Emphasize that an array can be like an island – island effect / stepping stone As technology improves, size of MRED installations is growing – ex: largest now is 100 turbines over 35km2, but the Thames Array will be 341 turbines!
- For common species CV is adequate at 2-4 subsamples, but these are all sub-tidal barnacles. Useful, but information on benthic habitat for these species is lacking
Offshore Renewable Energy Structures As Artificial Islands [Raeanne Miller]
Offshore renewable energy
structures as artificial islands:
implications for dispersal, population connectivity,
and biogeography of coastal species
Supervisors: Dr. Michael Burrows, Dr. Clive Fox, Dr. Mark Inall
•Marine renewable energy in Scotland
•Larval dispersal and population connectivity
•Effects of renewable energy devices on population
•Preliminary study - what I’ve done so far
Marine renewable energy in Scotland
• Increasing demand for fuel, climate change
motivates MRED development
•energy from wind, waves, and tides
• Current government leasing round - sites on W.
coast of Scotland, including Firth of Lorn
•Most environmental impact work on MREDs
focusses on ‘flagship’ species – mammals and birds
Photo credits: Chris Bell, Raeanne Miller, OpenHydro (2010)
• MREDs will host fouling communities of similar composition to nearby
coastal communities (Moschella et al. 2005, Langhammer & Wilhelmsson, 2007)
From Harrald & Davies 2010
MREDs and population connectivity
Differences in connectivity
patterns can contribute to
patterns in distribution and
abundance of coastal
species across space and
Adapted from Pechenik et al. 1998
Population connectivity –
exchange of individuals between
populations, does not need to be
Connectivity effects of MREDs: a logical approach
Device situated at
Device has the potential to alter species ranges and/or
population biogeography for the species in question
Individuals can disperse
Individuals can colonise
can form on the device
Offspring spawned from
device can reach other
habitats and settle
Device is unlikely to
species in question
Preliminary study - year 1
• 39 plankton stations – 2 x 2 offshore
• 23 shore stations plus 1 x offshore
• snapshot of larval transport and
dispersal patterns on Firth of Lorn
• shapshot of environmental
• generation of model start-points
• generation of an empirical data set
for model verification/validation
• Higher-resolution, depth-stratified plankton survey
• depth stratification by species?
• depth stratification by age-class?
•Shore-based study comparing larval supply with settlement and colonization rate
• Wave-exposed and sheltered environments
• Opportunistically include offshore lighthouses
• Begin development of population model, parameterization of particles for transport
Continue to follow outlined logical approach:
Can they get there?
Can they form colonies?
Can colonies reproduce significantly?
Can next generation of larvae reach new
Harrald, M., and I. Davies. 2010. Further Scottish Leasing Round (Saltire Prize projects) Scoping Study. The Crown Estate.
Langhamer, O. and D. Wilhelmsson. 2007. Wave power devices as artificial reefs. Proceedings of the 7th European Wave and Tidal Energy Conference.
Moschella, P.S., M. Abbiati, P. Aberg, L. Airoldi, J.M. Anderson, F. Bacchiocchi, F. Bulleri, G.E. Dinesen, M. Frost, E. Garcia, L. Granhag, P. R. Jonsson, M.
P. Satta, A. Sundelof, R.C. Thompson, and S. J. Hawkins. 2005. Low-crested coastal defence structures as artificial habitats for marine life: Using
ecological criteria in design. Coastal Engineering 52:1053-1071.
OpenHydro. 2010. http://www.openhydro.com, accessed 30 September 2010.
Pechenik, J. A. 2006. Larval experience and latent effects - metamorphosis is not a new beginning. Integrative and Comparative Biology 46:323-323.
Pineda, J., J.A. Hare, S. Sponagule. 2007. Larval transport and dispersal in the coastal ocean and consequences for population connectivity. Oceanography
U.S. Energy Information Administration 2010. International Energy Outlook 2010, downloaded from http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/ieo/nat_gas.html, 21 October