Attitude is a hypothetical construct
Cannot be directly observed – inferred from what
people say and do
Attitude objects are concrete, abstract, about people,
groups of people and inanimate objects
Behaviour towards objects is dependent upon attitude
Attitudes tend to persist unless something is done to
Attitudes can fall anywhere along a continuum from
very favourable to very unfavourable.
Attitudes are directed towards some object about which
a person has feelings or affect and beliefs
HOW MUCH DO YOU SEE OF AN ICEBERG?
ONLY 10% OF
90% IS BELOW
VALUES – STANDARDS – JUDGMENTS
MOTIVES – ETHICS - BELIEFS
The opinion or
belief segment of
Evaluative statements or
judgments concerning objects,
people, or events.
Three components of an attitude:
segment of an
An intention to
behave in a certain
way toward someone
THREE COMPONENTS OF
Cognitive Component – The opinion
or belief segment of an attitude.
Affective Component – The
emotional or feeling segment of an
Behavioral Component – An
intention to behave in a certain way
towards someone or something.
Festinger’s Cognitive Dissonance
Importance of elements
Degree of individual influence
Rewards involved in dissonance
Cognitive Dissonance: Any incompatibility between
two or more attitudes or between behavior and
People’s attitudes or beliefs can be consonant (in line),
dissonant (at odds), or not related to each other
If dissonant, we experience psychological discomfort
Individuals seek to reduce this uncomfortable gap, or
dissonance, to reach stability and consistency
Consistency is achieved by changing the attitudes,
modifying the behaviors, or through rationalization
Desire to reduce dissonance depends on:
The most powerful moderators of the attitudebehavior relationship are:
Importance of the attitude
Correspondence to behavior
Existence of social pressures
Personal and direct experience of the
Barriers to changing attitudes:
Methods to overcome barriers and change
Providing new information
Use of fear
Influence of friends and peers
The co-opting approach
WHAT ARE THE MAJOR JOB ATTITUDES?
A positive feeling about the job resulting from an
evaluation of its characteristics
Degree of psychological identification with the
job where perceived performance is important to
Belief in the degree of influence over the job,
competence, job meaningfulness, and autonomy
ANOTHER MAJOR JOB ATTITUDE
Identifying with a particular organization and its
goals, while wishing to maintain membership in
Affective – emotional attachment to
Continuance Commitment – economic value of
Normative - moral or ethical obligations
Has some relation to performance, especially for
Less important now than in past – now perhaps
more of occupational commitment, loyalty to
profession rather than a given employer.
AND YET MORE MAJOR JOB ATTITUDES
Perceived Organizational Support (POS)
Degree to which employees believe the organization values
their contribution and cares about their well-being.
Higher when rewards are fair, employees are involved in
decision-making, and supervisors are seen as supportive.
High POS is related to higher OCBs and performance.
The degree of involvement with, satisfaction with, and
enthusiasm for the job.
Engaged employees are passionate about their work and
OUTCOMES OF JOB SATISFACTION
Satisfied workers are more productive AND
more productive workers are more satisfied!
The causality may run both ways.
Organizational Citizenship Behaviors
Satisfaction influences OCB through perceptions
Satisfied frontline employees increase customer
satisfaction and loyalty.
Satisfied employees are moderately less likely14
MORE OUTCOMES OF JOB SATISFACTION
Satisfied employees are less likely to quit.
Many moderating variables in this relationship.
Economic environment and tenure
Organizational actions taken to retain high
performers and to weed out lower performers
Dissatisfied workers are more likely to unionize,
abuse substances, steal, be tardy, and withdraw.
Despite the overwhelming evidence of the impact
of job satisfaction on the bottom line, most
managers are either unconcerned about or
overestimate worker satisfaction.
Basic convictions that a specific mode of conduct or endstate of conduct or end-state of existence is personally
or socially preferable to an opposite or converse
mode of conduct or end-state of existence.
Attributes of Values:
Content Attribute – that the mode of conduct or endstate is important
Intensity Attribute – just how important that content is.
A person’s values rank ordered by intensity
Tends to be relatively constant and consistent
IMPORTANCE OF VALUES
Provide understanding of the attitudes, motivation,
Influence our perception of the world around us
Represent interpretations of “right” and “wrong”
Imply that some behaviors or outcomes are preferred
CLASSIFYING VALUES –
ROKEACH VALUE SURVEY
Desirable end-states of existence; the goals that a
person would like to achieve during his or her lifetime
Preferable modes of behavior or means of achieving
one’s terminal values
People in same occupations or categories tend to hold
But values vary between groups
Value differences make it difficult for groups to negotiate
and may create conflict
VALUES IN THE ROKEACH SURVEY
Individualism vs. Collectivism
Masculinity vs. Femininity
Long-term vs. Short-term Orientation
Values differ across cultures.
Hofstede’s Framework for assessing
culture – five value dimensions:
The extent to which a society accepts that power in
institutions and organizations is distributed unequally.
Relatively equal power between those with
status/wealth and those without status/wealth
Extremely unequal power distribution between those
with status/wealth and those without status/wealth
The degree to which people prefer to act as
individuals rather than a member of groups
A tight social framework in which people expect
others in groups of which they are a part to look
after them and protect them
The extent to which the society values work roles
of achievement, power, and control, and where
assertiveness and materialism are also valued
The extent to which there is little differentiation
between roles for men and women
The extent to which a society feels threatened by
uncertain and ambiguous situations and tries to
High Uncertainty Avoidance:
Society does not like ambiguous situations and tries to avoid
Low Uncertainty Avoidance:
Society does not mind ambiguous situations and embraces
A national culture attribute that emphasizes the
future, thrift, and persistence
A national culture attribute that emphasizes the
present and the here and now
HOFSTEDE’S FRAMEWORK: AN
There are regional differences within countries
The original data is old and based on only one
Hofstede had to make many judgment calls while
doing the research
Some results don’t match what is believed to be true
about given countries
Despite these problems it remains a very popular