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# Introduction to lathe machine

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### Introduction to lathe machine

1. 1. BY Mr Tauqeer ahmad khan Associate professor
2. 2. Learning Objectives The students shall be able to understand the following Define a lathe Explain the construction of lathe Describe the types of lathe machine Explain the operations of lathe machine
3. 3. Contents Introduction to centre lathe Construction of centre lathe types of lathe machine Operations of lathe
4. 4. MOTIVATION
5. 5. Introduction i). History ii). Work principle iii). Size of lathe
6. 6. LATHE MACHINE Presented by Tauqeer ahmad khan
7. 7. History
8. 8. i) History The origin of turning dates to around 1300BC when the Egyptians first developed a twoperson lathe. One person would turn the wood work piece with a rope while the other used a sharp tool to cut shapes in the wood The Romans improved the Egyptian design with the addition of a turning bow. Early bow lathes were also developed and used in Germany, France and Britain.
9. 9. Working principle
10. 10. Tailstock center (Dead Centre) Headstock center (Live Centre) Working Principle Workpiece Tool post Workpiece N (rev/min) Chip Tool D S peripheral speed (m/min) 10
11. 11. Size of lathe Depends upon following points Main points Swing (maximum diameter of job that can swing on it without touching bed ways ) Distance between centre’s of lathe
12. 12. Size of lathe
13. 13. Types
14. 14. Types of lathe CNC lathe Manually operated Special purpose production Turret lathe Capstan lathe Bench lathe Tracer lathe General purpose Centre lathe Tool room lathe,etc
15. 15. Centre lathe • • • • Most frequently used lathe Heavy duty power drive for most tool movements Size range 12”x24” to 24”x48” - can be larger
16. 16. Bench Lathe  A bench top model usually of low power  used to make precision machine small work pieces
17. 17. Tool room lathe • • • • Look like engine lathe Greater accuracy More versatility Wider range of speeds and feeds
18. 18. Turret Capable of performing multiple cutting operations on the same workpiece  Turning  Boring  Drilling  Thread cutting  Facing Turret lathes are very versatile Types of turret lathes  Ram-type: ram slides in a separate base on the saddle  Saddle type:  more heavily constructed  Used to machine large workpeiceces • • • • • It is production lathe Hex turret replaces tailstock Multiple tools set to machine part Turret Head High production rates Still may require some operator skill
19. 19. Capstan lathe • It is production lathe • Used for light duty work pieces • Small in size as compared to turret lathe • It also have turret that replaces tailstock • Multiple tools set to machine part • Still may require some operator skill Turret Head
20. 20. Tracer/copy lathe Tracer piece • Hydraulic attachment used to copy the shape of a part from a master. • lathe that has the ability to follow a template to copy a shape or contour. • Machine tools with attachments • Capable of turning parts with various contours • A tracer finger follows the template and guides the cutting tool
21. 21. Automatic lathe An automatic lathe is a lathe (usually a metalworking lathe) whose actions are controlled automatically. Although all electronically controlled (CNC) lathes are automatic, they are usually not called by that name, as explained under "General nomenclature". The first kinds of automatic lathes were mechanically automated ones
22. 22. CNC lathe • Computer controlled • Wide variety of process capability • multiple axis • Indexing and contouring head • On- line and off- line programming available • Computer Numerical Controls (CNC) • Equipped with one or more turrets • Each turret is equipped with a variety of tools • Performs several operations on different surfaces of the work piece Machine Unit NC controller
23. 23. Construction of lathe
24. 24. Lathe Basics Spindle Nose Tailstock Spindle Clamp Tool Post Compound Rest HEADSTOCK TAILSTOCK Saddle Feed Reverse Lever Feed Change Lever Lead Screw BED WAYS APRON Gear Box Carriage Hand Wheel Motor Drive Frictionclutch Control Cross Slide Half Nut Lever Bed
25. 25. Lathe Operations
26. 26. Lathe Operations Turning: produce straight, conical, curved, or grooved work pieces Facing: to produce a flat surface at the end of the part or for making face grooves. Boring: to enlarge a hole or cylindrical cavity made by a previous process or to produce circular internal grooves. Drilling: to produce a hole by fixing a drill in the tailstock Threading: to produce external or internal threads Knurling: to produce a regularly shaped roughness on cylindrical surfaces 26
27. 27. Lathe Operations 27
28. 28. Turning .. Cylindrical job Cutting speed Workpiece Depth of cut (d) Machined surface N Chuck Feed Tool Chip Depth of cut
29. 29. Facing Chuck Flat Surface/Reduce length Workpiece d Machined Face Cutting speed Depth of cut Tool Feed
30. 30. Facing operation
31. 31. Eccentric Turning 4-jaw chuck Axis of job Axis Cutting speed Eccentric peg (to be turned)
32. 32. Knurling Knurled surface Cutting speed Feed Knurling tool Tool post Movement for depth
33. 33. Grooving .. Shape produced by form tool Form tool Feed or depth of cut Groove Grooving tool
34. 34. Parting .. Parting tool Feed
35. 35. Chamfering Chamfer Feed Chamfering tool
36. 36. Taper Turning  Taper: D1 D2 2L tan 90° D1 B A D2 C L
37. 37. Drilling Drill – cutting tool – held in TS – feed from TS Quill clamp moving Drill quill Tail stock Feed Tail stock clamp
38. 38. Contour Turning Instead of feeding the tool parallel to the axis of rotation, tool follows a contour that is not necessarily straight (thus creating a contoured form). Figure ..contour turning
39. 39. Threading Pointed form tool is fed linearly across surface of rotating workpart parallel to axis of rotation at a large feed rate, thus creating threads Figure; threading
40. 40. Summary. Introduction to centre lathe Construction of centre lathe types of lathe machines Operations of lathe
41. 41. Feed back/Evaluation 1. Lathe is used to turn i) Square shape ii) cylindrical shape iii) irregular shape 2 Size of lathe depends upon following i) Size of chuck and length of bed ii) Distance b/w centres and length of bed iii) Its weight & length of bed iv) distance b/w centres & swing diameter of job to be held 3. What are the basic difference b/w turret lathe and capstan lathe i) Size ii) precision iii) by turret head position iv) i,iii