Prof. radcliffe great cop smart energy, warsaw, 12 november 2013


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Prof. radcliffe great cop smart energy, warsaw, 12 november 2013

  1. 1. Developing energy storage technologies – integrated approaches GREAT COP, Warsaw, 12 November 2013 Dr Jonathan Radcliffe Programme Director Energy Storage, CLCF Senior Research Fellow, University of Birmingham
  2. 2. Context “The current „energy problem‟ is of serious concern to most countries in the world. The most important aspects of the problem are a) rapidly rising oil prices b) conflicting views about the desirability of expanding the nuclear programme c) uncertainty about future availability of fossil fuels and d) effects of the rising cost of energy on the standard of living Many countries are thus in the process of making crucial decisions about energy policy. However, the nature of the energy policy choices available is not fully understood… “ The Birmingham Energy Model Economics of Planning, 1979, Volume 15, Issue 1, pp 18-50 M. Carey, S. C. Littlecchild, P. G. Soldatos, K. Vaidya, D. Basu Department of Industrial Economics and Business Studies, University of Birmingham
  3. 3. Recent reports Energy Research Partnership, June 2011 Centre for Low Carbon Futures, March 2012 http://www.energyresearchpartne nergy-storage Royal Academy of Engineering/Chinese Academy of Sciences, August 2012
  4. 4. Renewables key driver to UK energy system transformation Sources: DUKES (DECC, 2012), UK Renewable Energy Roadmap (DECC, 2009) and 2012 update, UK National Renewable Energy Action Plan (2009)
  5. 5. UK Energy system need for flexibility Main elements of UK energy system scenarios to meet 2050 GHG targets: • Decarbonise power sector • Increase energy efficiency • Electrification of demand Challenges will become more acute in pathways to 2050: • Large proportion of intermittent generation by early 2020s • Increase in demand for electricity for heating and transport in late 2020s Many scenarios which have guided policy not able to treat power system balancing effectively, nor the dynamic evolution of technology deployment. Timescale Challenge Seconds Renewable generation introduces harmonics and affects power supply quality. Minutes Rapid ramping to respond to changing supply from wind generation. Hours Daily peak for electricity is greater to meet demand for heat. Hours Variability of wind generation days needs back-up supply or demand response. Months Increased use of electricity for heat leads to strong seasonal demand profile.
  6. 6. Example pathway dynamics • Dynamics of energy system transition could be critical to deployment of enabling technologies • Likely that intermittent generation will expand before demand response from EV and HPs
  7. 7. Technology options… With an increase in generation from „must run‟ and intermittent sources, and rising demand for electricity with less predictable profiles, flexibility becomes a critical component of the energy system There are various means of meeting the same general and specific challenges: • Flexible plant – Gas CCGT/OCGT is the default option, but are likely to run at decreasing load factors. Future options may include nuclear and fossil fuel CCS with greater ability to flex generation cost-effectively. • Demand side response – smart meters, heat pumps and EVs deployed over the next decade can give consumers a mechanism to shift loads, but needs appropriate functionality and incentives for consumer engagement to make a difference. • Interconnection – provides additional capacity or load for the UK, but operated on merchant basis is not solely for UK benefit, and relies on capacity being available elsewhere. • Energy storage – can capture off-peak or excess generation and deliver at peak times, does not compromise national security of supply, does not require behavioural change from consumers. (Include consideration of alternative energy vectors – liquid air, hydrogen, heat…).
  8. 8. Priorities for delivering flexibility options Energy Research Partnership report (May 2012) „Delivering flexibility options for the energy system: priorities for innovation‟: Technical and engineering priorities  develop lower cost vehicle-to-grid capability in networks and vehicles;  ensure smart meter systems are deployed which will enable DSR;  consider how to integrate interconnection with offshore wind;  support RD&D of electrical and thermal energy storage technologies;  improve the efficiency and reliability of thermal generation. Business cases and market framework The market and regulatory framework should recognise the current uncertainty in how flexibility will be provided from the possible options Systems analysis Technology-specific analysis, over different scenarios would improve our understanding.
  9. 9. Growing recognition for role of storage In November 2012, in a speech at the Royal Society, the Chancellor George Osborne said that the UK must take a global lead in developing a series of low carbon technologies, including energy storage: • Greater capability to store electricity is crucial for these power sources to be viable. It promises savings on UK energy spend of up to £10bn a year by 2050 as extra capacity for peak load is less necessary. One of the UK Government’s ‘Eight Great Technologies’: • Energy storage has “the potential for delivering massive benefits – in terms of savings on UK energy spend, environmental benefits, economic growth and in enabling UK business to exploit these technologies internationally.” From 2013 a number of new funding sources for storage demonstration and capital became available in the UK. Recently major new projects were announced including a major Centre for Cryogenic Energy Storage at University of Birmingham
  10. 10. Global drivers for storage UK, Korea, Germany, US, China, India… Drivers: increasing renewables, improving reliability, lowering costs, increasing access, greater urbanisation, energy security… Applications:  Component of „smart grids‟  Meeting cooling demands in summer  Managing rise in distributed generation from solar PV  Maximising transmission line use  Improving power quality with integration of renewables  „Behind the meter‟ arbitrage  Increasing the efficiency of thermal plant  Off-grid small-scale renewables ….
  11. 11. Multiple drivers, multiple applications, multiple technologies
  12. 12. Next steps: Overcoming barriers to deployment • Uncertainty of value: the value is dependent on the energy system mix; models have so far been limited so estimates of value are still to be refined. • Technology cost and performance: current price is too great to give a business model for deployment, even if the full system value could be extracted • Business: capturing multiple revenue streams is difficult to establish, both for a potential business and the market in which it will operate. • Markets: the true value of energy is not reflected in the price; more fundamentally, the future long-term value of storage cannot be recognized in today‟s market. • Regulatory/policy framework: e.g. restrictions on ownership; high network charges affect storage operators; market reforms not considering storage. • Societal: wider community acceptance.
  13. 13. Priorities for innovation in energy storage Further analysis of the value of energy storage and other flexibility options in the energy system:  in the transition period  under different scenarios  showing value from multiple streams More systems thinking in policy. Further demonstrations and understanding of results.  Especially at distributed level, and considering thermal storage  „Smart‟ metering systems need to demonstrate effectiveness  Ensure strong links between EV pilots and energy system analysis; investigate benefits of vehicle-to-grid R&D needed to develop lower cost alternatives Coordinated UK RD&D effort, with international engagement. Analysis of the benefits from new technologies vs mature PHS are sufficient to justify funding at the scale required.
  14. 14. Progress… in analysis ‘Value of storage’, report by Strbac et al*, find that in scenarios with high renewables: • the value of storage increases markedly towards 2030 and further towards 2050; • a few hours of storage are sufficient to reduce peak demand and capture significant value; • storage has a consistently high value across a wide range of cases that include interconnection and flexible generation; • deployment of bulk storage occurs at lower levels than distributed storage. • The values tend to be higher than previous studies suggest. But “split benefits” of storage pose significant challenges for policy makers to develop appropriate market mechanisms to ensure that the investors in storage are adequately rewarded for delivering these diverse sources of value.  Begin to consider which technologies will have most value in a systems context and when they need to be deployed. *
  15. 15. Progress… in policy? Paper from Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC), published August 2012, „looks at whether there are more cost effective ways to operate the system in the future‟: The need for a more flexible electricity system with more widespread deployment of balancing technologies and a smarter network appears to crystallise in the 2020s, nevertheless it is important that we ensure we are facilitating its development today. Followed-up in November 2012 with proposals for the Capacity Market: Given the advantages of DSR and storage, Government is keen to help the industries develop and play an increasing role in ensuring security of supply. Both DSR and storage will be able to participate in capacity auctions alongside generation capacity. In addition, we will develop transitional arrangements to support the development of DSR and storage and better enable their participation in the Capacity Market.
  16. 16. Growing commitment to energy storage R&D in the UK Source: UKERC Research Register
  17. 17. Birmingham Centre for Thermal Energy Storage Technology RD&D, with integration and techno-economic analysis Cryogenic: £12.3m (£5.9m EPSRC equipment grant; £1.2m institution; £5.2m industry) University of Birmingham-led initiative with University of Hull; both part of Centre for Low Carbon Futures, with major energy storage programme Industry partners: Highview Power Storage, Dearman Engine Company, Air Products, EG&S KTN; Arup and ETI High Temperature Thermal £1m EPSRC grant for UoB in Imperial College-led consortium Grid connected, cryogenic energy storage pilot plant, Slough, UK; 330kW, 2.5MWh
  18. 18. LAES – how does it work? storage charging discharging Hot Thermal Store Air In Compression Power In Refrigeration Expansion Tank High Grade Cold Store Compression Evaporation Expansion Air Out Power Out Thermal recycle doubles the cycle efficiency – 60%
  19. 19. Liquid air in energy and transport Report launched at Royal Academy of Engineering, May 2013 • A single gasometer-style tank of liquid air could make good the loss of 5GW of wind power for three hours. • Smaller systems can provide zero-emission back-up and reserve services to replace diesel gensets. • Reduce diesel consumption in buses or freight vehicles by 25% using a liquid air Dearman engine / diesel hybrid. • Cut emissions from refrigeration on food lorries by 80%. • Zero-emission liquid air city cars or vehicles at a fraction of current fuel costs and with lower lifecycle vehicle emissions than electric or hydrogen vehicles.
  20. 20. Summary The challenge(s) of integrating more variable production  More flexible energy system is needed to balance supply and demand  But, the real challenge comes with high penetration of intermittent RES…  …and we need the solutions ready before then. The possible solutions, and their barrier(s)  Energy storage particularly in vogue  But no current business model to capture the future system value  Reluctance to increase short-term costs with new technology Integrated innovation in technology and policy will be critical to avoid risk of sleep-walking into solutions with long-term carbon and economic costs. CLCF is looking to work globally to deliver innovative solutions.
  21. 21. Integrated approaches Technology development: focus on areas of value Systems analysis: show the value Policy & regulation: enable business to extract value What we need to do Sector • Public • Private Innovation System • R&D • Demo • Deploy • Power • Heat • Transport Where we need to do it
  22. 22. THANK YOU Dr Jonathan Radcliffe Programme Director Energy Storage, CLCF Senior Research Fellow, University of Birmingham