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  2. 2. Motivation The willingness to exert efforts towards organisational objectives, conditioned by the effort’s ability to fulfill personal needs
  3. 3. What is the importance of motivation in organisations???
  4. 4. Theories of Motivation Content theories: what workers want Process theories: how managers can use the knowledge
  5. 5. Content theories  Maslow’s need hierarchy theory 1. Physiological 2. Safety 3. Social 4. Esteem 5. Self-actualisation
  6. 6. Evaluation Departure from economic theories Changing motivations overtime Motivation as a constantly changing force Hierarchy does not exist. All needs are present all the time Hierarchy may not be same in all countries Many people stay content with lower order needs
  7. 7. Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory Motivating factors: achievement, recognition, responsibility, growth Hygiene factors: company policy, administration, salary, work conditions, security, inter-personal relations
  8. 8. Satisfaction---------------No satisfaction No Dissatisfaction------------------Dissatisfaction
  9. 9. ERG Theory Proposed by Aldelfer Three needs:    Existence Relatedness Growth
  10. 10. McClelland’s Theory of Need nAchievement nPower nAffiliation
  11. 11. Process Theories Expectancy theory Equity Theory Goal Setting Theory
  12. 12. Expectancy Theory Effort—Performance Performance---outcome Outcome– personal goals
  13. 13. Theory X and Theory Y Proposed by McGregor
  14. 14. Applications MBO Job enrichment Flexitime Flexibenefits Rewards-monetary, non monetary Telecommuting