APPROACHES TO CHANGEUNIVERSAL VALUES AT LOCAL SCALEThe example of the Swiss Alps World Natural Heritage SiteKarina Liechti...
UNIVERSAL VALUES AT LOCAL SCALE - The example of the Swiss Alps World Heritage Site      08/12/2010                       ...
UNIVERSAL VALUES AT LOCAL SCALE - The example of the Swiss Alps World Heritage SiteNatural landscape      08/12/2010      ...
UNIVERSAL VALUES AT LOCAL SCALE - The example of the Swiss Alps World Heritage Site      WH Sites as sites of universal va...
UNIVERSAL VALUES AT LOCAL SCALE - The example of the Swiss Alps World Heritage Site      Universal values of the Swiss Alp...
UNIVERSAL VALUES AT LOCAL SCALE - The example of the Swiss Alps World Heritage Site      Universal values of the Swiss Alp...
UNIVERSAL VALUES AT LOCAL SCALE - The example of the Swiss Alps World Heritage Site      Data      Universal values: How a...
UNIVERSAL VALUES AT LOCAL SCALE - The example of the Swiss Alps World Heritage Site      Debate in the media 1998-2001    ...
UNIVERSAL VALUES AT LOCAL SCALE - The example of the Swiss Alps World Heritage Site      Controversial debate in the media...
UNIVERSAL VALUES AT LOCAL SCALE - The example of the Swiss Alps World Heritage Site      Sustainability debate - future ge...
UNIVERSAL VALUES AT LOCAL SCALE - The example of the Swiss Alps World Heritage Site      Sustainability debate - future ge...
UNIVERSAL VALUES AT LOCAL SCALE - The example of the Swiss Alps World Heritage Site      Sustainability debate – former ge...
UNIVERSAL VALUES AT LOCAL SCALE - The example of the Swiss Alps World Heritage Site      The Charter of Konkordiaplatz    ...
UNIVERSAL VALUES AT LOCAL SCALE - The example of the Swiss Alps World Heritage Site      After the inscription into the WH...
UNIVERSAL VALUES AT LOCAL SCALE - The example of the Swiss Alps World Heritage Site      Controversies remain…            ...
UNIVERSAL VALUES AT LOCAL SCALE - The example of the Swiss Alps World Heritage Site      Achievements of the participatory...
UNIVERSAL VALUES AT LOCAL SCALE - The example of the Swiss Alps World Heritage Site      Policy implications      Include ...
UNIVERSAL VALUES AT LOCAL SCALE - The example of the Swiss Alps World Heritage Site      Thank you for your attention     ...
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Approaches to Change - Universal values at local scale: The example of the Swiss Alps World Natural Heritage Site [Karina Liechti]

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Approaches to Change - Universal values at local scale: The example of the Swiss Alps World Natural Heritage Site. Presented by Karina Liechti at the "Perth II: Global Change and the World's Mountains" conference in Perth, Scotland in September 2010.

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Approaches to Change - Universal values at local scale: The example of the Swiss Alps World Natural Heritage Site [Karina Liechti]

  1. 1. APPROACHES TO CHANGEUNIVERSAL VALUES AT LOCAL SCALEThe example of the Swiss Alps World Natural Heritage SiteKarina LiechtiCentre for Development and Environment CDEUniversity of Bern, Switzerland
  2. 2. UNIVERSAL VALUES AT LOCAL SCALE - The example of the Swiss Alps World Heritage Site 08/12/2010 2
  3. 3. UNIVERSAL VALUES AT LOCAL SCALE - The example of the Swiss Alps World Heritage SiteNatural landscape 08/12/2010 Cultural landscape 3
  4. 4. UNIVERSAL VALUES AT LOCAL SCALE - The example of the Swiss Alps World Heritage Site WH Sites as sites of universal value “Heritage is our legacy from the past, what we live with today, and what we pass on to future generations. Our cultural and natural heritage are both irreplaceable sources of life and inspiration. […]. What makes the concept of World Heritage exceptional is its universal application. World Heritage sites belong to all the peoples of the world, irrespective of the territory on which they are located.” (UNESCO World Heritage Centre 2010) 08/12/2010 4
  5. 5. UNIVERSAL VALUES AT LOCAL SCALE - The example of the Swiss Alps World Heritage Site Universal values of the Swiss Alps WHS The justification for inscription of the Swiss Alps Jungfrau-Aletsch region in the list of World Natural Heritage Sites 2001 was threefold: (1) The region covers the most glaciated part of the Alps, containing Europe‟s largest glacier and a range of classic glacial features, and it provides an outstanding geological record of the uplift and compression that formed the High Alps. (2) A range of alpine and sub-alpine habitats harbor a great diversity of wildlife, and plant colonization in the wake of retreating glaciers provides an excellent example of plant succession. (3) The impressive vista of the north wall of the High Alps has played an important role in European tourism, literature, and art. (UNESCO World Heritage Centre 2003) 08/12/2010 5
  6. 6. UNIVERSAL VALUES AT LOCAL SCALE - The example of the Swiss Alps World Heritage Site Universal values of the Swiss Alps WHS Glacial features Range of habitats Role in tourism  Universal values: How are they reflected at local scale? 08/12/2010 6
  7. 7. UNIVERSAL VALUES AT LOCAL SCALE - The example of the Swiss Alps World Heritage Site Data Universal values: How are they reflected at local scale? Our data > Controversial debates at the forefront of the World Heritage candidature  Analysis of media coverage 1998-2001 (newspaper) > Participatory process after the inscription into the World Heritage List (2003-2005)  Active participation in its setting, carrying though, and analysis > Outlook to the situation today  observer (since 2005) 08/12/2010 7
  8. 8. UNIVERSAL VALUES AT LOCAL SCALE - The example of the Swiss Alps World Heritage Site Debate in the media 1998-2001 Walliser Bote (WB) - newspaper > general articles (76) > letters to the editor (26) > political forums (12) > comments (8)  Uniqueness of the region never questioned (neither by proponents or opponents of the inscription of the region into the World Heritage List)  Uniqueness is mainly related to the beauty of the region “This unique landscape is formed by wind, coldness, sun and the powerful flow of the glacier. Fauna and flora cover this landscape in every season, so that it bristles with beauty” (WB, letter to the editor, 09/03/2000).  Complex interrelationships in an ecosystem, biodiversity, and issues such as climate change were rarely a subject of discussion, even though they finally were the criteria for the inscription as a WHS 08/12/2010 8
  9. 9. UNIVERSAL VALUES AT LOCAL SCALE - The example of the Swiss Alps World Heritage Site Controversial debate in the media Generalized characteristic statements (+/- : in favour/against the WHS) 1 Aesthetics The region‟s natural beauty is unique and irreplaceable. (+/-) 2 Expropriation Outsiders will prevent local people from taking their own decisions about the future of the region. (-) 3 Loss of income Expansion of infrastructure and related economic development will be impeded. (-) 4 Increase of income The provision of an unspoiled landscape will generate additional income for the region. (+) 5 Endangered humans Natural dangers (wolves, avalanches etc.) will threaten our way of life. (-) 6 Endangered nature The unique ecosystem should remain untouched and needs protection. (+) 08/12/2010 9
  10. 10. UNIVERSAL VALUES AT LOCAL SCALE - The example of the Swiss Alps World Heritage Site Sustainability debate - future generations Future generations and their welfare were most important for both parties. > Supporters argued that the status of the area should be kept as it was: unspoiled. They referred to ecology, which should not be compromised: “The unique landscape in the Aletsch region is not interchangeable just as you like […]. It has an inestimable value. Coming generations will be thankful for this”. (WB, comment, 09/03/2000) > Opponents argued that economic restrictions would follow inscription on the WH list. Their arguments referred to the economy, which should not be compromised: “It is our uppermost duty to keep [infrastructural] extension possibilities open in order to provide future generations a secure livelihood”. (WB, general article, 02/04/1998) “Nature protection alone is not enough – our descendants also want to eat and to drink”. (WB, comment 07/03/2000) 08/12/2010 10
  11. 11. UNIVERSAL VALUES AT LOCAL SCALE - The example of the Swiss Alps World Heritage Site Sustainability debate - future generations Opponents present the creation of a WHS as a sign of mistrust of the coming generations: “The big restrictions caused by sustainable development approaches and by taking over regulations from the UNESCO can be enormous for all circles concerned, depending on their economic development. Do we not trust the coming generations? Do we think that they are unable to care for this region?”. (WB, letter to the editor, 04/03/2000) 08/12/2010 11
  12. 12. UNIVERSAL VALUES AT LOCAL SCALE - The example of the Swiss Alps World Heritage Site Sustainability debate – former generations Reference to the efforts of past generations > The supporters of the World Heritage candidature saw inscription as the „gold medal‟ for past nature protection measures. “Inscription on the WH list is an award for efforts and achievements in protecting this unique landscape”. (WB, letter to the editor, 09/03/2000) > Opponents argued that responsibility could be carried by the local people alone, as it always was. Past generations maintained the landscape in a sustainable way without any label ordering them to do so. “Our ancestors have cared for the region, protected it, used it and placed it to the tourism‟s disposal. We have taken this region over with care and have continued using it under the motto of nature, environment, guests, and wanderers, up to now”. (WB, letter to the editor, 04/03/2000). 08/12/2010 12
  13. 13. UNIVERSAL VALUES AT LOCAL SCALE - The example of the Swiss Alps World Heritage Site The Charter of Konkordiaplatz “We are proud that our Jungfrau-Aletsch- Bietschhorn region has been nominated for inscription in the UNESCO World Heritage List. This nomination testifies to our past efforts – undertaken in conjunction with the cantonal and federal authorities, the regions and environmental associations – to protect, conserve and enhance this landscape. This charter is an expression of our determination to continue to seek and to promote sustainable landscape development. The inclusion of the region on the list of UNESCO World Heritage sites would be a mark of international recognition for these endeavours”. (Charter of Konkordiaplatz 2001) 08/12/2010 13
  14. 14. UNIVERSAL VALUES AT LOCAL SCALE - The example of the Swiss Alps World Heritage Site After the inscription into the WH list Core group Participatory process Preparatory Workshop Canton Berne Canton Valais Core group FORUM A FORUM A Objectives Objectives Core group FORUM B FORUM B Measures Measures Core group FORUM C FORUM C Actions Actions Core group Final Meeting 08/12/2010 14
  15. 15. UNIVERSAL VALUES AT LOCAL SCALE - The example of the Swiss Alps World Heritage Site Controversies remain… Maintenance of current 1. Objectives conservation status 1 2. Reinforcement of nature 100% protection Actor categories 8 2 3. Preservation of current cultural landscape Agriculture/forestry Tourism 4. Increased economic use of Nature conservation space and resources 7 50% 3 Transport/craft/trade 5. Improved planning for Education/culture regional development Public administration 6. Sensitization and 6 4 awareness creation 7. Enhancement of regional 5 resource cycles 8. Concerted promotion and  External actors can afford to pronounce very broad objectives regarding the marketing environmental functions and values of a specific region. These values are related to the „universal values‟ that were given as reason for the inscription into the World Heritage List. 08/12/2010 15
  16. 16. UNIVERSAL VALUES AT LOCAL SCALE - The example of the Swiss Alps World Heritage Site Achievements of the participatory process > the momentum of the inscription could be carried on > a common product in the form of a Management Plan was elaborated > several projects were developed by local people and partly implemented > ownership could be created However > Structural changes, new leadership, consolidation of the Management Centre and administration are time consuming Do local views/values have an > Implementation of concrete adequate impact in the activities takes a long time, which concretisation of the WHS? partly leads to disappointment and withdrawal of local participants Do only the „universal values‟ prevail? 08/12/2010 16
  17. 17. UNIVERSAL VALUES AT LOCAL SCALE - The example of the Swiss Alps World Heritage Site Policy implications Include the “After-participatory-process-phase” into planning OR see the process as a “Long term participation”  Reflect on how to keep momentum Research gap  Reflect on how to include local views/values (projects, ideas) into the implementation phase Research gap - Keep contact with local people - Implement some projects fast - Is there adequate funding for local projects?  Reflect on how to create an atmosphere that Research gap motivates local people to take the initiative (creating ownership) and how to support those initiatives 08/12/2010 17
  18. 18. UNIVERSAL VALUES AT LOCAL SCALE - The example of the Swiss Alps World Heritage Site Thank you for your attention 08/12/2010 18

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