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Zukunftsszenarien für E-Mobilität

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An welchen neuen Technologien arbeitet die Forschung, um E-Mobile mit einer den heutigen Verbrennungsmotoren äquivalenten Leistung auszustatten? Welche kurz- und mittelfristigen Zukunftsszenarien bestehen für E-Mobilität und welche zwingenden Voraussetzungen gibt es hierfür?

Prof. Dr. Frank Endres, Energie-Forschungszentrum Niedersachsen (efzn), hielt diesen Vortrag am 21. Juni 2011 im Rahmen der "Sommernacht der E-Mobilität" aus der Reihe der NWJ-Impulse. http://www.nwj-impulse.de

Published in: Technology, Spiritual
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Zukunftsszenarien für E-Mobilität

  1. 3. Elektromobilität aus Sicht der Chemie: Welche Batteriesysteme muss man für attraktive Reichweiten entwickeln ? Quelle der Photos: Wikipedia
  2. 4. Daten aktueller Mitteklasse-Limousinen mit Dieselmotoren Quelle: www.autobild.de Realistische Verbräuche im Mischverkehr: ca. 6.5 – 7 l/100 km Gewicht Treibstoff + Tank: ca. 100 kg Reichweite: bis zu 1000 km
  3. 5. Ein wenig Chemie …. Im Dieselmotor findet bei der Verbrennung (vereinfacht) folgende Reaktion statt: 2 C 16 H 34 + 49 O 2  32 CO 2 + 34 H 2 O
  4. 6. Ein wenig Chemie …. Im Dieselmotor findet bei der Verbrennung (vereinfacht) folgende Reaktion statt: 2 C 16 H 34 + 49 O 2  32 CO 2 + 34 H 2 O Pro kg Dieselkraftstoff liefert diese Verbrennung ca. 12 kWh Energie Aber: Ein sehr guter Dieselmotor nutzt davon nur ca. 5 kWh . Für 1000 km Fahrtstrecke benötigen die genannten Mittelklasselimousinen ca. 70 Liter Dieselkraftstoff, entsprechend ca. 700 kWh Energie, davon genutzt ca. 300 kWh. Mit höchst effizienten Elektromotoren würde ein Mittelklasse-Elektromobil ca. 300 kWh Energie für eine Reichweite von 1000 km benötigen.
  5. 7. Wie ist eigentlich eine Lithiumionen-Batterie aufgebaut, und wie hoch ist ihre Energiedichte ? http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lithiumionenbatterie Die Materialien: Minuspol: LiC 6 Pluspol: LiCoO 2 Mit 1 kg beider Materialien erreicht man einen theoretischen Energieinhalt von: 0.5 kWh / kg
  6. 8. Vergleichen wir einmal die Zahlen: Dieselkraftstoff Lithiumionenbatterie Primärenergie 12 kWh/kg 0.5 kWh/kg Davon nutzbar 5 kWh/kg 0.15 kWh/kg Für 1000 km 60 kg 1500 kg !! Kosten 110 € 60 € (300 kWh) (Batterie: ≈ 150.000 €) Kann dieses Problem gelöst werden ? JA – aber ……..
  7. 9. <ul><li>Anforderungen an die flächendeckende Elektromobilität </li></ul><ul><li>1. Weiterentwicklung der Batterietechnologie nötig. </li></ul><ul><li>heute: 0.15 kWh/kg (Lithiumionen) </li></ul><ul><li>5 Jahre: 0.3 kWh/kg (Lithiumionen, verbessert) </li></ul><ul><li>10 Jahre: 0.5 kWh/kg (Zink/Luft, Lithium/Schwefel) </li></ul><ul><li>20 Jahre: 1 kWh/kg (Lithium/Luft) </li></ul><ul><li>30 – 40 Jahre: 3 kWh/kg (Lithium/Luft, ausgereizt) </li></ul><ul><li>Weiterentwicklung der Fahrzeugtechnologie (Leichtbau, Aerodynamik, Wärmedämmung, effiziente Elektrik) </li></ul><ul><li>Weiterentwicklung der Netze </li></ul><ul><li>Weiterentwicklung der Ladetechnik </li></ul><ul><li>Hybridfahrzeuge für die Übergangszeit </li></ul>
  8. 10. Elektromobilität mit dem uns vertrauten Komfort ist in der Zukunft möglich, erfordert aber vielfältige Anstrengungen. Leistungsfähige und preiswerte Batterien sind der Schlüssel zum Erfolg.
  9. 11. „ Nicht Fehler wiederholen und bei einer Schlüsseltechnologie der Zukunft den Anschluss verlieren!“ Impuls von Prof. Dr. Frank Endres

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