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  1. 1. LEARNING
  2. 2. Introduction 1. Why do psychologists care about learning? 2. What is and isn’t learning? IS: A relatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior due to experience. ISN’T: reflex or effects of drug (temporary) natural maturation (not experience)
  3. 3. Association in Learning • Everyday examples... • Association: linking two events or stimuli that occur together in space or time. Early theories of learning were based on principles of association. – Classical Conditioning – Operant Conditioning
  4. 4. Classical Conditioning Example… – Learning that results from pairing two events in the environment. – Learn to associate a neutral event with another event or stimulus from the environment.
  5. 5. Classical Conditioning • Pavlov: – Paired neutral stimulus (tone/bell) with coming of food. – What occurred when bell alone was sounded? – What is the difference between when the dog salivated to food versus the bell? – Food – naturally causes salivation – Tone/bell – learned to associate with food – causes salivation.
  6. 6. Classical Conditioning • Classical Conditioning Terms: • Two parts: response (action that takes place) stimulus (cause of action) • Response: salivation • Stimulus: food, bell/tone
  7. 7. Classical Conditioning • Classical Conditioning Terms • Bell and Salivation: Conditioned Stimuli and Response – CS (tone/bell) & CR (salivation) – originally NEUTRAL stimulus, that, after being paired with UCS, triggers CR. – learned, NOT automatic. – not naturally occurring.
  8. 8. Operant Conditioning B.F. Skinner: Learning that relies on associating behavior with its results or consequences. Defined as “operant” – animal is operating on environment – not passive like CC. Highlights importance of reinforcement & punishment in learning.
  9. 9. Operant Conditioning Reinforcers i. Positive reinforcers: strengthens response by presenting stimulus after response. ii. Negative reinforcers: strengthens response by removing an aversive stimulus after a response. - NOT PUNISHMENT What happens if you remove reinforcement? – Extinction of response.
  10. 10. Social Learning Theory • Also called: Observational Learning • Different take on learning: We not only learn through direct experience, but also by observing and imitating others (through modeling). – Not simple, automatic, requires attention & sometimes motivation
  11. 11. Social Learning Theory • • • • Attention Retention Motor reproduction Reinforcement
  12. 12. Social Learning Theory Influence of TV and media on behavior: There is a causal link between watching aggressive acts on TV and being aggressive IN SOME CHILDREN. TV/Media – not the ONLY cause of aggressive behavior.
  14. 14. Definition Systematically reinforcing each successive step that moves on individual closer to the desired response
  15. 15. Methods of Shaping Behaviour • • • • Positive reinforcement Negative reinforcement Punishment Extinction
  16. 16. Schedules of Reinforcement • Continuous reinforcement • Intermittent reinforcement Continuous reinforcement - A desired behaviour is reinforced each and every time it is demonstrated
  17. 17. Intermittent reinforcement DefinitionA desired behaviour is reinforced often enough to make the behaviour worth repeating but not every time it is demonstrated Types• Ratio schedule • Interval schedule
  18. 18. • Ratio schedule: Depends upon number of times response made by subject • Interval schedule: Depends upon how much time has passed since the last reinforcement
  19. 19. Four categories of intermittent techniques: INTERVAL RATIO FIXED Fixed-interval Fixed-ratio VARIABLE Variableinterval Variable-ratio
  20. 20. 1. Fixed interval: When rewards are spaced at uniform time intervals. 2. Variable interval: Rewards are distributed in time so that reinforcements are unpredictable
  21. 21. 3. Fixed ratio: Rewards are initiated after a fixed or constant number of responses 4. Variable-ratio: The reward varies relative to the behaviour of the individual
  22. 22. Pragmatic learners • Prefer to learn applications first and then learn the theory underlying applications. • Real world problem solving is your forte. Discovery learners • Prefer instructors to allow them todiscover the underlying principlesrather than tell hem the principles in a lecture Critical learners • Prefer to know ‘why’ behind the subject and go beyond the factual material • See learning as intellectual pursuit Lack of Commitment • People who are unwilling to spend the time to master a subject