Global Changes and the Worlds Mountains, Perth - (Scotland) - 26-30 September 2010    Changes in composition of epigeic in...
Global Changes and the Worlds Mountains, Perth - (Scotland) - 26-30 September 2010                                        ...
Global Changes and the Worlds Mountains, Perth - (Scotland) - 26-30 September 2010                       Direct effects of...
Global Changes and the Worlds Mountains, Perth - (Scotland) - 26-30 September 2010                                        ...
Global Changes and the Worlds Mountains, Perth - (Scotland) - 26-30 September 2010                                        ...
Global Changes and the Worlds Mountains, Perth - (Scotland) - 26-30 September 2010                                        ...
Global Changes and the Worlds Mountains, Perth - (Scotland) - 26-30 September 2010                     Research site      ...
Global Changes and the Worlds Mountains, Perth - (Scotland) - 26-30 September 2010                                        ...
Global Changes and the Worlds Mountains, Perth - (Scotland) - 26-30 September 2010                                        ...
Global Changes and the Worlds Mountains, Perth - (Scotland) - 26-30 September 2010                                        ...
Global Changes and the Worlds Mountains, Perth - (Scotland) - 26-30 September 2010                                        ...
Global Changes and the Worlds Mountains, Perth - (Scotland) - 26-30 September 2010                                        ...
Global Changes and the Worlds Mountains, Perth - (Scotland) - 26-30 September 2010                                        ...
Global Changes and the Worlds Mountains, Perth - (Scotland) - 26-30 September 2010                                        ...
Global Changes and the Worlds Mountains, Perth - (Scotland) - 26-30 September 2010                                        ...
Global Changes and the Worlds Mountains, Perth - (Scotland) - 26-30 September 2010                                        ...
Global Changes and the Worlds Mountains, Perth - (Scotland) - 26-30 September 2010                                        ...
Global Changes and the Worlds Mountains, Perth - (Scotland) - 26-30 September 2010                                        ...
Global Changes and the Worlds Mountains, Perth - (Scotland) - 26-30 September 2010                                        ...
Global Changes and the Worlds Mountains, Perth - (Scotland) - 26-30 September 2010                                        ...
Global Changes and the Worlds Mountains, Perth - (Scotland) - 26-30 September 2010                                        ...
Global Changes and the Worlds Mountains, Perth - (Scotland) - 26-30 September 2010                                        ...
Global Changes and the Worlds Mountains, Perth - (Scotland) - 26-30 September 2010                                        ...
Global Changes and the Worlds Mountains, Perth - (Scotland) - 26-30 September 2010                   Thank you for your at...
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Changes in composition of epigeic invertebrate communities (with accent on spiders) in Carpathian alpine meadows influenced by added nitrogen and phosphorus [Peter Gajdos]

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Changes in composition of epigeic invertebrate communities (with accent on spiders) in Carpathian alpine meadows influenced by added nitrogen and phosphorus. Presented by Peter Gajdos at the "Perth II: Global Change and the World's Mountains" conference in Perth, Scotland in September 2010.

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Changes in composition of epigeic invertebrate communities (with accent on spiders) in Carpathian alpine meadows influenced by added nitrogen and phosphorus [Peter Gajdos]

  1. 1. Global Changes and the Worlds Mountains, Perth - (Scotland) - 26-30 September 2010 Changes in composition of epigeic invertebratecommunities (with accent on spiders) in Carpathian alpine meadows influenced by added nitrogen and phosphorus Peter Gajdoš, Stanislav David Institute of Landscape Ecology Slovak Academy of Sciences Bratislava, Branch Nitra, Akademická 2, P.O.Box 23/B, 949 01 Nitra, Slovak Republic Gajdoš, David: Changes in epigeic invertebrate communities of the alpine meadows influenced by nitrogen and phosphorus additions
  2. 2. Global Changes and the Worlds Mountains, Perth - (Scotland) - 26-30 September 2010 Project motivation During recent decades, the global nitrogen (N) cycle has been affected by a range of human activities (as agricultural, industrial and dispersed suburban development), which have increased the input of biologically reactive forms of N (Nr) into the biosphere (Vitousek et al. 1997; Galloway et al. 1995 etc.) Effects of reactive nitrogen: 1.direct effect on human health 2.direct effect on ecosystems 3.indirect effect on social values 4.additional effects Gajdoš, David: Changes in epigeic invertebrate communities of the alpine meadows influenced by nitrogen and phosphorus additions
  3. 3. Global Changes and the Worlds Mountains, Perth - (Scotland) - 26-30 September 2010 Direct effects of Nr on ecosystems include (Galloway and Cowling 2002): i. increased productivity of Nr-limited natural ecosystems ii. ozone-induced injury to crop, forests and natural ecosystems iii. predisposition to be attacked by pathogens and insects iv. acidification and eutrophication effects on forests, soils and freshwater aquatic ecosystems v. eutrophication and hypoxia in costal ecosystems vi. N saturation of soils in natural ecosystems vii. biodiversity losses in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and invasion of N-loving weeds viii. changes in abundance of beneficial soil organisms that alter ecosystem functions Gajdoš, David: Changes in epigeic invertebrate communities of the alpine meadows influenced by nitrogen and phosphorus additions
  4. 4. Global Changes and the Worlds Mountains, Perth - (Scotland) - 26-30 September 2010 The project history Project VEGA 2/4132/04 (2004-2006) „Influence of increased inputs of nitrogen and phosphorus on alpine meadow ecosystem“ follows-up a projekt of the National Science Foundation NSF-0112281 (2002- 2004) ”Responsiveness of Alpine Vegetation to N inputs - A Comparison Between Central European and North American Sites” dealt with cooperation of the Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado, Boulder, USA. Former and current partners of the projects are: Gajdoš, David: Changes in epigeic invertebrate communities of the alpine meadows influenced by nitrogen and phosphorus additions
  5. 5. Global Changes and the Worlds Mountains, Perth - (Scotland) - 26-30 September 2010 Aims •investigate qualitative and quantitative composition of the epigeic invertebrate communities with accent on spiders in the alpine grassland ecosystem •investigate changes of epigeic of the epigeic invertebrate communities with accent on spiders which correspond to the nitrogen and phosphorus input influence Gajdoš, David: Changes in epigeic invertebrate communities of the alpine meadows influenced by nitrogen and phosphorus additions
  6. 6. Global Changes and the Worlds Mountains, Perth - (Scotland) - 26-30 September 2010 Research site Gajdoš, David: Changes in epigeic invertebrate communities of the alpine meadows influenced by nitrogen and phosphorus additions
  7. 7. Global Changes and the Worlds Mountains, Perth - (Scotland) - 26-30 September 2010 Research site  in the West Tatra Mts.  latitude: 49 º 12’ N  in the upper part of the Jalovecká dolina the valley  close to the peak Salatín  on the range in altitude approx. 1900 m a.s.l.  mean annual temperature: - 1.3º C  mean annual precipitation: 1466 mm  N Deposition: ~ 16 kg/ha/yr Gajdoš, David: Changes in epigeic invertebrate communities of the alpine meadows influenced by nitrogen and phosphorus additions
  8. 8. Global Changes and the Worlds Mountains, Perth - (Scotland) - 26-30 September 2010 Vegetation on the site plots  Soils: Species-poor plant community ferruginous of alliance Juncion trifidi. podsols Species composition consists of  soil pH: 3,8 1. grasses Oreochloa disticha (dominant), Festuca supina, Agrostis rupestris, Avenula flexuosa, Avenastrum versicolor; rush Juncus trifidus; sedge Carex bigelowii; 2. herbs Campanula alpina, Hieracium alpinum, Homogyne alpina, Bistorta major, Vaccinium vitis-idaea. 3. Cryptogams are represented by lichens Cetraria islandica (dominant), Cladonia sp., Alectoria ochroleuca and mosses Polytrichum alpinum, P. sexangulare. Gajdoš, David: Changes in epigeic invertebrate communities of the alpine meadows influenced by nitrogen and phosphorus additions
  9. 9. Global Changes and the Worlds Mountains, Perth - (Scotland) - 26-30 September 2010 Experimental plots  founded in May 2002  plot size: 2x2 m - the treatment solutions were applied to five replicate 2x2m plots for each treatment, for a total of 25 plots treatment solutions: Nitrogen (N): 2; 6; 15 g N.m2.year-1 in form of NH4NO3 Phosphorus (P): 5 g P.m2.year-1 in form of KH2PO4 Control (Cw/o): water of the same volume/without H2O application: in form of spraying 3-times per year in growing season Gajdoš, David: Changes in epigeic invertebrate communities of the alpine meadows influenced by nitrogen and phosphorus additions
  10. 10. Global Changes and the Worlds Mountains, Perth - (Scotland) - 26-30 September 2010 Experimental plots Climatic station Wescor EasyLogger 900 stationary data logger In 10 minutes time step measurements of following data and parameters: Precipitation (mm) near soil surface Precipitation (mm) at 1 m above surface Air temperature (°C) and air humidity (%) Wind speed (m/s) and wind direction (°) Solar irradiance (W/m2) Net radiation (W/m2) Soil temperature (°C) at 5 cm depth Soil temperature (°C) at 20 cm depth Soil moisture (%) Soil water potential (bar) Gajdoš, David: Changes in epigeic invertebrate communities of the alpine meadows influenced by nitrogen and phosphorus additions
  11. 11. Global Changes and the Worlds Mountains, Perth - (Scotland) - 26-30 September 2010 Methods Period of research......................................................... 2004 - 2006 Number of research plots..................................5 (2004) and 6 (2006) For research of invertebrate fauna and communities we used methods of pitfall traps. Traps were situated on research plot in centre and in border (2 traps) during season (May – October 2004) and June 2005 –September 2006). They were emptied monthly, conservation liquid: 4% formaline solution and detergent (in winter antifreezinig liquid Gajdoš, David: Changes in epigeic invertebrate communities of the alpine meadows influenced by nitrogen and phosphorus additions
  12. 12. Global Changes and the Worlds Mountains, Perth - (Scotland) - 26-30 September 2010 Results (1/8) In 2004 - 2006 we captured 47434 invertebrate specimens. In epigeic invertebrate communities of the alpine grassland ecosystem taxonomic groups Acarina, Collembola, Coleoptera, Araneae, Auchenorrhyncha and Diptera were dominant. Spiders are very important group in this ecosystem (represent about 15 % captured invertebrate specimens) Dominance in 2005-6 Dominance 25 40 20 35 30 15 25 20 10 15 Dominance 10 5 5 0 0 a ina e ra a ea a la ra a ch la a a e ra ea a er er te ch de ea bo in er ar bo oid te te pt yn pt an op pt ar yn oi Ac an op m op Di m o lin rh Ar Ac Di le lin en lle rh lle Ar le en or i Co Op pi Co m or Co Co m en O Hy en Hy ch ch Au Dominance in 2005-6 Au Gajdoš, David: Changes in epigeic invertebrate communities of the alpine meadows influenced by nitrogen and phosphorus additions
  13. 13. Global Changes and the Worlds Mountains, Perth - (Scotland) - 26-30 September 2010 Results (2/8) Epigeic spider communities Collected material of spiders..................................... 5564 ex Number of species.........................................................… 38 Number of families...................................................…..….. 7 Number of threatened species.......................................... 9 Gajdoš, David: Changes in epigeic invertebrate communities of the alpine meadows influenced by nitrogen and phosphorus additions
  14. 14. Global Changes and the Worlds Mountains, Perth - (Scotland) - 26-30 September 2010 Results (3/8) D>1 100 Composition of the epigeic spider community 90 Species Dominance 80 Pardosa saltuaria 91.03371619 No significant changes in species 70 Haplodrasus signifer 2.815857725 dominance (%) 60 Meioneta milleri 1.407928863 composition were recorded between 50 Pardosa palustris 1.259725824 2004 and 2006. 40 30 20 10 Abundance and dominance dominant and 0 recendent species Pardosa saltuaria Haplodrasus signifer Meioneta rurestris Pardosa palustris N2 N6 N15 P Cw/Co Total Category Species A D(%) A D(%) A D(%) A D(%) A D(%) A D(%) ED Pardosa saltuaria 796 90,9 971 90,5 810 90 1319 91,7 1106 91,1 5002 90,9 SD Haplodrasus signifer 22 2,51 18 1,68 36 4 43 2,99 34 2,8 153 2,78 R-SD Meioneta milleri 9 1,03 22 2,05 12 1,33 21 1,46 14 1,15 78 1,42 R-SD Pardosa palustris 7 0,8 26 2,42 13 1,44 12 0,83 10 0,82 68 1,24 SR-R Alopecosa aculeata 13 1,48 4 0,37 5 0,56 14 0,97 16 1,32 52 0,95 SR-R Walckenaria cuspidata 9 1,03 4 0,37 5 0,56 10 0,69 11 0,91 39 0,71 Total 856 97,7 1045 97,4 881 97,9 1419 98,6 1191 98,1 5392 98 Gajdoš, David: Changes in epigeic invertebrate communities of the alpine meadows influenced by nitrogen and phosphorus additions
  15. 15. Global Changes and the Worlds Mountains, Perth - (Scotland) - 26-30 September 2010 Results (4/8) Composition of the epigeic spider community Abundance and dominance of subrecendent species (A>1 ex.) N2 N6 N15 P Cw/Co Total Category Species A D(%) A D(%) A D(%) A D(%) A D(%) A D(%) SR Erigone atra 8 0,91 7 0,65 5 0,56 0 4 0,33 24 0,44 SR Pardosa pullata 1 0,11 4 0,37 0 3 0,21 3 0,25 11 0,2 SR Centromerus pabulator 1 0,11 2 0,19 0 4 0,28 2 0,16 9 0,16 SR Rhaebothorax morulus 0 3 0,28 3 0,33 1 0,07 2 0,16 9 0,16 SR Xysticus bifasciatus 3 0,34 0 0 4 0,28 1 0,08 8 0,15 SR Xysticus cambridgei 1 0,11 0 1 0,11 1 0,07 0 3 0,05 SR Alopecosa cuneata 0 1 0,09 1 0,11 0 0 2 0,04 SR Xysticus cristatus 0 0 2 0,22 0 0 2 0,04 SR Oedothorax gibbosus 0 0 0 1 0,07 1 0,08 2 0,04 SR Mughiphantes varians 0 2 0,19 0 0 0 2 0,04 SR Xysticus luctuosus 0 1 0,09 0 0 1 0,08 2 0,04 SR Pachygnatha degeeri 0 1 0,09 0 1 0,07 0 2 0,04 SR Other 20 species only 1 specimens Gajdoš, David: Changes in epigeic invertebrate communities of the alpine meadows influenced by nitrogen and phosphorus additions
  16. 16. Global Changes and the Worlds Mountains, Perth - (Scotland) - 26-30 September 2010 Results (5/8) Composition of the epigeic spider community Number of species Shannon Evenness Total of Years/plots in samples diversity (H) Hmax H/log(N) samples 2004/N2 11 0.51 2.40 0.21 328 2005/N2 11 0.46 2.40 0.19 451 2004/N6 8 0.56 2.08 0.27 319 2005/N6 13 0.47 2.56 0.18 464 2006/N6 9 0.38 2.20 0.17 287 2004/N15 9 0.53 2.20 0.24 272 2005/N15 13 0.48 2.56 0.19 405 2006/N15 7 0.45 1.95 0.23 221 2004/P 10 0.45 2.30 0.20 477 2005/P 14 0.48 2.64 0.18 527 2006/P 8 0.37 2.08 0.18 435 2004/C 8 0.48 2.08 0.23 394 2005/C 13 0.56 2.56 0.22 428 2006/C 10 0.32 2.30 0.14 390 Gajdoš, David: Changes in epigeic invertebrate communities of the alpine meadows influenced by nitrogen and phosphorus additions
  17. 17. Global Changes and the Worlds Mountains, Perth - (Scotland) - 26-30 September 2010 Results (6/8) Proportion of the threatened a rare species Findings of threatened and rare spiders on researched plots Gajdoš, P., Svatoň, J., 2002: Red List of Slovakian spiders IUCN categories: CR – critically endangered, EN – endangered, VU – vulnerable, DD indeterminate, LR(lc) – lower risk – least concern, LR(nt) – lower risk– near threatened N2 N6 N15 P Cw/Co Total Category Species A D(%) A D(%) A D(%) A D(%) A D(%) A D(%) DD Micrargus georgescuae 1 0,11 1 0,02 DD Meioneta milleri 7 1,58 22 2,02 12 1,32 21 1,47 14 1,12 76 1,41 LR(nt) Mughiphantes varians 2 0,19 2 0,04 LR(lc) Xysticus luctuosus 1 0,09 1 0,08 2 0,04 EN Mecynargus morulus 3 0,28 3 0,33 1 0,07 2 0,16 9 0,17 VU Talavera monticola 1 0,07 1 0,02 CR Diplocephalus permixtus 1 0,09 1 0,02 CR Trichoncoides piscator 1 0,08 1 0,02 CR Oreoneta tatrica 1 0,07 1 0,02 Number of species (abundance) 1(7) 5(29) 3(16) 4(24) 4(18) 9(94) Gajdoš, David: Changes in epigeic invertebrate communities of the alpine meadows influenced by nitrogen and phosphorus additions
  18. 18. Global Changes and the Worlds Mountains, Perth - (Scotland) - 26-30 September 2010 Results (7/8) Species richness Total number of species (2004-06) 18 17,5 No significant changes in species composition 17 16,5 were recorded between 2004 and 2006. 16 Number of species varied from to 6 to 14 species, 15,5 No of species 15 Total numbers of species for individual plots were 14,5 similar (15-18 species) 14 13,5 N2 N6 N15 P C Number of species 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 2004/ 2005/ 2004/ 2005/ 2006/ 2004/ 2005/ 2006/ 2004/ 2005/ 2006/ 2004/ 2005/ 2006/ N2 N2 N6 N6 N6 N15 N15 N15 P P P C C C Numb er of species 11 10 8 12 9 9 13 7 10 14 8 8 12 9 Gajdoš, David: Changes in epigeic invertebrate communities of the alpine meadows influenced by nitrogen and phosphorus additions
  19. 19. Global Changes and the Worlds Mountains, Perth - (Scotland) - 26-30 September 2010 Results (8/8) Abundance . Changes were recorded in abundance on plots affected by N15 and P. The total abundance and abundance in each study year on plot (N15) were lower and abundances on plot (P) were higher in comparison other study plots Total number of specimens (2004-06) N2 N6 N15 P Cw/Co-O6 2004 329 319 272 477 394 1600 2005 451 466 406 527 430 1400 2006 ? (Dist.) 288 222 435 390 1200 Total 1073 900 1439 1214 1000 600 800 500 600 400 2004 400 300 2005 2006 200 No of ex.. 200 100 0 N2 N6 N15 P C 0 N2 N6 N15 P Cw/Co-O6 Gajdoš, David: Changes in epigeic invertebrate communities of the alpine meadows influenced by nitrogen and phosphorus additions
  20. 20. Global Changes and the Worlds Mountains, Perth - (Scotland) - 26-30 September 2010 Results (9/8) Analysis (DCA) 1.0 taxon plot with site plot SPECIES Cw-05 Walc cus Xyst bif Alop acu SAMPLES Pard sal Cnep obs P-05 Robe tru 0.5 Hapl sig P-06 Xyst sp. Cent pab Zora spi Oedo gib Meio rur Euop mon Hila tat N2-04 Pach deg Rhae mor Micr nd N2-05 Dras pub Xyst koc Ozyp tru Cw-04 Xyst luc Xyst cam Gnat den Cera bre P-04 Axis 2 0.0 Oedo api N6-05 Meio bea Pard pul Lept var Micr geo N15-05 Meio mol Ther bim Xyst cri Mini mar Erig den N15-04 Erig atr Co-06 Pard pal -0.5 Dipl per Alop cun N6-04 N15-06 N6-06 -1.0 -1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 Axis 1 Gajdoš, David: Changes in epigeic invertebrate communities of the alpine meadows influenced by nitrogen and phosphorus additions
  21. 21. Global Changes and the Worlds Mountains, Perth - (Scotland) - 26-30 September 2010 Results (10/8) Analysis (DCA) taxon plot with site plot -The positions of sites in the plot are very different and on base of this analysis no changes in spider community composition on the sites affected by N and P were proved. -The spacing of sites on the plot reflects the changes in communities that are connected with different study year what is probably related with weather conditions in individual studied years. -The composition of the spider communities studied in 2004 were more different in comparing with the communities from next year. Gajdoš, David: Changes in epigeic invertebrate communities of the alpine meadows influenced by nitrogen and phosphorus additions
  22. 22. Global Changes and the Worlds Mountains, Perth - (Scotland) - 26-30 September 2010 Conclusion (1/2) In epigeic invertebrate communities of the alpine grassland ecosystem taxonomic groups Acarina, Collembola, Coleoptera and Araneae were dominant. Spiders are very important group in this ecosystem (represent about 15 % captured invertebrate specimens) During research period 2004-2006 totally 38 spider species belonging to 7 families were captured in the alpine grassland ecosystem Chacteristic and eudominant species for this habitat is Pardosa saltuaria (D>90%) Of the identified species, 9 species are listed in the Red List of Spiders of Slovakia in different category of threat (Diplocephalus permixtus, Mugiphantes varians, Meioneta milleri, Micrargus georgescuae, Oreoneta tatrica, Rhaebothorax morulus, Talavera monticola, Trichoncoides piscator and Xysticus luctuosus). Gajdoš, David: Changes in epigeic invertebrate communities of the alpine meadows influenced by nitrogen and phosphorus additions
  23. 23. Global Changes and the Worlds Mountains, Perth - (Scotland) - 26-30 September 2010 Conclusion (2/2) No significant changes in species composition of spider community, in species richness and presence of the threatened species on plots affected by N and P were recorded between 2004 and 2006. The changes in spider communities were connected with different study years what is probably related with weather conditions in individual studied years. The total abundance and abundance in each study year on plot (N15) was lower in comparison with the background plot, plot with P input and plots with lower input of nitrogen (N2 and N6). This fact may indicate certain influence of high concentrations of N substances on epigeal spiders. The total abundance and abundance in each study on study plot affected by phosphorus (P) was higher in comparison with the background site and sites affected by N. Gajdoš, David: Changes in epigeic invertebrate communities of the alpine meadows influenced by nitrogen and phosphorus additions
  24. 24. Global Changes and the Worlds Mountains, Perth - (Scotland) - 26-30 September 2010 Thank you for your attention Gajdoš, David: Changes in epigeic invertebrate communities of the alpine meadows influenced by nitrogen and phosphorus additions

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