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# Lecture18222

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### Lecture18222

1. 1. The Properties of Mixtures: Solubility Lecture 18
2. 3. Saturated solution contains the maximum amount of dissolved solute at a given temperature in the presence of undissolved solute.
3. 4. A saturated solution
4. 5. In a saturated solution, processes of dissolving and recrystallizing are in equilibrium: Solute (undissolved)  Solute (dissolved)
5. 6. Equilibrium in a saturated solution
6. 7. Supersaturated solution contains more than the equilibrium amount of dissolved solute. It is unstable.
7. 8. Most solids are more soluble at higher temperatures. Solute + solvent + heat  saturated solution
8. 9. Solid solubility vs temperature
9. 10. Solid solubility vs temperature
10. 11. Gases are more soluble at lower temperatures. Solute (g) + water (l)  saturated solution (aq) + heat
11. 12. Gas solubility vs temperature
12. 13. Why thermal pollution is bad: <ul><li>Because of increased metabolic rate, living organisms needs more oxygen. </li></ul><ul><li>Because of lower solubility at the higher temperature, the concentration of oxygen is lower. </li></ul><ul><li>Because of lower density at the higher temperature, warmer water floats on the cooler and prevent oxygen from reaching it. </li></ul>
13. 14. Gases are more soluble at higher pressures. Gas + solvent  saturated solution
14. 15. The effect of pressure on gas solubility
15. 16. Henry’s law: the solubility of a gas (S gas ) is directly proportional to the partial pressure of the gas (P gas ) above the solution: S gas = k H x P gas k H - Henry’s constant
16. 18. THE END