Wangenbao 090724184124-phpapp01


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Evaluating the George W Bush Presidency 2009 Conference

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Wangenbao 090724184124-phpapp01

  1. 1. The Cold War Thinking and Bush’s China Policy By Enbao Wang University of Hawaii at Hilo • This paper attempts to argue that the Cold War thinking----China was viewed as a “Communist nation” and was judged from old cold war perspective----played an important role in Bush administration’s China- policy-making. In its first year, the Bush administration believed that China would be major rival of the U.S. in the twenty-first century and launched a new cold war against China. After the 9/11 attacks, the Bush administration shifted its China policy from new cold war to cooperation; but maintained Cold War policy on geopolitical issues. Though Bush’s policy was supported by a portion of Americans, it was not made based on China’s reality and was not in the long-tern interest of the United states.
  2. 2. Bush’s China Policy: from Confrontation to cooperation • The development of President Bush’s China may be divided into two periods: First period (2001): launched a new Cold War against “Communist China”; Second period (2002-2009): formed cooperative relations with China on trade and many other issues while containing “Communist China” on geopolitical issues.
  3. 3. The First period (2001), a New Cold War toward China • When Bush came to office in 2001, his primary strategic objective was to resurrect the permanent-dominance doctrine spelled out in the Defense Planning Guidance document for the post-Cold War era. • Washington asserted that China, as a rising power, would eventually challenge America’s superiority. • To contain China, the U.S. strengthened its relations with key cold war allies, particularly Japan, South Korea, and Australia.
  4. 4. • The U.S. intensified its spy activities against China. In April 2001, U.S. spy airplane EP-3 collided with China’s airplane near China’s Hainan Island. • Washington used the Taiwan issue to contain China: promoted U.S.-Taiwan relations; pledged to defend Taiwan with "whatever it takes."
  5. 5. The Second Period (2002-2009): formed cooperative relations with China on trade and many other issues while containing “Communist China” on geopolitical issues. • After the 9/11 attacks, Washington’s priority was the War on terrorism, and the containing of China was not the urgent issue. Washington began to improve relations with China. • U.S. Deputy Secretary of State Robert Zoellick proposed to accept China as a “responsible stakeholder” in the international system. • President Bush and President Hu Jintao launched the U.S.- China Strategic Economic Dialogue (SED) program
  6. 6. From 2002 to 2009, Washington did not completely abandon the concept of containing China • The U.S. strengthened its cold war strategic relations with Japan and South Korea. Japan would assist the United States in the event of its involvement in military conflict with China because of Taiwan. • The United States continued to sell sophisticated arms to Taiwan. • the U.S. continued the cold war policy of export restriction that high-tech products are not allowed to be exported to China while these products are exported to other nations.
  7. 7. China: a semi-capitalist state and its goal • China’s new ideology: Deng Xiaoping Theory. • The CCP is no more a Leninist party; it is a party of all social classes including capitalists and economic elites. • Growing income disparity of capitalist China; Gini ratio reached .50, compared with .46 of the U.S. ; Many Chinese are suffering with the “disease” of primary stage of capitalism. • China’s goal is peaceful rise and national rejuvenation, not conflict with the U.S.