Organic Chemistry: Forensic use of organic compounds

7,058 views

Published on

Lecture materials for the Introductory Chemistry course for Forensic Scientists, University of Lincoln, UK. See http://forensicchemistry.lincoln.ac.uk/ for more details.

0 Comments
3 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
7,058
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
594
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
97
Comments
0
Likes
3
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Organic Chemistry: Forensic use of organic compounds

  1. 1. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License Forensic use of organic compounds University of Lincoln presentation
  2. 2. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License Fire accelerants Drugs Petrol: It is petroleum-derived, and consists mostly of aliphatic hydrocarbons enhanced with iso-octane or the aromatic hydrocarbons toluene and benzene to increase its octane rating. Diesel: Diesel is produced from oil and is a hydrocarbon mixture, obtained in the fractional distillation of crude oil between 200 °C and 350 °C at atmospheric pressure Butane Gas: consumed from lighters Carbon tetrachloride: Used for solvent abuse Hydrocarbons C 4 H 10 CCl 4
  3. 3. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License Aromatic compounds Fire accelerants Toluene Benzene Drugs Explosives Tri-Nitro Toluene (TNT) Dyes Alizarin Benzodiazepines: Psychoactive drugs with varying hypnotic, sedative, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, muscle relaxant and amnesic properties
  4. 4. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License Alcohols Fire accelerants Drugs Explosives Dyes 4-hydroxybutanoic acid (GHB): Date rape drug. GHB has been used in cases of drug-related sexual assault Ethyl Alcohol – Ethanol: (C2H5OH), flash point 13 o C; ignition temp. 365 o C; explosive limits 3.5%-19.0% Glycerol or glycerine: Used as starting material for nitro-glycerine BTTN :Military propellant for missiles: the mixture can be made by co-nitration of butanetriol and glycerol Sudan Red G: It is considered carcinogenic and genotoxic
  5. 5. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License Aldehydes Drugs Dyes 4-amino-3-nitrobenzaldehyde: Hair dye Piperonal: Precursor of MDMA (Ecstasy: 3,4-methylenedioxy- N -methylamphetamine)
  6. 6. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License Ketones Fire accelerants Drugs Explosives Dyes Acetone:(Dimethyl ketone) flash point -20 degrees C; ignition temperature 465.4 degrees C; explosive limits 2.6%-13.0% ACETONE: precursor of TATP. TATP: The synthesis of the explosive is made through oxidation of acetone using hydrogen peroxide Methcathinone: 2-(methylamino)-propiophenone. Psychoactive stimulant. Addictive. Can be smoked, injected, or taken orally . 9,10-dioxoanthracene
  7. 7. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License Ethers Fire accelerants Drugs Dyes Ethyl Ether - diethyl ether: flash point -45 degrees C; ignition temperature 180 degrees C; explosive limits 1.9% - 36% Codeine: Opiate alkaloid Rhodamine 123
  8. 8. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License Carboxylic acids Drugs Benzoylecgonine (ecgonine benzoate) is the primary metabolite of cocaine. It is formed in the liver by the metabolism of cocaine
  9. 9. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License Esters Fire accelerants Drugs Explosives Biodiesel refers to a non-petroleum-based diesel fuel consisting of short chain alkyl (methyl or ethyl) esters Dibutylphatalate: Plasticizer used in explosives. Plasticizers are additives that increase the plasticity or fluidity. Benzocaine (local anaesthetic) : Benzocaine is often favoured by drug dealers to bulk out their cocaine supplies. while many dealers use the cheaper paracetamol or corn flour, Benzocaine gives a numbing effect (like purer cocaine should have).
  10. 10. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License Amides Drugs Dyes Yellow 13: pigment Fraud between drug dealers Lidocaine is often added to cocaine as a diluent because it numbs the gums when applied, giving the impression of higher cocaine purity
  11. 11. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License Amines Drugs Explosives Dyes Indigo: found in foodstuff and textiles (jeans) Hexanitrodiphenylamine: 40% part of an explosive called hexanite; rest 60% TNT. Obsolete explosive from WWII Ephedrine: found in cold remedies, but used to Enhance performance. Overdose can lead to death. Similar chemical structure than methamphetamine
  12. 12. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License Nitro-compounds Explosives 2,3-dimethyl-2,3-dinitrobutane: used as a detection taggant for explosives. Added in C-4 RDX or cyclonite: main explosive In C-4. Military explosive Picric acid: 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (TNP): Like other highly nitrated compounds such as TNT, picric acid is an explosive
  13. 13. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License Functional groups Link to “Functional Groups” video
  14. 14. Acknowledgements <ul><li>JISC </li></ul><ul><li>HEA </li></ul><ul><li>Centre for Educational Research and Development </li></ul><ul><li>School of Natural and Applied Sciences </li></ul><ul><li>School of Journalism </li></ul><ul><li>SirenFM </li></ul><ul><li>http:// tango.freedesktop.org </li></ul>This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License

×