Knowledge management

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How the notion of knowledge management can be upheld?

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Knowledge management

  1. 1. How the notion of knowledgeconversion can be upheld? (SocialPractices) Ujjwal Kumar Joshi 1
  2. 2. Agenda ORGANIZATIONAL KNOWLEDGE CREATION THEORY TACIT KNOWLEDGE EXPLICIT KNOWLEDGE SOCIAL PRACTICES & KNOWLEDGE CONVERSION NONAKA’S FOUR MODELS OF KNOWLEDGE CONVERSION CONCLUSION 2
  3. 3. ORGANIZATIONAL KNOWLEDGECREATION THEORYOrganizational knowledge creation theory aimed at developing acomprehensive view of knowledge that could shed light onorganizational creativity, learning, innovation and change.Organizational knowledge creation theory definedknowledge in three parts: Knowledge is justified true belief (based on interaction with the world) Knowledge is the (i) actuality of skilful action (ii) potentiality of defining situation (iii) allows human to define, prepare, shape learn to solve problems Knowledge is explicit and tacit along a continuum. 3
  4. 4. TACIT KNOWLEDGE The concept of the Tacit Knowledge was introduced by the Hungarian Philosopher-chemist Michael Polanyi (1891- 1976) in his book “THE TACIT DIMENSION”. Tacit Knowledge, even known as Informal knowledge, is such knowledge, that are acquired by the individual through their experiences, emotions and intuition and that is difficult to transfer to other people. It is subjective and actionable. 4
  5. 5. EXPLICIT KNOWLEDGE Explicit knowledge is the knowledge that is being expressed by the Experts, that is the tacit knowledge, if expressed in the written or visible form. It can be communicated. It is rational, objective and vivid. 5
  6. 6. SOCIAL PRACTICES & KNOWLEDGECONVERSION Tacit knowledge of any Individual in an Organization helps as:  Foundation of Social Practice  Foundation for Creation or Innovation How to acquire a tacit Knowledge? I. Participation in Social Practices under the guidance of experienced (Wenger, 1998) II. Practitioners’ virtuous behaviors/Expertism (Tsoukas, 2003) III. Practitioners “intuitively” recognise when the “rules” of performance apply and which “rules” to follow (Olin and Wickenberg, 2001) 6
  7. 7. SOCIAL PRACTICES & KNOWLEDGECONVERSION Practitioner Diversity is a source of Innovation (Roberts, 2006) Practitioner may discover new ways of defining and solving problems through knowledge conversion. Assembling fresh ideas inside and experiences to reflect on events and situation. The conversion of knowledge from a tacit towards an explicit form is inherently a creative act using metaphors, analogies and images. Example: Twisting stretch (expanding knowledge and team) 7
  8. 8. SOCIAL PRACTICES & KNOWLEDGECONVERSION Why Knowledge Conversion is important for Organization?  Explains how new ideas come forth in Innovation.  How individual tap into rich practices.  To acquire tacit knowledge.  In some cases, Explicit Knowledge fails to represent practical circumstances.  Tacit knowledge is a pre-requisite for a application of Explicit Knowledge.  Plays a critical role in explaining organizational knowledge creation. 8
  9. 9. Nonaka’s four models of knowledgeconversion 9
  10. 10. Nonaka’s four models of knowledgeconversion ExplanationSocialisation (tacit to tacit) is the process of learning by sharing experiences that creates tacit knowledge as shared mental models and professional skills (e.g. apprentices learning process, or expert consensus achievement during medical meetings).Externalisation (tacit to explicit) is the process of conversion of tacit into explicit knowledge, for example the translation of a clinical trial result into a recommendation for clinical practice.Internalisation (explicit to tacit) is the process of individual learning by repeatedly executing an activity applying some type of explicit knowledge, e.g. a CPG, and absorbing the relationship between actions and results as new personal tacit knowledge.Combination (explicit to explicit) is the process of enriching the available explicit knowledge to produce new bodies of knowledge, for example combining medical and organizational knowledge into a decision support system. 10
  11. 11. Conclusion The conversion can also be done in following ways: I. Knowledge Management System II. Expert Judgment System Learning, 11 Source:Usage, 25% % http://www.wectechnologies.com/img/Expertise.gif Documents, Story 22%telling, 8% Multimedia, 5% Face to Meetings, 12 face, 17% % Source: https://encrypted-tbn3.gstatic.com/images 11
  12. 12. Fig: ways for Knowledge Conversion (Social Practice) 12
  13. 13. The soft stuff is always harder than the hard stuff. -Roger Enrico Vice Chairman of PepsiCo Source: http://www.12manage.com/quotes_ki.html 13

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