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Social Media in Science Communication

Social Media in Science Communication

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Already this summer I gave this online workshop on Social Media in Science Communication for the ForInter Research Network of the University Medical Center Erlangen.

The main topics addressed were:
- Introduction to social media and their typology
- Use and relevance of social media and social networks in science communication
- Science-relevant social media and social networks (both those that specifically address science communication, such as ResearchGate, and those that are not specifically designed for scientific purposes, such as LinkedIn or Twitter).
- Use of social media and social networks as research tools for literature, people, collaborations.

For more information on workshops on this and similar topics, click https://scidecode.com/dienstleistungen-und-projekte/workshops/

Already this summer I gave this online workshop on Social Media in Science Communication for the ForInter Research Network of the University Medical Center Erlangen.

The main topics addressed were:
- Introduction to social media and their typology
- Use and relevance of social media and social networks in science communication
- Science-relevant social media and social networks (both those that specifically address science communication, such as ResearchGate, and those that are not specifically designed for scientific purposes, such as LinkedIn or Twitter).
- Use of social media and social networks as research tools for literature, people, collaborations.

For more information on workshops on this and similar topics, click https://scidecode.com/dienstleistungen-und-projekte/workshops/

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Social Media in Science Communication

  1. 1. Social Networks in Science Communication Dr. Ulrich Herb scidecode science consulting scidecode.com
  2. 2. Warm up Please use sticky notes to introduce yourself ● Name ● Discipline ● Topics of particular interest to you
  3. 3. Social Networks in Science Communication Some terminology & keywords Use and relevance of Social Media/ Networks in science communication Science-relevant Social Media/ Networks Social Media/ networks as research tools Social Media/ Networks as tools to disseminate results and for self-marketing Social Media/ Networks for networking Summary and advices
  4. 4. Some terminology & keywords
  5. 5. Social Media ● are Web-based applications allowing participation with easy to use techniques ● enable content creation ● allow individuals & groups to create user-specific profiles ● facilitate the development of Social Networks online by connecting these profiles ● allow sharing and re-use of content turn isolated consumers (known from the Web 1.0) into prosumers. Obar, J. A., & Wildman, S. (2015). Social media definition and the governance challenge: An introduction to the special issue. Telecommunications Policy, 39(9), 745–750. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.telpol.2015.07.014
  6. 6. Social Networks “We define social network sites as web-based services that allow individuals to (1) construct a public or semi-public profile within a bounded system, (2) articulate a list of other users with whom they share a connection, and (3) view and traverse their list of connections and those made by others within the system. The nature and nomenclature of these connections may vary from site to site.” boyd, danah m., & Ellison, N. B. (2007). Social Network Sites: Definition, History, and Scholarship. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 13(1), 210–230. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1083-6101.2007.00393.x
  7. 7. Science Communication Scholarly Communication/ Science Communication = Communication of scientific content and scientific work, including ● internal science communication (journals, books, conferences) ● science journalism, science PR, communication with the public Schäfer, M. S., Kristiansen, S., & Bonfadelli, H. (2015). Wissenschaftskommunikation im Wandel: Relevanz, Entwicklung und Herausforderungen des Forschungsfeldes. In M. S. Schäfer, S. Kristiansen, & H. Bonfadelli (Hrsg.), Wissenschaftskommunikation im Wandel (S. 10–42). Herbert von Halem.
  8. 8. Group Phase 1
  9. 9. Social Media & Science Communication
  10. 10. Some Findings: Peters & Mazarakis (Germany) 84.7% of the participants are using Wikipedia 63.4% ... Sharing Tools 55.6% ... Social Networks 49.7% ... Thematic Wikis 38.7% ... Reference Management Software 30.9% ... Learning Management Software Peters, I., & Mazarakis, A. (2019). Social-Media-Nutzung in der Wissenschaft. https://100jahre.zbw.eu/wp- content/uploads/2019/05/Dossier_10_SM_nutzen.pdf
  11. 11. Some Findings: Peters, I., & Mazarakis (Germany) Wikipedia (mostly passively used) ● reading articles (83.7%) ● research/ referencing (81.5%) ● review references (43.14%) ● majority of respondents use Wikipedia several times a week (31%) Peters, I., & Mazarakis, A. (2019). Social-Media-Nutzung in der Wissenschaft. https://100jahre.zbw.eu/wp- content/uploads/2019/05/Dossier_10_SM_nutzen.pdf
  12. 12. Some Findings: Peters, I., & Mazarakis (Germany) Networks Uses: ● Managing existing contacts (67.9%) ● Making and observing new contacts (60.8%) ● Showing visibility (57.2%) ● Informing about new publications / topics (50.5%) Providers: ● ResearchGate (60.5%) ● XING (56.6%) ● LinkedIn (48%) Peters, I., & Mazarakis, A. (2019). Social-Media-Nutzung in der Wissenschaft. https://100jahre.zbw.eu/wp- content/uploads/2019/05/Dossier_10_SM_nutzen.pdf
  13. 13. Some Findings: Peters, I., & Mazarakis (Germany) Research Research sources for researchers are no longer databases alone, but also Social Networks. Publication Research results are published in a variety of ways, be it as a question, as a topic presentation or as an impetus for discussion. Platforms are science-specific Social Networks. Exchange Social media complement the classical contact and communication modes in science. Peters, I., & Mazarakis, A. (2019). Social-Media-Nutzung in der Wissenschaft. https://100jahre.zbw.eu/wp- content/uploads/2019/05/Dossier_10_SM_nutzen.pdf
  14. 14. Some Findings: Nature Research (Globally) Some numbers ... ● Over 95% of respondents said they used some form of Social Media or Social Networks (SCNs) for professional purposes ● ResearchGate was the platform with the greatest proportion of professional users (71%), followed by Google Scholar (66%) ● 50% of professional users said they accessed Facebook on a daily basis 75% of them are using it only for private purposes Stainland. M. (2017) How do researchers use social media and scholarly collaboration networks (SCNs)? : Nature Blogs. http://blogs.nature.com/ofschemesandmemes/2017/06/15/how-do-researchers-use-social-media-and-scholarly-collaboration-networks-scns
  15. 15. Some Findings: Nature Research (Globally) Stainland. M. (2017) How do researchers use Social Media and scholarly collaboration networks (SCNs)? : Nature Blogs. http://blogs.nature.com/ofschemesandmemes/2017/06/15/how-do-researchers-use-social-media-and-scholarly-collaboration-networks-scns
  16. 16. Some Findings: Nature Research (Globally) Motivations ● Over three quarters of respondents stated that they use Social Media and SCNs for discovering and / or reading scientific content (Nature’s 2014 study: 33%). ● 57% of respondents to the survey used some form of Social Media and /or SCNs to support with self or research promotion. Stainland. M. (2017) How do researchers use social media and scholarly collaboration networks (SCNs)? : Nature Blogs. http://blogs.nature.com/ofschemesandmemes/2017/06/15/how-do-researchers-use-social-media-and-scholarly-collaboration-networks-scns
  17. 17. Social Media - what about us? 1. Twitter 9 2. Facebook 9 3. LinkedIn 7 4. ResearchGate 5 Do you use Social Media to search for information or to distribute your own data and information? Just for searching: 8 Both: 4 typical distribution of activities in Social Media 90% of users read content 9% comment/share content 1% write/produce content
  18. 18. Some Media in detail ● Twitter ● Facebook ● LinkedIn ● ResearchGate ● Google Scholar ● ORCID / ImpactStory ● Reddit
  19. 19. Group Phase 2: Your experiences How do you use Twitter/ Facebook/ LinkedIn/ ResearchGate as a research tool for literature, people, collaborations? How do you use Twitter/ Facebook/ LinkedIn/ ResearchGate to disseminate your own results and raise your profile, as well as for self-marketing? How do you use Twitter/ Facebook/ LinkedIn/ ResearchGate for networking? ● Building groups of three ● Each group will focus on one of the Social Media mentioned ● Answering the questions in the groups (15 minutes) ● Reporting in plenary incl. demonstration (with one's own profile) and discussion in plenary (15 minutes each group/ Social Media)
  20. 20. Your experiences
  21. 21. Social Networks in Detail Motion- Design Twitter Facebook LinkedIn ResearchGate
  22. 22. Social Networks in Detail Motion- Design Twitter Facebook LinkedIn ResearchGate
  23. 23. Social Networks in Detail Motion- Design Twitter Facebook LinkedIn ResearchGate
  24. 24. Social Networks in Detail Motion- Design Twitter Facebook LinkedIn ResearchGate
  25. 25. Break
  26. 26. Quiz
  27. 27. Q1 4.54 billion people are using the internet - how many are using Social Media? 1. 2.169 billion 2. 3.725 billion 3. 4.512 billion
  28. 28. Q1 4.54 billion people are using the internet - how many are using Social Media? 1. 2.169 billion 2. 3.725 billion 3. 4.512 billion https://www.brandwatch.com/blog/amazing-social-media-statistics-and-facts/#section-2
  29. 29. Q2 How many people older than 65 year use Social Media on a daily basis? 1. 9% 2. 31% 3. 65%
  30. 30. Q2 How many people older than 65 use Social Media on a daily basis? 1. 9% 2. 31% 3. 65% https://www.oberlo.com/blog/social-media-marketing-statistics
  31. 31. Q3 How many Social Media accounts does an average user have? 1. 7.6 2. 9.1 3. 12.7
  32. 32. Q3 How many Social Media accounts does an average user have? 1. 7.6 2. 9.1 3. 12.7 https://www.searchenginejournal.com/social-media-facts/258533/#close
  33. 33. Q4 How many years of our lives do we spend on Social Media on average?
  34. 34. Q4 How many years of our lives do we spend on Social Media on average? 5 year and 3 months …. https://www.searchenginejournal.com/social-media-facts/258533/#close
  35. 35. Sum up
  36. 36. Sum up - Twitter ● quick access to information ● great to find scientific content formally and informally published ● topic identification via hashtag, e.g. for conferences ● information gathering through questions to followers ● great for engagement with journalists, policymakers, politicians and other professionals and public interest groups ● lists help to structure content ● extremely useful platform for disseminating information, consulting with individuals and also getting individuals involved with discussion ● can be searched without being a registered user, https://twitter.com/explore ● by far not all users have a full profile with their real name ● tweets can have a maximum of 280 characters ● useful: advanced search, https://twitter.com/search-advanced see also: National Co-ordinating Centre for Public Engagement. 2018. What Works - Engaging the public through social media. https://www.publicengagement.ac.uk/sites/default/files/publication/what_works_engaging_the_public_through_social_media_nov ember_2018.pdf
  37. 37. Sum up - Facebook offers personal profiles, pages, groups, internal search Organizational / institutional accounts ● good for community building ● very suitable for marketing ● great for engagement with general public audiences, for promoting offline engagement opportunities and getting online engagement through public events (e.g. live streaming) ● not so useful for stimulating fast two-way interactions (better use Twitter) Private Accounts ● valuable for discussions in groups and to follow relevant organizations/conferences see also: National Co-ordinating Centre for Public Engagement. 2018. What Works - Engaging the public through social media. https://www.publicengagement.ac.uk/sites/default/files/publication/what_works_engaging_the_public_through_social_media_nov ember_2018.pdf
  38. 38. Sum up - LinkedIn ● helps search for potential employers or cooperation partners in business ● most users have a full profile with their real name Private Accounts ● valuable for discussions in groups and to follow relevant organizations/ conferences ● very suitable for searching relevant contacts ● very well-designed for reputation management ● useful for networking and disseminating information and content ● other users may verify your qualifications with endorsement Organizational / institutional accounts ● good for building community ● very suitable for marketing see also: National Co-ordinating Centre for Public Engagement. 2018. What Works - Engaging the public through social media. https://www.publicengagement.ac.uk/sites/default/files/publication/what_works_engaging_the_public_through_social_media_nov ember_2018.pdf
  39. 39. Sum up - ResearchGate ● very suitable for searching for relevant contacts and collaborations ● job market & hiring ● very well-designed for reputation management ● profiles explicitly designed for scientists: Bibliometric information Project lists CV Sharing of scientific content Publishing options Integrated in institutional authentication (partly) … ● valuable Q&A sections, topics, labs (= closed groups) ● users rate posted content by upvoting and downvoting - the more upvotes a post gets, the more prominently it is placed https://researchgate.net
  40. 40. Some more Social Media
  41. 41. Reddit https://www.reddit.com/ ● Reddit does not consist of one large community, but of many small ones = subreddits (similar to a classic internet forum) ● each subreddit is dedicated to a different area of interest ● users rate posted links, images, videos or texts by upvoting and downvoting - the more upvotes a post gets, the more prominently it is placed in the subreddit. ● extremely well suited to disseminate and discuss findings ● extremely well suited to discuss questions with others ● great to provide scientific expertise and discuss science issues with others ● very predominantly not science-related see also: National Co-ordinating Centre for Public Engagement. 2018. What Works - Engaging the public through social media. https://www.publicengagement.ac.uk/sites/default/files/publication/what_works_engaging_the_public_through_social_media_nov ember_2018.pdf
  42. 42. Google Scholar https://scholar.google.com Profile ● research focus, institution, contact ● publication list incl. citations and metrics (h-index) curation: manual, semi-automatic, automatic ● option to follow other scientists ● alert functionality ● purely science related
  43. 43. ORCID iD Online Researcher and Contributor ID https://orcid.org/ ● not really Social Media ● service on people disambiguation ● maps publications and their impact on individuals ● can (and should be used) … when submitting applications for research funding … when publishing papers or data … to connect (author) profiles to scientific databases -> Web of Science … to connect (author) profiles to Social Media -> Google Scholar -> impact story, https://profiles.impactstory.org/
  44. 44. Summary and advices
  45. 45. Social Media and features ● reputation management ● dissemination of findings ● finding new studies/ findings ● finding experts / decorate yourself with contacts ● getting input from topic groups ● dialogue/ problem-solving ● organizational marketing https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/16VM9cbLthGPMDtrBhK0b-e9obgb75W52Jv55vI3W8nM/edit?usp=sharing
  46. 46. Some hints ● Be cautious when using private profiles for professional and scientific purposes. ● Do not accept friend requests from clients in your private network. ● Do not share private information in the professional context (network, group, …). ● When searching for scientific content on Social Media use (if possible) DOIs. ● When posting/ mentioning own content use its DOI because impact services (impact story, altmetrics.com, PLUM) are parsing DOIs. ● Connect all your professional profiles (in Social Media and beyond) with your ORCID iD. ● Think carefully about the purpose for which you want to use Social Media and which services you want to use for which purpose. ● Focus: Choose services where you can find your communities. ● Don’t just broadcast - build networks by communicating with other users. ● Set up specific opportunities for people to engage, e.g. set questions to create conversations. ● Be aware of copyright infringements when sharing publications as a fulltext > check the Sherpa Romeo database,https://v2.sherpa.ac.uk/romeo/ or dedicated information of the publisher affected
  47. 47. Some tools ● Search engine for profiles in Social Media https://www.social-searcher.com/google-social-search/ ● Meta search engine for Social Media (incl. Twitter, Facebook, Reddit) https://www.social-searcher.com/social-buzz/ ● Integrated monitoring of Social Media accounts https://www.netvibes.com/en ● Twitter Analytics (KPI for profiles, e.g. outreach) https://tweetreach.com/ ● Botometer (tries to identify bots, also useful to check whether one's own profile could be considered as bot https://botometer.osome.iu.edu/ ● Links to Social Media Tools https://start.me/p/ZGAzN7/verification-toolset
  48. 48. Thanks a lot for your attention! Dr. Ulrich Herb u.herb@scidecode.com https://scidecode.com/en Twitter: @scinoptica @scidecode LinkedIn: https://de.linkedin.com/in/ulrichherb

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