Assessing the Impact of Blister Rust InfectedWhitebark Pine in the Alpine Treelines of GlacierNational Park and the Bearto...
Topics DiscussedBackground:    Whitebark Pine, Blister Rust,                and TreelineData   Collection and AnalysisP...
Importance of Whitebark Pine                       (Pinus albicaulis)    A  high elevation five-needled white pine that s...
Decline of Whitebark Pine   Whitebark Pine is distributed throughout Western North American    Mountain Ranges   Found i...
Blister Rust Incidence Exotic,        invasive, fungal disease (Cronartium ribicola) Two host species needed to complete...
Ramifications to Alpine Treeline Blister  rust was originally thought to    be more prevalent in milder, moist    climate...
Research Objectives1)   To investigate and quantify blister rust incidence and     intensity in the alpine treeline ecoton...
Sampling Blister Rust IncidenceQuadrat    Sampling  Sample WBP/BR incidence at alpine treeline ecotone  15m x 15m Quads...
Background Weather Data Monitoring           weather during growing season: July-September     Wind direction/speed/gust...
Modeling Terrain: Creating a High     Resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM)     GPS-derived DEM        Pilot Study    •...
Data Analysis: Derive Variables in GIS  Derive Variables in GIS • Slope • Aspect • Curvature • Flow Accumulation • Potenti...
Data Analysis: Compare to Field Observations  Derive Variables in GIS             Compare Variables to                    ...
Treeline Research: 2008   2008 Research Study, Glacier National Park (M.S. Thesis work)   30 sampling plots   Among 6 t...
Treeline Research: 2010 2010   Research in Glacier National Park and Beartooth Plateau(NSF Grant awarded to Lynn Resler, ...
Treeline Implications WBP growing in lee of rockDead WBP, most due          Dead WBP, former  to Blister Rust         Init...
Treeline Implications   Size of patch seems to influence infection      A significant correlation (rs = 0.36, p < 0.001)...
Treeline Implications   How does Blister Rust affect treeline dynamics?   How will the absence of WBP affect    patch dy...
Research continues…   Expand latitudinal range of    study      Conduct WBP and Blister       Rust sampling in Jasper an...
AcknowledgementsFinancial   Support:  NSF, funded project awarded to Lynn Resler, Diana   Tomback, and George Malanson ...
Questions?
References CitedButler, D. R., G. P. Malanson, S. J. Walsh, and D. B. Fagre. 2007. Influences of geomorphology and geology...
Kendall, K. C. 1994. Whitebark pine conservation in North American National Parks. In Proceedings : International Workshop...
Thornton, P. E., S. W. Running, and M. A. White. 1997. Generating surfaces  of daily meteorological variables over large r...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Assessing the Impact of Blister Rust Infected Whitebark Pine in the Alpine Treelines of Glacier National Park and the Beartooth Plateau, U.S.A. [Emily Smith-Mckenna]

1,038 views

Published on

Assessing the Impact of Blister Rust Infected Whitebark Pine in the Alpine Treelines of Glacier National Park and the Beartooth Plateau, U.S.A. Presented by Emily Smith-Mckenna at the "Perth II: Global Change and the World's Mountains" conference in Perth, Scotland in September 2010.

Published in: Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,038
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
6
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
3
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Assessing the Impact of Blister Rust Infected Whitebark Pine in the Alpine Treelines of Glacier National Park and the Beartooth Plateau, U.S.A. [Emily Smith-Mckenna]

  1. 1. Assessing the Impact of Blister Rust InfectedWhitebark Pine in the Alpine Treelines of GlacierNational Park and the Beartooth Plateau, U.S.A.Emily K. Smith-McKenna*PhD Student, GEA programDr. Lynn M. ReslerAssociate ProfessorDepartment of GeographyVirginia Tech, U.S.A.
  2. 2. Topics DiscussedBackground: Whitebark Pine, Blister Rust, and TreelineData Collection and AnalysisPreliminary FindingsContinuing Research
  3. 3. Importance of Whitebark Pine (Pinus albicaulis) A high elevation five-needled white pine that serves multiple roles as a foundation and keystone species (Keane and Arno, 1993; Kendall, 1994; Resler and Tomback, 2008)  Provides many ecosystem services:  Provides food for wildlife (Grizzly Bears, Red Squirrels, Clark’s Nutcracker)  Facilitates other tree species  Stabilizes soil, rock, preserves snowpackDon Piggott USGS,1999
  4. 4. Decline of Whitebark Pine Whitebark Pine is distributed throughout Western North American Mountain Ranges Found in high elevation forests  Subalpine, as erect trees  Alpine, dwarfed, krummholz form One reason for decline (in addition to mountain pine beetle, fire suppression) is White Pine Blister Rust (Cronartium ribicola) which has devastated populations of subalpine whitebark pine. (Keane and Arno, 1993) Highest infection rate in subalpine Northern Rockies  Infection levels 70-90% (Kendall and Keane, 2001) (Kendall, 1995)
  5. 5. Blister Rust Incidence Exotic, invasive, fungal disease (Cronartium ribicola) Two host species needed to complete life cycle  White pine (host species)  Ribes species (alternate host species)  Black Currants, Gooseberries  Other potential alternate hosts are: Scarlet Indian Paintbrush, and Sickletop Lousewort (McDonald et al., 2006) Ribes spp.  Five cycles of spore production  Transfer between alternate host plant and White pine  Returns to white pine to complete life cycle (Hoff and Hagle, 1990) Blister Rust canker with aecial sacs on Whitebark pine
  6. 6. Ramifications to Alpine Treeline Blister rust was originally thought to be more prevalent in milder, moist climates (Van Arsdel et al.,1956) Researchers have discovered that it can spread to dryer, colder regions of WBP ecosystems (Resler and Tomback, 2008) How does disease effect treeline dynamics?  Declining WBP populations  Decline in tree islands?  Change in treeline dynamics  Treeline response to climate?  Vegetation response to changing climate (Hall and Fagre, 2003)
  7. 7. Research Objectives1) To investigate and quantify blister rust incidence and intensity in the alpine treeline ecotone  Across a N-S latitudinal range east of Continental Divide  Sample whitebark pine, enumerate cankers  Treeline study areas in Glacier National Park, Beartooth Plateau2) To determine what environmental variables correlate strongly to the intensity of blister rust incident areas.  Characterize the terrain and derive topographic factors with a GPS-created DEM  GPS Whitebark Pine and other conifers in plot  Derive variables in a GIS  Distance to water  Topographic variables
  8. 8. Sampling Blister Rust IncidenceQuadrat Sampling  Sample WBP/BR incidence at alpine treeline ecotone  15m x 15m Quads 15m 15m • # Whitebark Pine • # Cankers, if any • Intensity of Blister Rust • Measure environmental conditions
  9. 9. Background Weather Data Monitoring weather during growing season: July-September  Wind direction/speed/gusts  Temp/Relative Humidity  Soil Moisture  PAR (photosynthetically active radiation)
  10. 10. Modeling Terrain: Creating a High Resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM) GPS-derived DEM Pilot Study •Compare w/ LiDAR •Develop field technique(MS. in progress, Smith et al.) Create DEM for each Quad in GNP Generate Elevation Surfaces Geostatistical Analysis = Finalize DEMs
  11. 11. Data Analysis: Derive Variables in GIS Derive Variables in GIS • Slope • Aspect • Curvature • Flow Accumulation • Potential Solar Radiation • Distance to Perennial Stream • Distance to Lakes • Distance to Wetlands
  12. 12. Data Analysis: Compare to Field Observations Derive Variables in GIS Compare Variables to Blister Rust Intensity • Slope • Aspect • Density of Blister Rust: • Curvature Total Cankers per Whitebark • Flow Accumulation • Potential Solar Radiation • Distance to Perennial Stream • Distance to Lakes • Distance to Wetlands
  13. 13. Treeline Research: 2008 2008 Research Study, Glacier National Park (M.S. Thesis work) 30 sampling plots Among 6 treelines N = 333 WBP 46% BR infection Largest WBP population at White Calf/Divide Mountain
  14. 14. Treeline Research: 2010 2010 Research in Glacier National Park and Beartooth Plateau(NSF Grant awarded to Lynn Resler, Diana Tomback, George Malanson) 30 sampling plots Glacier NP  N = 581 WBP  24% BR infection 30 sampling plots Beartooth  N = 326 WBP  20% BR infection
  15. 15. Treeline Implications WBP growing in lee of rockDead WBP, most due Dead WBP, former to Blister Rust Initiator of tree island
  16. 16. Treeline Implications Size of patch seems to influence infection  A significant correlation (rs = 0.36, p < 0.001) existed between length of the tree island and incidence of active and inactive blister rust cankers. Length of the longest dimension of the tree islands ranged from 0.02 to 35 m. (Resler and Tomback, 2008). Whitebark pine associated with tree islands had higher blister rust intensity than solitary trees. (Smith, 2009)  Whitebark pine in tree islands: N=219, 56% infected, 581 total cankers (2.65 cankers per tree)  Solitary whitebark pine: N=114, 29% infected, 97 total cankers (0.85 cankers per tree)
  17. 17. Treeline Implications How does Blister Rust affect treeline dynamics? How will the absence of WBP affect patch dynamics?
  18. 18. Research continues… Expand latitudinal range of study  Conduct WBP and Blister Rust sampling in Jasper and Banff Park, Alberta Canada  Tree island metrics  Model surface terrain Examine spatial relationships between environmental variables and blister rust incidence Model Treeline Dynamics  NetLogo  Consider environmental factors  Integrate field observations in a simulated, learning environment
  19. 19. AcknowledgementsFinancial Support:  NSF, funded project awarded to Lynn Resler, Diana Tomback, and George Malanson  Graduate Research Development Program, Virginia Tech  Department of Geography, Virginia TechField Assistance:  2010: Lauren Franklin, Kathryn Prociv, Diana Tomback, Jill Pyatt, Sarah Blakeslee  2008: Lynn Resler, Amos Desjardins, Allisyn Hudson-Dunn, Cindy Smith, Matt Foley
  20. 20. Questions?
  21. 21. References CitedButler, D. R., G. P. Malanson, S. J. Walsh, and D. B. Fagre. 2007. Influences of geomorphology and geology on alpine treeline in the American West - More important than climatic influences? Physical Geography 28 (5):434-450.Hall, M. H. P., and D. B. Fagre. 2003. Modeled Climate-Induced Glacier Change in Glacier National Park, 1850-2100. BioScience 53 (2): 131-140.Keane, R. E., and S. F. Arno. 1993. Rapid decline of whitebark pine in western Montana: evidence from 20-year remeasurements. Western journal of applied forestry 8 (2):44- 47.Kendall, K. C., and R. E. Keane. 2001. Whitebark pine decline: infection, mortality, and population trends. In Tomback, D. F., S. F. Arno, and R.E. Keane. (eds.), Whitebark pine communities: Ecology and restoration. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 221- 242.
  22. 22. Kendall, K. C. 1994. Whitebark pine conservation in North American National Parks. In Proceedings : International Workshop on Subalpine Stone Pines and Their Environment: the Status of Our Knowledge, St. Moritz, Switzerland, September 5-11, 1992, 302-307. Ogden, Utah: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture.McDonald, G. I., B. A. Richardson, P. J. Zambino, N. B. Klopfenstein, and M. S. Kim. 2006. Pedicularis and castilleja are natural hosts of Cronartium ribicola in North America: A first report. Forest Pathology 36 (2): 73-82.Resler, L.M., and D.F. Tomback. 2008. Blister Rust Prevalence in Krummholz Whitebark Pine: Implications for Treeline Dynamics. In Press. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research.Resler, L. M., D. R. Butler, and G. P. Malanson. 2005. Topographic shelter and conifer establishment and mortality in an alpine environment, Glacier National Park, Montana. Physical Geography 26 (2):112-125.Smith, E. K. 2009. Modeling blister rust incidence in whitebark pine at Northern Rocky Mountain alpine treelines: A geospatial approach. Master’s thesis, Department of Geography, Virginia Tech.
  23. 23. Thornton, P. E., S. W. Running, and M. A. White. 1997. Generating surfaces of daily meteorological variables over large regions of complex terrain. Journal of Hydrology 190 (3-4):214-251.Tomback, D. F., J. K. Clary, J. Koehler, R. J. Hoff, and S. F. Arno. 1995. The Effects of Blister Rust on Post-Fire Regeneration of Whitebark Pine: The Sundance Burn of Northern Idaho (U.S.A.). Conservation Biology 9 (3):654- 664.Tomback, D. F., and L. M. Resler. 2007. Invasive pathogens at alpine treeline: Consequences for treeline dynamics. Physical Geography 28 (5):397-418.U.S. Geological Survey, 1999, Digital representation of "Atlas of United States Trees" by Elbert L. Little, Jr. http://climchange.cr.usgs.gov/data/atlas/little/, accessed 27-Nov-2001.Van Arsdel, E. P., A. J. Riker, and R. F. Patton. 1956. The effects of temperature and moisture on the spread of White Pine blister rust. Phytopathology 46 (6):307-318.White, M. A., T. N. Brown, and G. E. Host. 2002. Landscape analysis of risk factors for white pine blister rust in the Mixed Forest Province of Minnesota, U.S.A. Canadian Journal of Forest Research/Revue Canadienne de Recherche Forestiere. 32 (9):1639-1650.

×