Residential Photovoltaics in Hawaii

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Andrew Keith, Senior Environmental Scientist at HECO, discusses the current state of residential photovoltaics in Hawaii, drawing on 15 years of using PV on his home. Slides from the REIS seminar series at the University of Hawaii at Manoa on 2009-11-05.

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Residential Photovoltaics in Hawaii

  1. 1. NET METERED PHOTOVOLTAIC (“PV”) SYSTEMS IN HAWAII Andy Keith Senior Environmental Scientist Hawaiian Electric Company 543-4523 [email_address]
  2. 2. BEFORE CONSIDERING PV <ul><li>Energy Conservation. It’s approximately 5 times cheaper to save energy than to make it. Consider energy-efficient lighting, appliance upgrades and similar improvements. </li></ul><ul><li>Solar Hot Water. Simple, proven technology. Tax credits and HECO rebate ($1000) are available. Net out-of-pocket expense ~$1500. Or, check out the new Solar Saver Pilot Program . See heco.com or call 94-POWER for details. </li></ul>
  3. 3. NET METERING: The Financial Key to Grid-Interactive Renewable Energy <ul><li>Customer enters Net Energy Metering Agreement with HECO (often, this is handled by the installing contractor) </li></ul><ul><li>Customer is “compensated” for energy generated by offsetting electric use. Monthly minimum charges apply. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Net Excess Generation” may be “banked” for up to 12 months. Thereafter, it reverts to the utility. </li></ul>
  4. 4. TYPES OF GRID-INTERACTIVE PV SYSTEMS <ul><li>Battery-Based Inverters / Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide instant back-up power to connected loads during utility outages. Effectively, is a UPS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More complicated to install, maintain and operate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compatible with time of use (TOU) metering rates </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Batteryless Inverters / Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simpler & less expensive to install and maintain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slightly higher operating efficiency than battery-based systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>During utility outages, batteryless systems effectively “go to sleep”, providing no backup capability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Central and distributed inverters are available </li></ul></ul>
  5. 12. TYPICAL BATTERYLESS INVERTER SETUP (Central Inverter)
  6. 14. DISTRIBUTED INVERTER (Enphase Micro Inverter)
  7. 15. EXAMPLE SDHW & PV INSTALLATION
  8. 16. FINANCIAL INCENTIVES <ul><li>35% State Tax Credit ($2250 SDHW limit, $5000 PV limit) </li></ul><ul><li>30% Federal Tax Credit ($2000 SDHW limit; no PV limit) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Stacking” of the two tax credits is permitted </li></ul>
  9. 17. I’M INTERESTED! WHAT’S NEXT? <ul><li>Got south-facing roof? Is it unshaded during prime sun hours? </li></ul><ul><li>Learn more about the technology. Surf the web. Consider subscribing to Home Power magazine (see their website at www.homepower.com) </li></ul><ul><li>Battery-based or batteryless technology? </li></ul><ul><li>Begin exploring system sizing. Remember: reduce energy use first </li></ul>
  10. 18. CALCULATING PV SYSTEM ENERGY PRODUCTION <ul><li>Module Rating (Total) x Average Estimated Sun-Hours Per Day = kWh Produced </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>4.5 kW x 3 Hours = 13.5 kWh/day </li></ul>
  11. 19. LOGISTICAL CONSIDERATIONS <ul><li>Weight of PV modules & mounting equipment is typically 3 - 5# / ft 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Power density is ~10 watts / ft 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Consider performing roof repair/replacement before installing PV (or solar hot water). </li></ul><ul><li>“ Raw” (tax considerations excluded) installed cost is typically $8 - $10 / watt </li></ul><ul><li>Need to enter into a Net Energy Metering Agreement with HECO. Most common stumbling block: no building permit was obtained for the PV system </li></ul>
  12. 20. WHAT’S ON THE PV HORIZON? <ul><li>New technologies for modules: thin-film, emerging materials (such as “shade cloth”). </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing emphasis on building-integrated PV (“BIPV”). Currently-available products are a) “peel and stick” for standing-seam roof systems, and b) three-tab shingle. </li></ul><ul><li>Absent new technologies, expect gradual price reduction as economies of production are realized. </li></ul><ul><li>For general information on RE, see www.hawaiisenergyfuture.com </li></ul>
  13. 21. BIPV: PARKING SHADE STRUCTURE
  14. 22. BIPV: DEPOT SKYLIGHT
  15. 23. BIPV: STANDING SEAM ROOFING
  16. 24. BIPV: SOLAR SHINGLES
  17. 25. KGMB-9 Interview <ul><li>With Brooks Baehr (05/20/08) </li></ul>
  18. 26. Honolulu Advertiser <ul><li>July 13, 2009 “Bright Idea” (Mike Gordon) </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.honoluluadvertiser.com/article/20090713/GREEN02/907120382&template=greenhouse/Bright+idea  </li></ul>

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