Pres Poznan 22 01


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Pres Poznan 22 01

  1. 1. LSE Environmental Society Roundtable <ul><li>Presentation by Marisa Beck, Jan. 22, 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Please note: I have collected the information in this presentation to my best knowledge and based on my personal experience in Poznan and the resources listed below. However, of course, neither do I guarantee correctness nor do I claim completeness! </li></ul>
  2. 2. POZNAN ... so what???
  3. 3. The Essentials <ul><li>The Convention </li></ul><ul><li>1992: Rio Earth Summit </li></ul><ul><li>192 countries are Parties </li></ul><ul><li>objective: avoid dangerous climate change </li></ul><ul><li>Annex I: industrialized countries and economies in transition  commitment to return to 1990 levels </li></ul><ul><li>Prime authority of Convention: COP </li></ul><ul><li>Bodies: SBSTA, SBI, expert groups, UNFCCC secretary </li></ul><ul><li>Observers: 50+ intergovernmental agencies, 600+ NGOs </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Essentials <ul><li>The Protocol </li></ul><ul><li>1997: adoption in Kyoto, Japan </li></ul><ul><li>2005: entry into force </li></ul><ul><li>ratified by 184 Parties </li></ul><ul><li>defines binding targets for 37 industrialised countries </li></ul><ul><li>1 st commitment period ends in 2012 </li></ul><ul><li>3 mechanisms: emissions trading, JI, CDM </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptation Fund </li></ul><ul><li>CMP: meeting parallel to COP </li></ul>
  5. 5. The agenda: Paving the way to Copenhagen <ul><li>COP 14: AWG LCA </li></ul><ul><li>efforts by emerging economies + USA </li></ul><ul><li>technology transfer </li></ul><ul><li>financing mechanism </li></ul><ul><li>deforestation & REDD </li></ul><ul><li> to be concluded by 2009! </li></ul>
  6. 6. The agenda: Paving the way to Copenhagen <ul><li>CMP 4: AWG KP </li></ul><ul><li>new targets for 2nd commitment period </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 degree limit: 25-40% reduction by 2020 in Annex I countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>main blockers: Canada, Japan, Russia, Australia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>further development of CDM: sectoral, policy CDM... </li></ul><ul><li>to be concluded by 2009 </li></ul>
  7. 7. The results <ul><li>minimum (formal) requirements for successful negotiations in Copenhagen: mandates for negotiations in both tracks (COP & CMP) </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptation Fund: progress! Governance issues solved! Ready for implementation! </li></ul><ul><li> BUT: No big step forward! Still lack of political will! </li></ul>
  8. 8. Technology Transfer & Financing <ul><li>Top spot on Poznan‘s agenda – how come? </li></ul><ul><li>Convention Art 4.3: </li></ul><ul><li>„ ... new and additional financial resources to meet the agreed full costs incurred by developing country Parties in complying with their obligations ...“ (source: UN, 1992) </li></ul><ul><li>Convention Art 4.5: </li></ul><ul><li>„ ... to promote, facilitate and finance , as appropriate, the transfer of, or access to, environmentally sound technologies and know-how to other Parties, particularly to developing countries ...““ (source: UN, 1992) </li></ul><ul><li> review showed: insufficient implementation! </li></ul>
  9. 9. Technology Transfer & Financing <ul><li>COP 13 Bali Action Plan: </li></ul><ul><li>„ Nationally appropriate mitigation actions by developing country Parties in the context of sustainable development, supported and enabled by technology, financing and capacity-building, in a measurable, reportable and verifiable manner.“ (source: UNFCCC, 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>NEW: clear linkage of DC actions to cooperation through MRV criteria  definition? performance indicators? </li></ul>
  10. 10. Technology Transfer & Financing <ul><li>What are the most important issues? </li></ul><ul><li>massive scale-up of public funds for adaptation, mitigation necessary </li></ul><ul><li>large scale technology cooperation required </li></ul><ul><li>mechanisms to mobilize private investments in innovation, deployment and diffusion of clean technologies </li></ul><ul><li>heart of the debate: Industry Competitiveness! </li></ul>
  11. 11. Technology Transfer & Financing <ul><li>What happened at COP 14? </li></ul><ul><li>multiple proposals by developing countries: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>establishment of a new and additional funds/mechanisms/institutions under the UNFCCC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>binding obligations for Annex I parties (‚polluter pays‘) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>enhancement of research cooperation & joint ventures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>compulsory licensing of patented technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><li> want access to technologies to boost domestic economy </li></ul>
  12. 12. Technology Transfer & Financing <ul><ul><li>blocked by many Annex I countries: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>use existing institutions, processes & mechanisms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>focus on (bilateral) voluntary agreements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>improve „enabling environments“ for tech diffusion, e.g. strong IPR regimes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>positive exceptions: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Norway: auctioning of AAUs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Switzerland: carbon tax </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> want export to new markets, but fear low-cost competition </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. What‘s next? <ul><li>Critical processes in 2009: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>define shared vision for new agreement: establish political will! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>establish strong negotiation coalitions, avoid North-South divide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>leadership of new US-administration? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>green bail-out investments? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>On the road to Copenhagen ... </li></ul><ul><ul><li>parties‘ submissions by February </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>meetings in March/April and June in Bonn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>first draft of negotiation text expected in June </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. COPENHAGEN ... we can???
  15. 15. Wanna know more??? Resources <ul><li>General: </li></ul><ul><li>United Nations (1992): United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. See: </li></ul><ul><li>UNFCCC (2007): Bali Action Plan . Decision -/CP.13. See: </li></ul><ul><li>Poznan results: “Between Poznan and Copenhagen: The climate train in the “valley of death” by C. Bals, Germanwatch. January 2009. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Wanna know more??? Resources <ul><li>MRVs: “Measuring the way to a new global climate agreement.” Discussion paper by the World Resource Institute. December 2008. </li></ul><ul><li>Technology Transfer: “Innovation and Technology Transfer” by S. Tomlinson, P. Zorlu, & C. Langley, an E3G report with contributions from the Chatham House. November 2008. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Wanna know more??? Resources <ul><li>Financing: “Investment and financial flows to address climate change. An update.” Technical Paper by the UNFCCC. December 2008. </li></ul>