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Organic Chemistry: Classification of Organic Compounds: Seminar

Organic Chemistry: Classification of Organic Compounds: Seminar

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Lecture materials for the Introductory Chemistry course for Forensic Scientists, University of Lincoln, UK. See http://forensicchemistry.lincoln.ac.uk/ for more details.

Lecture materials for the Introductory Chemistry course for Forensic Scientists, University of Lincoln, UK. See http://forensicchemistry.lincoln.ac.uk/ for more details.

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Organic Chemistry: Classification of Organic Compounds: Seminar

  1. 1. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License Functional Groups in Organic Compounds (workshop) University of Lincoln presentation
  2. 2. CLASSIFICATION OF HYDROCARBON COMPOUNDS This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License HYDROCARBONS contain only C and H atoms ALIPHATIC hydrocarbons AROMATIC Hydrocarbons must contain a BENZENE ring UNSATURATED hydrocarbons contain at least 1 C–C multiple bond SATURATED hydrocarbons contain C–C and C–H single bonds only (ALKANES) ALKENE contains the C=C functional group ALKYNE contains the C ≡C functional group
  3. 3. FUNCTIONAL GROUPS This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License Name of functional group Functional group Example Endings on names Alcohol Ethanol -ol Aldehyde Ethanal (acetaldehyde) -al Ketone R ≠H Propanone (acetone) -one Carboxylic acid Ethanoic acid (acetic acid) -oic acid Ester R = alkyl Ethyl ethanoate (ethyl acetate) -oate Ether Diethyl ether Ether Amine Ethylamine -amine Amide Ethanamide (Acetamide) -amide Halogenoalkane X = F, Cl, Br, I Bromoethane Halo- Acid chloride Ethanoyl chloride -oyl chloride Nitrile Ethanenitrile -nitrile Nitro Nitromethane Nitro- Thiol Ethanethiol -thiol
  4. 4. FUNCTIONAL GROUPS This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License PRIMARY (1 y ) ALCOHOL R–CH 2 OH SECONDARY (2 y ) ALCOHOL R 2 –CHOH TERTIARY (3 y ) ALCOHOL R 3 –COH Where R– is any alkyl group Name of functional group Functional group Example Endings on names Alcohol Ethanol -ol Aldehyde Ethanal (acetaldehyde) -al Ketone R ≠H Propanone (acetone) -one Carboxylic acid Ethanoic acid (acetic acid) -oic acid Ester R = alkyl Ethyl ethanoate (ethyl acetate) -oate Ether Diethyl ether Ether Amine Ethylamine -amine Amide Ethanamide (Acetamide) -amide Halogenoalkane X = F, Cl, Br, I Bromoethane Halo- Acid chloride Ethanoyl chloride -oyl chloride Nitrile Ethanenitrile -nitrile Nitro Nitromethane Nitro- Thiol Ethanethiol -thiol
  5. 5. FUNCTIONAL GROUPS This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License An acid is a proton (H+) donor Name of functional group Functional group Example Endings on names Alcohol Ethanol -ol Aldehyde Ethanal (acetaldehyde) -al Ketone R ≠H Propanone (acetone) -one Carboxylic acid Ethanoic acid (acetic acid) -oic acid Ester R = alkyl Ethyl ethanoate (ethyl acetate) -oate Ether Diethyl ether Ether Amine Ethylamine -amine Amide Ethanamide (Acetamide) -amide Halogenoalkane X = F, Cl, Br, I Bromoethane Halo- Acid chloride Ethanoyl chloride -oyl chloride Nitrile Ethanenitrile -nitrile Nitro Nitromethane Nitro- Thiol Ethanethiol -thiol
  6. 6. FUNCTIONAL GROUPS This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License PRIMARY (1y) AMINE R–NH2 SECONDARY (2y) AMINE R2–NH TERTIARY (3y) AMINE R3–N Where R– is any alkyl group Name of functional group Functional group Example Endings on names Alcohol Ethanol -ol Aldehyde Ethanal (acetaldehyde) -al Ketone R ≠H Propanone (acetone) -one Carboxylic acid Ethanoic acid (acetic acid) -oic acid Ester R = alkyl Ethyl ethanoate (ethyl acetate) -oate Ether Diethyl ether Ether Amine Ethylamine -amine Amide Ethanamide (Acetamide) -amide Halogenoalkane X = F, Cl, Br, I Bromoethane Halo- Acid chloride Ethanoyl chloride -oyl chloride Nitrile Ethanenitrile -nitrile Nitro Nitromethane Nitro- Thiol Ethanethiol -thiol
  7. 7. Remember! <ul><li>GROUP </li></ul><ul><li>14 C arbon needs FOUR bonds </li></ul><ul><li>15 N itrogen needs THREE bonds </li></ul><ul><li>16 O xygen needs TWO bonds </li></ul><ul><li>17 F luorine needs ONE bond </li></ul>This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License
  8. 8. Remember! <ul><li>By convention… </li></ul>This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License OH = = =
  9. 9. RECOGNISING FUNCTIONAL GROUPS This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License Smelling of roses…
  10. 10. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License 1 y ALCOHOL (–CH 2 OH)
  11. 11. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License 1 y ALCOHOL (–CH 2 OH) ALKENE (–C=C–)
  12. 12. Flower Scent – Freesia This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License
  13. 13. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License Ketone (R–COR’)
  14. 14. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License Conjugated diene (–C=C–C=C–) Ketone (R–COR’)
  15. 15. Pheromones – Honey bee This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License Pheromones are chemicals that carry messages
  16. 16. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License
  17. 17. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License KETONE
  18. 18. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License Alkene Ketone
  19. 19. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License Carboxylic Acid (RCOOH) Alkene Ketone
  20. 20. AMPHETAMINES This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License AMPHETAMINE
  21. 21. AMPHETAMINES This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License 1 y AMINE (RNH 2 ) AMPHETAMINE
  22. 22. AMPHETAMINES This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License AROMATIC RING (Benzene) 1 y AMINE (RNH 2 ) AMPHETAMINE
  23. 23. AMPHETAMINES This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License METHYLAMPHETAMINE
  24. 24. AMPHETAMINES This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License 1H has been replaced with a –CH 3 (methyl) METHYLAMPHETAMINE
  25. 25. AMPHETAMINES This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License 2 y AMINE (RR’NH) 1H has been replaced with a –CH 3 (methyl) METHYLAMPHETAMINE
  26. 26. AMPHETAMINES This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License AROMATIC RING (Benzene) 2 y AMINE (RR’NH) 1H has been replaced with a –CH 3 (methyl) METHYLAMPHETAMINE
  27. 27. ASPIRIN This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License
  28. 28. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License CARBOXYLIC ACID (RCOOH) ASPIRIN
  29. 29. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License ESTER (RCOOR’) ASPIRIN CARBOXYLIC ACID (RCOOH)
  30. 30. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License AROMATIC RING (Benzene) ASPIRIN ESTER (RCOOR’) CARBOXYLIC ACID (RCOOH)
  31. 31. Bullet-proof vests and spider silk This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License
  32. 32. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License KEVLAR (a polyamide)
  33. 33. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License AMIDE KEVLAR
  34. 34. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License AROMATIC RINGS KEVLAR AMIDE
  35. 35. Cat Nap (Octadec-9-eneamide) This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License
  36. 36. Cat Nap (Octadec-9-eneamide) This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License ALKENE
  37. 37. Cat Nap (Octadec-9-eneamide) This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License ALKENE AMIDE
  38. 38. CANNABIS This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License
  39. 39. CANNABIS This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License AROMATIC RING (Benzene)
  40. 40. CANNABIS This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License AROMATIC RING (Benzene) AROMATIC ALCOHOL – A PHENOLIC GROUP
  41. 41. CANNABIS This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License AROMATIC RING (Benzene) AROMATIC ALCOHOL – A PHENOLIC GROUP ALKENE
  42. 42. CANNABIS This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License CYCLIC ETHER AROMATIC RING (Benzene) AROMATIC ALCOHOL – A PHENOLIC GROUP ALKENE
  43. 43. LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide) This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License
  44. 44. LSD This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License
  45. 45. LSD This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License DIETHYLAMIDE
  46. 46. LSD This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License 3 Y AMINE DIETHYLAMIDE
  47. 47. LSD This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License 3 Y AMINE DIETHYLAMIDE 2 Y AMINE
  48. 48. LSD 3 Y AMINE DIETHYLAMIDE 2 Y AMINE This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License ALKENES
  49. 49. LSD 3 Y AMINE DIETHYLAMIDE 2 Y AMINE ALKENES This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License CONJUGATED DIENE
  50. 50. Identify FOUR functional groups in cocaine This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License
  51. 51. COCAINE This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License
  52. 52. COCAINE This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License 2 ESTERS
  53. 53. COCAINE 2 ESTERS This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License 2 y AMINE
  54. 54. COCAINE 2 ESTERS 2 y AMINE This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License AROMATIC
  55. 55. Opium Morphine Codeine Thebaine This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License
  56. 56. OPIUM This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License MORPHINE CODEINE THEBAINE HEROIN
  57. 57. Identify the functional groups in morphine This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License
  58. 58. MORPHINE This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License
  59. 59. MORPHINE This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License ALCOHOL
  60. 60. MORPHINE This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License PHENOL ALCOHOL
  61. 61. MORPHINE This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License CYCLIC ETHER PHENOL ALCOHOL
  62. 62. MORPHINE CYCLIC ETHER PHENOL ALCOHOL This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License AROMATIC
  63. 63. MORPHINE CYCLIC ETHER PHENOL ALCOHOL AROMATIC This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License 3 Y AMINE
  64. 64. MORPHINE This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License ALKENE CYCLIC ETHER PHENOL ALCOHOL AROMATIC 3 Y AMINE
  65. 65. What’s the difference between morphine and codeine? This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License
  66. 66. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License CODEINE MORPHINE
  67. 67. CODEINE MORPHINE This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License PHENOL
  68. 68. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License CODEINE MORPHINE PHENOL ETHER
  69. 69. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License CODEINE THEBAINE
  70. 70. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License CODEINE THEBAINE ALCOHOL
  71. 71. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License ETHER CODEINE THEBAINE ALCOHOL
  72. 72. HEROIN This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License
  73. 73. HEROIN This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License 2 ESTERS
  74. 74. Identify the functional groups in the ‘magic mushroom’ alkaloids This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License
  75. 75. MAGIC MUSHROOMS This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License
  76. 76. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License Acknowledgements <ul><li>JISC </li></ul><ul><li>HEA </li></ul><ul><li>Centre for Educational Research and Development </li></ul><ul><li>School of natural and applied sciences </li></ul><ul><li>School of Journalism </li></ul><ul><li>SirenFM </li></ul><ul><li>http://tango.freedesktop.org </li></ul>

Editor's Notes

  • Golden Orb Spider – spins a polyamide silk
  • Chemical produced in sleep-deprived cats. Thought it might be good as a cure for insomnia
  • Heroin is made from morphine, the main constituent of opium
  • ALKENE GROUP HAS ALSO MOVED

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