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# Cost oncept

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### Cost oncept

1. 1. Chapter 8 Cost Concepts
2. 2. Lecture Plan             Objectives Introduction Kinds of Costs Costs in Short Run Costs in Long Run Costs of a Multi Product Firm Costs of Joint Products Linkage between Cost, Revenue and Output through Optimization Break Even Analysis Economies of Scale Economies of Scope Costs and Learning Curves
3. 3. Objectives      To understand the meaning of cost in economic analysis and its relevance in managerial decision making. To explain different types of costs, with focus on the difference between economic and accounting philosophies. To analyze the importance of matching costs with relevant time frames and to understand the short and long run costs. To help develop an understanding of estimation of cost functions. To introduce the concepts of economies of scale, economies of scope, break even analysis and learning curve.
4. 4. Introduction     Cost is defined in simple terms as a sacrifice or foregoing which has already occurred or has potential to occur in future with an objective to achieve a specific purpose measured in monetary terms. Cost results in current or future decrease in cash or other assets, or a current or future increase in liability. Determinants of cost:  Price of inputs  Productivity of inputs  Technology  Level of output Mathematically we can express the cost function as: C= f(Q, T, Pf) where C=cost; Q=output; T=technology; Pf = price of inputs.
5. 5. Kinds of Costs    Accounting Costs/ Explicit Costs/ Out of Pocket Costs  Which can be identified, measured and accounted for; e.g. cost of raw materials, wages and salary and capital costs like cost of the factory building.  Which result in cash outflow or increase in liability Real Costs  More or less social and psychological in nature and non quantifiable in money terms; e.g. cost of sacrificing leisure and time.  Not considered by accountants. Opportunity Costs  Help in evaluation of the alternative uses of an input other than its current use in production
6. 6. Kinds of Costs      Implicit Costs  Do not involve cash outflow or reduction in assets, or increase in liability; e.g. owner working as manager in own building  Important for opportunity cost measurement Direct Costs  Which can be attributed to any particular activity, such as cost of raw material, labour, etc. Indirect Costs  Costs which may not be attributable to output, but are distributed over all activities are indirect costs  Also known as overheads. Replacement costs  Current price or cost of buying or replacing any input at present. Social Costs  Costs to the society in general because of the firm’s activities. E.g. pollution caused by industrial wastes and emissions.
7. 7. Kinds of Costs     Historic Costs/ Sunk Cost  Incurred at the time of purchase of assets; no longer relevant for decision making Future Costs  Opposite of historic costs and are budgeted or planned costs.  Not included in the books of accounts. Controllable Costs and Uncontrollable Costs  Controllable Costs are subject to regulation by the management of a firm; e.g. fringe benefits to employees, costs of quality control.  Uncontrollable Costs are beyond regulation of the management; e.g. minimum wages are determined by government, price of raw material by supplier. Production Costs and Selling Costs  Production Costs are estimated as a function of the level of output  Selling costs occur on making the output available to the consumer.
8. 8. Costs in Short Run Costs  C O TFC Quantity Costs TFC O Quantity Fixed Costs  Do not vary with output; e.g. plant, machinery, building.  Total Fixed Cost (TFC) curve is a straight line, parallel to the quantity axis, indicating that output may increase to any level without causing any change in the fixed cost.  In the long run plant size may increase hence FC curve may be step like, where each step showing FC in a particular time period.
9. 9. Costs in Short Run Costs TC TVC  TFC O Quantity Costs TC TVC  TFC O Quantity Variable Costs  Costs that vary with level of output and are zero if no production; e.g. cost of raw materials, wages.  Normally TVC is like a straight line starting from origin.  TVC may be an inverse S shaped upward sloping curve, due laws of variable proportions. Total cost (TC)  Sum of TFC and TVC  Slope of TC curve is determined by that of the TVC. 9
10. 10. Average and Marginal Cost  Average Cost (AC) is total cost per unit of output.      Average Fixed Cost (AFC) is fixed cost per unit of output (AFC= TFC/Q) Average Variable Cost (AVC) is variable cost per unit of output (AVC= TVC/Q) Marginal cost (MC) is the change in total cost due to a unit change in output.   AC is equal to the ratio of TC and units of output. (TC/Q) AC=AFC+AVC MCQ= TCQ- TCQ-1 Since the fixed component of cost cannot be altered, MC is virtually the change in variable cost per unit change in output.  Also known as rate of change in total cost. 10
11. 11. Average and Marginal Cost Functions Contd…  AC/MC MC  AC  AVC  AFC O Quantity   AC curve is U shaped When both AFC and AVC fall, AC also falls and later starts increasing. When average costs decline, MC lies below AC. When average costs are constant (at their minimum), MC equals AC.  MC passes through the minimum point of AC curves. When average costs rise, MC curve lies above them. When both AC and AVC fall, MC lies below them.
12. 12. Costs in Long Run     All costs are variable in the long run since factors of production, size of plant, machinery and technology can be varied in the long run. The long run cost function is often referred to as the “planning cost function” and the long run average cost (LAC) curve is known as the “planning curve”. As all costs are variable, only the average cost curve is relevant to the firm’s decision making process in the long run. The long run consists of many short runs, therefore the long run cost curve is the composite of many short run cost curves. 12
13. 13. Costs in Long Run       In the long run the firm may increase plant size to increase output. As output is increased from q0 to q1 capacity at SAC1 is overworked. Hence the firm to shifts to a higher plant size SAC1 to SAC2. This shift would lower the average cost of the firm. The same process would be repeated if the firm increases its output further to q2. It shows scalloping curve as the plant costs are not smoothened. AC, MC MC1 SAC1 O q0 q1 MC2 SAC2 q2 MC3 SAC3 LAC Quantity 13
14. 14. Long Run Average Cost    The LAC function can be shown as an envelope curve of the short run cost functions. LAC curve envelopes SAC1, SAC2, SAC3, showing the average cost of production at different levels of output turned out by plants 1, 2 and 3. Each of the SAC curves represents the cost conditions for a plant of a particular capacity. LMC AC, MC SMC1 SAC1 SMC3 SMC2 LAC SAC2 O q0 q1 SAC3 q* q3 Quantity 14
15. 15. Long Run Marginal Cost       Long run marginal cost (LMC) curve joins the points on the short run marginal cost (SMCs) curves that are associated with short run average costs corresponding to each level of output on the LAC curve. The optimum plant size is II, assuming sufficient demand. Optimal level of output is Oq*, where long run and short run marginal and average costs are all equal. LMC must be less than LAC when the latter is decreasing It would be equal to LAC when the latter reaches its minimum. LMC is greater than LAC when the latter is increasing. 15
16. 16. Costs of a Multi Product Firm  Assuming that a multi product firm manufactures two goods, with the same plant and machine. Total cost (TC) of production would be the sum of TFC and the total of variable costs (C1 and C2) of producing both the products, times the quantities of the two goods (Q1 and Q2).  TC= TFC+C1Q1+ C2Q2 If the two products are produced in fixed proportions, then we can use the concept of weighted average cost (ACw) defined as:  F + C1 ( X 1Q) + C2 ( X 2Q) ACw (Q)= Q (where X1 and X2 are the proportions in which products 1 and 2 are produced (or the weights used in calculating average costs) and Q is the total output. ) 16
17. 17. Costs of Joint Products    Two or more products undergo the same production process up to a split off; i.e. if one good is produced the other will automatically be produced; e.g. agriculture, minerals. Common costs  Cannot be identified with a single joint product. Separable costs  Can be identified with a particular joint product.  Incurred for the product separated beyond the split off point. Methods of allocating common costs   Physical measure  Common costs are allocated in proportion to a physical measure identified to describe the quantity of each product obtained at the split off point. Sales value at split off  Common costs can be allocated in proportion to the sales value of the products after split off point. 17
18. 18. Linkage between Cost, Revenue and Output Total Revenue (TR)  The total amount of money received by a firm from goods sold (or services provided) during a certain time period. TR=Q.P, where Q is the quantity sold and P is the price per unit. Average Revenue (AR)  Revenue earned per unit of output sold. AR=TR/Q =P Marginal Revenue (MR)  Revenue a firm gains in producing one additional unit of a commodity.  Calculated by determining the difference between the total revenues produced before and after a unit increase in production. MRQ= TRQ- TRQ-1; or dTR MR= dQ 18
19. 19. Relationship between TR and MR Price, Revenue   O TR Price, Revenue Quantity   O Quantity TR will be zero when nothing is sold, and zero again when a great deal is sold at a zero price. It has the shape of an inverted U, starting from the origin, and dipping across the quantity axis after reaching a maximum. Rise in the total revenue curve is the change in total revenue with rise in level of output. MR is the slope of the TR curve. MR 19
20. 20. Relationship between AR and MR  AR curve can have the following positions:    MR/AR AR is a straight line, MR will lie midway to AR (Panel a) AR is convex to the origin, MR will lie less than midway to AR (Panel b) AR is concave to the origin, MR will lie more than midway to AR (Panel c) Panel a MR O MR/AR Panel b AR MR/AR AR MR MR Quantity O Quantity Panel c O AR Quantity 20
21. 21. Break Even Analysis    Examines the relation between total revenue, total costs and total profits of a firm at different levels of output. Used synonymously with Cost Volume Profit Analysis. Breakeven point is the point where total cost just equals the total revenue, in other words it is the no profit no loss point. Approaches to break even analysis:  Algebraic Method  If P be the price of a good, Q the quantity produced’ the breakeven output is where total revenue equals total cost (Q* ). Total Revenue= P.Q Total Cost= TFC+TVC = TFC+AVC.Q P.Q*=TFC+AVC.Q* (P-AVC)Q*=TFC Q*= TFC P − AVC 21
22. 22. Break Even Analysis Contribution Margin  Represents that portion of the price of the commodity produced by the firm that can cover the fixed costs and contribute to profits. Contribution Margin = P - AVC Profit Volume (PV) Ratio  Also defined as the ratio of marginal change in profit and marginal change in sales. Contribution PV Ratio= Sales  FC Using PV ratio also, Break even point = PVratio Margin of Safety  Margin of Safety = Planned sales – Breakeven sales 22
23. 23. Break Even Analysis  Cost, Revenue Graphical Method  TR fit ro P  TC E  VC ss Lo O FC Q* Quantity   Plot TR and TC on the Y axis and output on the X axis. TC is a straight line because AVC is assumed to be constant Total revenue is proportional to output and the TR curve is a straight line through the origin. Shows the profit (or loss) resulting from each level of sales by the firm. Valuable information on projected effect of output on costs. 23
24. 24. Economies of Scale    Economies of scale refers to the efficiencies associated with larger scale operations This level is reached once the size of the market is large enough for firms to take advantage of all economies of scale. Two types of economies of scale:   Internal economies (which occur to the firm due to large size of operations);  e.g. Division of labour/ specialization, Financial economies, better managerial functions. External economies (which occur due to expansion of the industry, and the firm also benefits).  Technological advancement, development of infrastructure pool of skilled workers 24
25. 25. Economies of Scope      When the production capacity can be utilised for producing more than one goods, average costs are less as compared to when they are produced by different firms separately; e.g. Computers and printers; heavy vehicles and light vehicles. Practice of economies of scope to business strategy is heavily based on the development of high technology. Globalization has made such economies even more important to firms in their production decisions. Measured by the ratio of average costs to marginal costs, when the firm produces joint or multiple products. Assume three products at individual costs of C1, C2 and C3, while Ct is the total cost when the three activities are carried out together, the Scope Index (S): S= (C 1 + C 2 + C 3 − C t ) C1 + C 2 + C 3 25
26. 26. Cost and Learning Curves    In economics learning by doing refers to the process by which producers learn from experience. The concept of learning curve is used to represent the extent to which average cost of production falls in response to increase in output. The equation of learning curve can be expressed as: C=AQb (where C is the cost of input for the Qth unit of output produced and A is the cost of the first unit of output obtained).   Since increase in cumulative output leads to a decrease in cost, “b” has a negative value. Logarithmic form of this equation is : ln C= ln A + b.ln Q, (where b is the slope of the learning curve). 26
27. 27. Summary      Any production process must incur costs. Direct or variable costs vary with the level of output; fixed costs remain at the same level, irrespective of the rate of production. The costs of a firm include accounting, real and opportunity costs. Financial management recognizes only accounting costs or nominal cost that can be recorded in the books of accounts. The short run is the period within which some obligations associated with management, plant, and equipment are not alterable by changing the firm's managerial capacity or scale of operations. In the long run all aspects of the firm's operations can be adjusted; so all costs are variable in the long run. The long run average cost (LAC) curve is a planning horizon, which envelopes the firm's short run AC curves associated with different plant sizes.    Determination of the average cost of a multi product firm can be done with the method of weighted average cost, if the two products are produced in fixed proportions. Allocation of common costs to the joint products can be done by physical measure of outputs or by sales value at the spilt off point. Breakeven analysis deals with determining profit at various projected sales volume levels, identifying the breakeven point, and making a managerial decision regarding the relationship between likely sales and breakeven point.
28. 28. Summary      Total Revenue is the total amount of money received by a firm from goods sold (or services provided) during a certain time period. Average Revenue is the revenue earned per unit of output sold. Marginal Revenue is the revenue a firm gains in producing one additional unit of a commodity. Profit is the difference between Total Revenue and Total Cost; the profit function shows a range of outputs at which the firm makes positive (or supernormal) profits. Economies of scale refer to the efficiencies associated with larger scale operations; it is a situation in which the long run average costs of producing a good or service decrease with increase in level of output. Economies of scope refer to a situation in which average costs of manufacturing a product are lower when two complementary products are produced by a single firm, than when they are produced separately. Learning by doing refers to the process by which producers learn from experience, while technological change is an increase in the range of production techniques that provides new vistas to producing goods. 28