1                      THE ALPINE CONVENTION AND                        THE ANDEAN COMMUNITY                              ...
2    OUTLINE         1. Environmental regionalism            • History            • Definitions            • Criticisms   ...
Questions                                  History                                             Definitions                ...
Questions                                  History                                              Definitions               ...
Questions                                  History                                              Definitions               ...
Questions                                   History                                        Definitions                    ...
Questions                                   History                                             Definitions               ...
8    ALPINE CONVENTION    Members    Austria, France, Germany, Italy,    Liechtenstein, Monaco, Slovenia,    Switzerland, ...
9    CARPATHIANCONVENTION    Members    Czech Republic, Hungary,    Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovak    Republic, Ukraine  ...
10    ANDEAN COMMUNITY    Members    Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru    (former: Chile, Venezuela)    Objective    Integr...
Questions                                 History                                             Definitions                 ...
Questions                                 History                                             Definitions                 ...
Questions                                 History                                             Definitions                 ...
Questions                                   History                                             Definitions               ...
15    WORKING PAPER    ENVIRONMENTAL REGIONALISM    THE CHALLENGE OF THE    ALPINE CONVENTION AND THE    “STRANGE CASE” OF...
Questions                                   History                                             Definitions               ...
17                                                    THANK YOU                                                           ...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

The Ideology of Environmental Regionalism: the Challenge of the Alpine Convention and the "Strange Case" of the Andean Community [Jon Marco Church]

739 views

Published on

The Ideology of Environmental Regionalism: the Challenge of the Alpine Convention and the "Strange Case" of the Andean Community. Presented by Jon Marco Church (Perth Conference, Scotland, Session 3.7)

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

The Ideology of Environmental Regionalism: the Challenge of the Alpine Convention and the "Strange Case" of the Andean Community [Jon Marco Church]

  1. 1. 1 THE ALPINE CONVENTION AND THE ANDEAN COMMUNITY ALTERNATIVE MODELS FOR MOUNTAIN REGIONALISM? September 18, 2010 PerthJon Marco Church jonmarco_church@hks.harvard.edu Center for International Development www.cid.harvard.edu Harvard Kennedy School jon-marco.church@malix.univ-paris1.fr Centre de recherches politiques de la Sorbonne crps.univ-paris1.fr Université Paris 1
  2. 2. 2 OUTLINE 1. Environmental regionalism • History • Definitions • Criticisms 2. Mountain cases • Ecologic factors • Socio-economic factors • Political aspects 3. Some conclusionsJon Marco Church jonmarco_church@hks.harvard.edu Center for International Development www.cid.harvard.edu Harvard Kennedy School jon-marco.church@malix.univ-paris1.fr Centre de recherches politiques de la Sorbonne crps.univ-paris1.fr Université Paris 1
  3. 3. Questions History Definitions Criticisms 3 Ecologic Socio-economic Political Conclusions QUESTIONS - Is the Alpine (and Carpathian) Convention the only model for regional mountain agreements? - Can the Andean Community be considered as an alternative model? - What do they have in common? How do they differ from each other? - What do they tell us about environmental regionalism?Jon Marco Church jonmarco_church@hks.harvard.edu Center for International Development www.cid.harvard.edu Harvard Kennedy School jon-marco.church@malix.univ-paris1.fr Centre de recherches politiques de la Sorbonne crps.univ-paris1.fr Université Paris 1
  4. 4. Questions History Definitions Criticisms 4 Ecologic Socio-economic Political Conclusions HISTORY - International organization starts with rivers in the 19th century - “New Deal” regional environmental initiatives in the 1930s - UNEP regional seas conventions since the 1970s - Regional mountain agreements since the 1990s …a “modest enterprise” (Foster & Meyer 2000)Jon Marco Church jonmarco_church@hks.harvard.edu Center for International Development www.cid.harvard.edu Harvard Kennedy School jon-marco.church@malix.univ-paris1.fr Centre de recherches politiques de la Sorbonne crps.univ-paris1.fr Université Paris 1
  5. 5. Questions History Definitions Criticisms 5 Ecologic Socio-economic Political Conclusions TREND 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1956 1982 1998 1948 1950 1952 1954 1958 1960 1962 1964 1966 1968 1970 1972 1974 1976 1978 1980 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 2000 2002 rivers lakes seas mountainsJon Marco Church jonmarco_church@hks.harvard.edu Center for International Development www.cid.harvard.edu Harvard Kennedy School jon-marco.church@malix.univ-paris1.fr Centre de recherches politiques de la Sorbonne crps.univ-paris1.fr Université Paris 1
  6. 6. Questions History Definitions Criticisms 6 Ecologic Socio-economic Political Conclusions DEFINITIONS - “Natural” borders, security (Foucher 1991) - Geographic landmarks, ecosystems - Ecology, geography, political science, international relations - Frustration with “scientific” attempts to delineate regions (Hurrell 1995) - Example: the definition of the scope of application of the Carpathian Convention (Fall & Egerer 2004)Jon Marco Church jonmarco_church@hks.harvard.edu Center for International Development www.cid.harvard.edu Harvard Kennedy School jon-marco.church@malix.univ-paris1.fr Centre de recherches politiques de la Sorbonne crps.univ-paris1.fr Université Paris 1
  7. 7. Questions History Definitions Criticisms 7 Ecologic Socio-economic Political Conclusions CRITICISMS - Nothing new - Naïve belief in virtuous practices of ecoregional identities (Debarbieux 2009) - Historically reductionist (Frenkel 1994) …“geographic reductionism”? …persisting tension between social-historical and environmental-geographical factors and perspectivesJon Marco Church jonmarco_church@hks.harvard.edu Center for International Development www.cid.harvard.edu Harvard Kennedy School jon-marco.church@malix.univ-paris1.fr Centre de recherches politiques de la Sorbonne crps.univ-paris1.fr Université Paris 1
  8. 8. 8 ALPINE CONVENTION Members Austria, France, Germany, Italy, Liechtenstein, Monaco, Slovenia, Switzerland, EU Objective Integrated protection of the environment Year 1991 Protocols 9 Secretariat Innsbruck-BolzanoJon Marco Church jonmarco_church@hks.harvard.edu Center for International Development www.cid.harvard.edu Harvard Kennedy School jon-marco.church@malix.univ-paris1.fr Centre de recherches politiques de la Sorbonne crps.univ-paris1.fr Université Paris 1
  9. 9. 9 CARPATHIANCONVENTION Members Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovak Republic, Ukraine Objective Protection and sustainable development Year 2003 Protocols 1 Secretariat Vienna (UNEP)Jon Marco Church jonmarco_church@hks.harvard.edu Center for International Development www.cid.harvard.edu Harvard Kennedy School jon-marco.church@malix.univ-paris1.fr Centre de recherches politiques de la Sorbonne crps.univ-paris1.fr Université Paris 1
  10. 10. 10 ANDEAN COMMUNITY Members Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru (former: Chile, Venezuela) Objective Integrated development Year 1969 Decisions 737 (June 2010) Organs Secretariat, Parliament, Councils, Tribunal, Bank, UniversityJon Marco Church jonmarco_church@hks.harvard.edu Center for International Development www.cid.harvard.edu Harvard Kennedy School jon-marco.church@malix.univ-paris1.fr Centre de recherches politiques de la Sorbonne crps.univ-paris1.fr Université Paris 1
  11. 11. Questions History Definitions Criticisms 11 Ecologic Socio-economic Political Conclusions ECOLOGIC AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS Alpine Convention Andean Community - Compact, ecologically uniform - Long, “megadiverse” - It includes the whole arc - It does not cover the whole range - Dominant sectors: nature, - Dominant sectors: mining, water tourism, transport - Emerging issues: climate, water - Emerging issue: transport (IIRSA) - Demographics: national and - Demographically more uniform subnational variations (rural exodus, indigenous question)Jon Marco Church jonmarco_church@hks.harvard.edu Center for International Development www.cid.harvard.edu Harvard Kennedy School jon-marco.church@malix.univ-paris1.fr Centre de recherches politiques de la Sorbonne crps.univ-paris1.fr Université Paris 1
  12. 12. Questions History Definitions Criticisms 12 Ecologic Socio-economic Political Conclusions POLITICAL ASPECTS Alpine Convention Andean Community - Typical regional environmental - Standard regional integration agreement organization - Product of the capitals - Also product of the capitals - Leading ENGO: CIPRA (official - Leading ENGO: CONDESAN (no observer) official observers) - Official languages: 4 - Common language (Spanish) - Dominant role of the rotating - Prominent role of the presidency secretariatJon Marco Church jonmarco_church@hks.harvard.edu Center for International Development www.cid.harvard.edu Harvard Kennedy School jon-marco.church@malix.univ-paris1.fr Centre de recherches politiques de la Sorbonne crps.univ-paris1.fr Université Paris 1
  13. 13. Questions History Definitions Criticisms 13 Ecologic Socio-economic Political Conclusions POLITICAL ASPECTS (CONTINUED) Alpine Convention Andean Community - Balance of “institutional - Traditional balance of power capacity”, decentralization (military, economic) - Limited funding (€0.8 million, - Core funding ($5 million, personnel: 10), autonomous EU personnel: 100), development program (€26 million) bank (capital: $10 billion) -Compare: CIPRA incomes (€1.5 million)Jon Marco Church jonmarco_church@hks.harvard.edu Center for International Development www.cid.harvard.edu Harvard Kennedy School jon-marco.church@malix.univ-paris1.fr Centre de recherches politiques de la Sorbonne crps.univ-paris1.fr Université Paris 1
  14. 14. Questions History Definitions Criticisms 14 Ecologic Socio-economic Political Conclusions ANDEAN COMMUNITY (MORE) - Recent democratic transitions, ideological divisions (ALBA, FTAs) - Recent armed conflict, traditional alliances (Peru-Ecuador 1995-98) - High levels of institutionalization, including an Andean Parliament and Court, binding nature of decisions - Focus on social and economic issues, growing awareness on environmental concerns (Andean Environmental Agenda)Jon Marco Church jonmarco_church@hks.harvard.edu Center for International Development www.cid.harvard.edu Harvard Kennedy School jon-marco.church@malix.univ-paris1.fr Centre de recherches politiques de la Sorbonne crps.univ-paris1.fr Université Paris 1
  15. 15. 15 WORKING PAPER ENVIRONMENTAL REGIONALISM THE CHALLENGE OF THE ALPINE CONVENTION AND THE “STRANGE CASE” OF THE ANDEAN COMMUNITY Harvard University Kennedy School of Government Center for International Development Sustainability Science ProgramJon Marco Church jonmarco_church@hks.harvard.edu Center for International Development www.cid.harvard.edu Harvard Kennedy School jon-marco.church@malix.univ-paris1.fr Centre de recherches politiques de la Sorbonne crps.univ-paris1.fr Université Paris 1
  16. 16. Questions History Definitions Criticisms 16 Ecologic Socio-economic Political Conclusions CONCLUSIONS - Existing regional mountain agreements can be studied as international organizations - The Alpine Convention is more mountain specific, but it is institutionally weak - If it further developed its environmental agenda, the Andean Community has the potential of becoming the strongest regional international organization for mountains - The Andean Community can be considered as an alternative model for new regional mountain agreements in the Balkans, Caucasus, Himalaya, etc.Jon Marco Church jonmarco_church@hks.harvard.edu Center for International Development www.cid.harvard.edu Harvard Kennedy School jon-marco.church@malix.univ-paris1.fr Centre de recherches politiques de la Sorbonne crps.univ-paris1.fr Université Paris 1
  17. 17. 17 THANK YOU alps © danila obici 2009Jon Marco Church jonmarco_church@hks.harvard.edu Center for International Development www.cid.harvard.edu Harvard Kennedy School jon-marco.church@malix.univ-paris1.fr Centre de recherches politiques de la Sorbonne crps.univ-paris1.fr Université Paris 1

×