at the existing price level.
  • 22. KEYNESIAN AGGREGATE SUPPLY CURVE  The underlying assumption is that the resources are not fully employed or there is unemployment.  Firms can obtain as much labor as they want at the current wage rate.  The average cost of production does not change as the output level rises.  The firms are willing to supply as much as demanded at the existing price level.  As a result, the aggregate supply curve is quite flat in the short run.