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090713 umar ahmad, histology endocrine

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090713 umar ahmad, histology endocrine

  1. 1. Histology of Endocrine System UMAR AHMAD MODERATOR: PROF. DR. FAUZIAH OTHMAN Department of Human Anatomy Faculty of Medicine & Health Sciences Universiti Putra Malaysia. PREMEDIC MESIR 2013 Aug 26, 2013 Umar Ahmad 1
  2. 2. Hormone delivery (receptors) (Neurosecretion) Synapse O'Riordan et al., 2nd ed, page 5 Aug 26, 2013 Umar Ahmad 2
  3. 3. Endocrine system • Pituitary (hypophysis) – Anterior pituitary – Posterior pituitary • Adrenal gland (suprarenal) – Adrenal cortex – Adrenal medulla • Thyroid gland – Follicles – Parafollicular cells • Parathyroid gland Considered in other lectures: – Endocrine pancreas – Male – Female – Enteroendocrine Aug 26, 2013 Umar Ahmad 3
  4. 4. PITUITARY Aug 26, 2013 Umar Ahmad 4
  5. 5. Location of pituitary US Federal Government Aug 26, 2013 Umar Ahmad 5
  6. 6. Pituitary development Ross and Pawlina. Histology: Text and Atlas, 5th ed, 2006, fig 21.4, pg 690 Aug 26, 2013 Umar Ahmad 6
  7. 7. Pituitary nomenclature Pituitary nomenclature Please also see Ross and Pawlina. Histology: Text and Atlas, 5th ed, 2006, fig 21.3b, pg 689 Gray’s Anatomy, wikimedia commons Aug 26, 2013 Umar Ahmad 7
  8. 8. Cells and hormones of the anterior pituitary LM staining Cell type Hormone Releasing (+) or inhibiting (-) horm. Acidophil Somatotrope Growth hormone (GH) = somatotropin GHRH (+) Somatostatin (-) Acidophil Mammotrope = lactotrope Prolactin (PRL) [Dopamine (-) estrogen (+)] Basophil Thyrotrope Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) = thyrotropin TRH (+) Basophil Gonadotrope Luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH); both = gonadotropin GnRH (+) Basophil (human) Corticotrope Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) = corticotropin CRH (+) A.K. ChristensenAug 26, 2013 Umar Ahmad 8
  9. 9. Pituitary, low power LM Humio Mizoguti, Kobe Univ Sch Med, slide 515 Aug 26, 2013 Umar Ahmad 9
  10. 10. Anterior pituitary, LM drawing Image of cords of cells in anterior pituitary removed. Original here: Bailey's textbook of histology. 72(700)6 Aug 26, 2013 Umar Ahmad 10
  11. 11. Anterior pituitary, LM, trichrome stain Stan Erlandsen Medical Histology slide collection, slide MH 9/B/4Aug 26, 2013 Umar Ahmad 11
  12. 12. Anterior pituitary, LM, H&E stain Basophil Stan Erlandsen Medical Histology slide collection, slide MH-9B3 Aug 26, 2013 Umar Ahmad 12
  13. 13. Immunocytochemical localization of growth hormone, LM A.K. Christensen Aug 26, 2013 Umar Ahmad 13
  14. 14. Immunocytochemical localization of luteinizing hormone in gonadotropes, fluorescence Nucleus Nucleus LH granules A.K. Christensen Aug 26, 2013 Umar Ahmad 14
  15. 15. Anterior pituitary, EM Larry Kahn Aug 26, 2013 Umar Ahmad 15
  16. 16. Pathway of hormone secretion Fawcett. Histology, ed 11, p 486 Aug 26, 2013 Umar Ahmad 16
  17. 17. Cytoplasm of prolactin-secreting cell (lactotrope), EM Secretory granule Golgi Rough ER Marilyn Farquhar in Memoirs of the Society for Endocrinology Aug 26, 2013 Umar Ahmad 17
  18. 18. Golgi and secretory granules, EM Golgi Granule Mitochondrion Nucleus Marilyn Farquhar in Memoirs of the Society for Endocrinology Aug 26, 2013 Umar Ahmad 18
  19. 19. Exocytosis of prolactin granules, EM Marilyn Farquhar in Memoirs of the Society for Endocrinology Aug 26, 2013 Umar Ahmad 19
  20. 20. Regulation of the anterior pituitary Hedges, 1987 Aug 26, 2013 Umar Ahmad 20
  21. 21. Regulation of anterior pituitary, detail O'Riordan et al 1988, p 47 Aug 26, 2013 Umar Ahmad 21
  22. 22. SEM of pituitary: portal veins, capillaries, corrosion vascular cast Murakami T, 1975, Archivum Histologicum Japanicum 38:151-168 Aug 26, 2013 Umar Ahmad 22
  23. 23. Posterior pituitary • Hormones – Antidiuretic hormone (ADH = arginine vasopressin) – Oxytocin • Neurosecretion – Hormones synthesized as part of larger proteins (neurophysins) in neuron cell bodies of hypothalamus. – Transported in axons to pars nervosa (hormone cleaved from neurophysin). – Hormone secreted from axon terminals into capillaries. • Pituicytes – Specialized glia of pars nervosa. Aug 26, 2013 Umar Ahmad 23
  24. 24. Posterior pituitary, diagram O'Riordan et al 1988, p 47 Aug 26, 2013 Umar Ahmad 24
  25. 25. Posterior pituitary, LM Axon cross sections? A.K. Christensen Aug 26, 2013 Umar Ahmad 25
  26. 26. Nerve endings for hormone release, posterior pituitary CapillaryEndings Pituicyte Weiss Histology, ed 5 Aug 26, 2013 Umar Ahmad 26
  27. 27. Pars intermedia, between anterior and posterior pituitary, human, LM. Poorly developed and of doubtful function in humans. Intermedia Anterior Posterior Humio Mizoguti, Kobe Univ Sch Med, slide 516 Aug 26, 2013 Umar Ahmad 27
  28. 28. Pars intermedia, rat pituitary, LM Rathke'spouch A.K. Christensen Aug 26, 2013 Umar Ahmad 28
  29. 29. ADRENAL GLAND Aug 26, 2013 Umar Ahmad 29
  30. 30. Adrenal (suprarenal) gland Source UndeterminedAug 26, 2013 Umar Ahmad 30
  31. 31. Location of the adrenal (suprarenal) gland, human US Federal Government Aug 26, 2013 Umar Ahmad 31
  32. 32. Human adrenal, low power LM Bailey’s Histology Aug 26, 2013 Umar Ahmad 32
  33. 33. Adrenal cortex • Zona glomerulosa – Main hormone: Aldosterone (a mineralocorticoid). – General function: Maintain blood electrolyte balance. – Main control: Angiotensin II. • Zona fasciculata – Main hormone: Cortisol (a glucocorticoid). – General function: Includes regulating glucose and fatty acid metabolism, and response to stress. – Main control: Pituitary ACTH. • Zona reticularis – Hormones: Some cortisol and androgens. – Function and control: Similar to zona fasciculata. Aug 26, 2013 Umar Ahmad 33
  34. 34. Adrenal cortex, human, LM Hadley Kirkman slide collection, slide K285 Aug 26, 2013 Umar Ahmad 34
  35. 35. Adrenal cortex, human, H&E, LM Humio Mizoguti, Kobe Univ Sch Med, slide 547 Aug 26, 2013 Umar Ahmad 35
  36. 36. Adrenal blood vessels Image of adrenal gland vasculature removed. Original here: Junqueira and Carneiro, 10th ed., 2003, page 414, fig 21-2. Aug 26, 2013 Umar Ahmad 36
  37. 37. Adrenal blood vessels, corrosion vascular cast, SEM Virginia Black chapter, in Weiss Histology, 6th ed Aug 26, 2013 Umar Ahmad 37
  38. 38. Zona glomerulosa (source of aldosterone), LM Fasciculata Humio Mizoguti, Kobe Univ Sch Med, slide 548 Aug 26, 2013 Umar Ahmad 38
  39. 39. Zona fasciculata (source of cortisol), LM Humio Mizoguti, Kobe Univ Sch Med, slide 549 Aug 26, 2013 Umar Ahmad 39
  40. 40. Zona fasciculata, EM Capillary lumen Endothelium SER Stan Erlandsen Medical Histology slide collection, slide MH 9/F/4 Aug 26, 2013 Umar Ahmad 40
  41. 41. Smooth ER in the cytoplasm of a zona fasciculata cell, EM Long and Jones 1967 Aug 26, 2013 Umar Ahmad 41
  42. 42. Zona reticularis, LM Medulla Zona fasciculata Humio Mizoguti, Kobe Univ Sch Med, slide 550 Aug 26, 2013 Umar Ahmad 42
  43. 43. Adrenal medulla • Hormones – Epinephrine (adrenalin) and norepinephrine (noradrenalin), both catecholamines. Two cell types, one for E and one for N. – General function: Acute response to stress. – Main control: Preganglionic sympathetic innervation. • Embryonic source – From neural crest cells, same as postganglionic sympathetic neurons. Although adrenal medulla cells do not have dendrites or axons, they behave like postganglionic sympathetic neurons, releasing norepinephrine/epinephrine in response to preganglionic sympathetic stimulation. • Also called "chromaffin cells" – Cells of the adrenal medulla are examples of "chromaffin cells," containing catecholamine granules that stain brown with potassium dichromate. Neurons of sympathetic ganglia are also chromaffin cells. The term is used in pathology.Aug 26, 2013 Umar Ahmad 43
  44. 44. Adrenal medulla, LM Humio Mizoguti, Kobe Univ Sch Med, slide 565 Aug 26, 2013 Umar Ahmad 44
  45. 45. EM of adrenal medulla: norepinephrine and epinephrine cells Nucleus Nucleus Nucleus Norepinephrine Epinephrine Stan Erlandsen Medical Histology Slide Collection, slide MH 9/G/2-P Aug 26, 2013 Umar Ahmad 45
  46. 46. Production of norepinephrine and epinephrine in the cytosol Regents of the University of MichiganAug 26, 2013 Umar Ahmad 46
  47. 47. THYROID GLAND Aug 26, 2013 Umar Ahmad 47
  48. 48. Location of thyroid gland US Federal Government, wikimedia commons Aug 26, 2013 Umar Ahmad 48
  49. 49. Thyroid gland • Thyroid follicles – Thyroid hormones: thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3). – Synthesis: A very large protein, thyroglobulin (660 kDa), is synthesized and then secreted into the follicle lumen. It is later taken up and broken down (with lysosomes) to yield T4 and T3. – General function: To increase the body's metabolic rate. – Main control: Pituitary TSH. • Parafollicular cells (= C-cells) – Hormone: Calcitonin. – General function: Lower serum calcium. – Main control: Serum calcium level. Aug 26, 2013 Umar Ahmad 49
  50. 50. Thyroid follicle Modified from Hedge 1987 Aug 26, 2013 Umar Ahmad 50
  51. 51. Thyroid, low power LM Blood vessel Hadley Kirkman (Stanford) slide collection, slide 18Aug 26, 2013 Umar Ahmad 51
  52. 52. Thyroid follicles, LM Stan Erlandsen Medical Histology slide collection, slide MH 9/D/6 Aug 26, 2013 Umar Ahmad 52
  53. 53. Thyroid follicles, LM Hadley Kirkman (Stanford) slide collection, slide K27 Aug 26, 2013 Umar Ahmad 53
  54. 54. Thyroid capillary beds, corrosion vascular cast, SEM Stan Erlandsen Medical Histology slide set, slide MH 9/D/5 Aug 26, 2013 Umar Ahmad 54
  55. 55. Production of thyroid hormones by a follicular cell Synthesize thyroglobulin and then secrete it into the colloid. Iodinate tyrosine residues on thyroglobulin. When stimulated by pituitary TSH, take up the thyroglobulin and break it down in lysosomes to release thyroid hormones T3 and T4. Colloid Modified from Junqueira and Carneiro, 10th ed., 2003, page 426, fig. 21-19 by R. Mortensen Aug 26, 2013 Umar Ahmad 55
  56. 56. Thyroid follicular cell, EM Nucleus Colloid Lysosome Golgi Porter and Bonneville, 1968, Fine structure of cells and tissues, 3rd ed Aug 26, 2013 Umar Ahmad 56
  57. 57. Causes of goiter (increase in thyroid size) Rugh and Patton 1965, Physiology and biophysics, 19th ed Aug 26, 2013 Umar Ahmad 57
  58. 58. Functional states of thyroid follicles Normal Underactive = hypoactive Overactive = hyperactive Normal Image of thyroid follicles removed. Original here: 0'Riordan, 2nd ed, p 160. Aug 26, 2013 Umar Ahmad 58
  59. 59. Underactive (hypoactive) thyroid follicles, LM A.K. Christensen Aug 26, 2013 Umar Ahmad 59
  60. 60. Overactive (hyperactive) thyroid follicles Medical Histology atlas by Stanley L. Erlandsen and Jean E. MagneyAug 26, 2013 Umar Ahmad 60
  61. 61. Thyroid gland • Parafollicular cells (= C-cells) – Hormone: Calcitonin. – General function: Lowers serum calcium. – Main control: Serum calcium level. Aug 26, 2013 Umar Ahmad 61
  62. 62. C cell location in thyroid Hedge 1987 Aug 26, 2013 Umar Ahmad 62
  63. 63. C-cell in thyroid follicular epithelium, LM C-cell A.K. Christensen Aug 26, 2013 Umar Ahmad 63
  64. 64. Immunocytochemical localization of calcitonin in C cells, LM C cell Stan Erlandsen Medical Histology slide collection, slide MH 9/D/8 Aug 26, 2013 Umar Ahmad 64
  65. 65. Parafollicular cell (C cell), EM Junqueira histology textbook Aug 26, 2013 Umar Ahmad 65
  66. 66. Regulation of serum calcium Parathyroid hormone (from parathyroid) Ca++ ↑ Calcitonin (thyroid parafollicular cells) Ca++ ↓ Aug 26, 2013 Umar Ahmad 66
  67. 67. PARATHYROID GLAND Aug 26, 2013 Umar Ahmad 67
  68. 68. Location of the four parathyroid glands on the back of the thyroid US Federal Government Aug 26, 2013 Umar Ahmad 68
  69. 69. Parathyroid gland • Chief (or principal) cells – Hormone: Parathyroid hormone (PTH). – Main function: Raises serum calcium, lowers serum phosphate. – Main control: Serum calcium level. • Oxyphil cells – Occasional cells or small clusters. – Function unknown. – Name means "acid [stain] loving" (Greek). Aug 26, 2013 Umar Ahmad 69
  70. 70. Parathyroid gland (mostly chief cells) , low power LM Blood vessel Humio Mizoguti, Kobe Univ Sch Med, slide 542 Aug 26, 2013 Umar Ahmad 70
  71. 71. Parathyroid, chief cells, one oxyphil (arrow), LM Fat cell Humio Mizoguti, Kobe Univ Sch Med Aug 26, 2013 Umar Ahmad 71
  72. 72. Parathyroid capillary bed, corrosion vascular cast, SEM Murakami et al 1987, Arch Hist Jap 50:495, fig 2Aug 26, 2013 Umar Ahmad 72
  73. 73. Oxyphil cell cluster, LM Fat cell A.K. Christensen Aug 26, 2013 Umar Ahmad 73
  74. 74. Oxyphil cell, EM diagram Nucleus Mitochondrion Thomas Lentz atlas Aug 26, 2013 Umar Ahmad 74
  75. 75. Aug 26, 2013 Umar Ahmad 75

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