Wind Energy in Hawaii


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Art Seki from HECO describes HECO's experiences with wind energy installations in the State, starting as early as the 1970's. Slides from the REIS seminar series at the University of Hawaii at Manoa on 2009-09-24.

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  • Using our natural resources especially wind energy frees us from depending on oil importation form other countries in generating electrical energy. Generating your own energy through wind turbines and of course with the help of wind energy saves you money without the guilt because it does not have any negative effects on the environment or to people around you.
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Wind Energy in Hawaii

  1. 1. Wind Energy in Hawaii UHM Renewable Energy and Island Sustainability September 2009
  2. 2. Presentation Topics <ul><li>Resource and technology </li></ul><ul><li>Wind development in Hawaii </li></ul><ul><li>Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Future activities </li></ul>
  3. 3. Wind Description and Considerations <ul><li>Wind power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conversion of wind’s kinetic energy into electricity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Considerations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong, steady winds from 15 mph </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Average land intensity (7-40 acres per MW) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low turbulence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flat area if possible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear of obstructions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suitable crane, harbor access, and site accessibility </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Wind Technology Development Wind energy development in the 1970s to early 1990s led to an optimum wind turbine design
  5. 5. Wind Schematic
  6. 6. Wind Turbine Development
  7. 7. Typical Power Output vs. Wind Speed Curve
  8. 8. Wind Energy Cost
  9. 9. State High Resolution Wind Density Map
  10. 10. Wind Density Map of Oahu
  11. 11. Kahuku -- Wind Energy Research MOD-0A Wind Turbine (1980) <ul><li>U.S. Department of Energy/NASA wind demonstration project </li></ul><ul><li>HECO operated MOD-0A for 2 years </li></ul><ul><li>Westinghouse 200 kW design </li></ul><ul><li>Most productive of all 4 MOD-0A installations </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity factor ~36 percent </li></ul>
  12. 12. Kahuku Wind Farm Development Wind Farm, Ltd. (1981) <ul><li>80 MW private wind farm development at Kahuku </li></ul><ul><li>EIS prepared </li></ul><ul><li>20-4 MW wind turbines </li></ul><ul><li>138 kV line from Wahiawa to Kahuku </li></ul><ul><li>Project never developed </li></ul>
  13. 13. Kahuku Wind Farm Westinghouse Wind Turbines (1985) <ul><li>HERS owned and operated from 1985-1993 </li></ul><ul><li>15 - 600 kW Westinghouse turbines </li></ul><ul><li>Production lower than projected </li></ul><ul><li>Operation and maintenance was higher than projected </li></ul><ul><li>New World Power owned and operated from 1993 to 1996 (bankrupt) </li></ul><ul><li>Reverted to landowner, Campbell Estates </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Army acquiring parcels at Kahuku for training </li></ul>
  14. 14. Kahuku Wind Energy Research Boeing Mod-5B Wind Turbine (1987) <ul><li>HERS owned and operated from 1987-1993 </li></ul><ul><li>3,200 kW Boeing turbine </li></ul><ul><li>World’s largest wind turbine at the time </li></ul><ul><li>Last of federal-sponsored turbines </li></ul><ul><li>Production was lower than projected </li></ul>
  15. 15. Kahuku Wind Farm U.S. Windpower (1991) <ul><li>U.S. Windpower proposed a 15 MW wind farm </li></ul><ul><li>PUC approved power purchase agreement; however at lower price </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Windpower decided not to pursue </li></ul>
  16. 16. Kaena Point Wind Energy Development (1994) <ul><li>Air Force examined (1-2 MW) wind farm development </li></ul><ul><li>DOD funds available for renewable energy development </li></ul><ul><li>Wind turbine solicitation </li></ul><ul><li>Draft EA developed for review. Issues raised related to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aesthetics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bird kills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Archeological </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Air Force withdrew solicitation--recommended project not be funded </li></ul>
  17. 17. Kahe Wind Farm Visualization – Ko Olina Entrance (2005) 26 wind turbines for 39 MW
  18. 18. Kahe Wind Farm Potential (26 turbines @ 39 MW) Kahe Power Plant Waimanalo Gulch Landfill Nike Site Camp Timberline Meteorological tower
  19. 19. Kahuku Wind Farm Military Site (2007) <ul><li>Discussions with Army </li></ul><ul><li>Collected 1-yr data on existing communication tower </li></ul><ul><li>Avian radar survey conducted in early 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>Awaited Army approval for other met tower and Sodar monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Army (Wash DC) opted not to pursue </li></ul>Area of Interest
  20. 20. Wind Density Map of Big Island
  21. 21. Kahua Ranch Wind Farm Big Island (1983) <ul><li>Control Data Corporation </li></ul><ul><li>3.4 MW </li></ul><ul><li>Phase 1: 18-17.5 kW Jacobs wind turbines </li></ul><ul><li>Phase 2: 180-17.5 kW Jacob wind turbines </li></ul><ul><li>Hawaiian Electric Renewable Systems (HERS) owned and operated in 1987 </li></ul><ul><li>Wind farm shutdown in 1992 </li></ul>
  22. 22. Lalamilo Wind Farm Big Island (1985) <ul><li>Control Data Corporation </li></ul><ul><li>2.3 MW </li></ul><ul><li>39-17.5 and 81-20 kW Jacob wind turbines </li></ul><ul><li>HERS owned and operated from 1987 to 1996 </li></ul><ul><li>HELCO asset from 1996 </li></ul>
  23. 23. Kama’oa Wind Farm Big Island (1987) <ul><li>Apollo Energy Corp. </li></ul><ul><li>9 MW </li></ul><ul><li>37-250 kW Mitsubishi wind turbines </li></ul><ul><li>Planned expansion up to 20 MW </li></ul>
  24. 24. Hawi Wind Farm Big Island (2006) <ul><li>Hawi Renewable Development (HRD) </li></ul><ul><li>10.56 MW wind farm </li></ul><ul><li>16 wind turbines (Vestas V47 - 660 kW) </li></ul><ul><li>241 ft. turbine height (ground to blade tip) </li></ul><ul><li>Operational in May 2006 </li></ul>
  25. 25. Pakini Nui Wind Farm Big Island (2007) <ul><li>Re-power to 20.5 MW </li></ul><ul><li>14 wind turbines </li></ul><ul><li>GE 1.5 MW </li></ul><ul><li>380 ft. turbine height (ground to blade tip) </li></ul><ul><li>Operational in April 2007 </li></ul>
  26. 26. Wind Density Map of Maui
  27. 27. Maui Wind Energy Development Windane Wind Turbine (1984) <ul><li>Danish Pacific Windpower owned and operated </li></ul><ul><li>MECO hosted 340 kW wind </li></ul><ul><li>turbine demonstration </li></ul><ul><li>MECO later purchased the unit (1989) </li></ul><ul><li>Dismantled due to structural problems (1991) </li></ul>
  28. 28. Maui Wind Energy Development (1984, 2002) <ul><li>10 MW private wind farm development in Kapalua (1984) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Power purchase agreement (PUC approved) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems in obtaining financing and land lease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power purchase agreement terminated (1989) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Future 20 MW private wind farm development in Kaheawa (2001) </li></ul>
  29. 29. Kaheawa Wind Farm Maui (2006) <ul><li>First Wind (formerly UPC) </li></ul><ul><li>30 MW </li></ul><ul><li>20 wind turbines </li></ul><ul><li>GE 1.5 MW wind turbines </li></ul><ul><li>~300 ft. turbine height (ground to blade tip) </li></ul>
  30. 30. Auwahi Wind Farm – Maui (Future) <ul><li>Shell WindEnergy development </li></ul><ul><li>~40 MW </li></ul><ul><li>Ulupalakua Ranch </li></ul>
  31. 31. Molokai Wind Energy Development Vestas Wind Turbines (1991) <ul><li>1 MW private wind farm development on Molokai </li></ul><ul><li>Wind-Diesel wind farm demonstration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3-100 kW Vestas wind turbines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1-100 kW diesel generator </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Electronic problems due to possible lighting strike (1994) </li></ul><ul><li>Power purchase agreement terminated (1997) </li></ul>
  32. 32. Wind Challenges <ul><li>Regulating units are worked harder to maintain system stability </li></ul><ul><li>Ride through for faults and frequency upsets </li></ul><ul><li>Excess wind energy leads to curtailments </li></ul><ul><li>Wind projects must be located where wind resource is (site availability, access, transmission/interconnection issues) </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>HRD wind farm output </li></ul>Actual HELCO Frequency Scenario Apollo wind farm output System frequency Wind speed Limited wind farm output Frequency stabilized April 2007
  34. 34. Facilitate Integration of Intermittent RE Resources <ul><li>Wind integration studies (GE) </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic shock absorber </li></ul><ul><li>Bulk energy storage evaluations </li></ul><ul><li>Pumped storage hydro assessments (Big Island and Maui) </li></ul>Address integration issues to allow for increased intermittent renewable
  35. 35. HECO 100 MW Renewable Energy RFP <ul><li>Sept 2007 - SOI </li></ul><ul><li>Feb 2008 - Draft RFP </li></ul><ul><li>Mar 2008 - Technical Conference </li></ul><ul><li>Jun 2008 - Final RFP </li></ul><ul><li>Jul 2008 - Bidders Conference </li></ul><ul><li>Sept 2008 – Bids Due </li></ul><ul><li>Dec 2008 – Short List </li></ul><ul><li>Aug 2009 - Award </li></ul>Shell WindEnergy
  36. 36. Big Wind to Oahu <ul><li>Lanai </li></ul><ul><li>Castle & Cooke </li></ul><ul><li>200 MW </li></ul><ul><li>Undersea cable to Oahu </li></ul><ul><li>Molokai </li></ul><ul><li>First Wind </li></ul><ul><li>200 MW </li></ul><ul><li>Undersea cable to Oahu </li></ul>
  37. 37. Wind Density Map of Maui
  38. 38. Summary <ul><li>Everyone has a part to play </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HECO </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Businesses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No one can do it alone </li></ul>
  39. 39. QUESTIONS? [email_address] 543-7987