Strengths is not the same as resilience Resilience occurs in the face of Adversity/ Risk In the past 30-4- years there has been an explosion of research into why some people “bounce back” and others “succumb to stressors”
Historically, people focussed on what was “broken” in a person… The study of RESILIENCE changed that focus - from “risk” too “protective factors”
Emmy Werner 30 year longitudinal study of 698 infants on the Hawaiian island of Kauai—the island's entire birth cohort for the year 1955. Early Adversity would result in bad outcomes… surprized to discover some of these kids did well.
Werner & others found that there were some common characteristics of those c & y who survived and thrived (One adult --- Kim’s Hastings research - “know my name” )
Initially, these children were described as “invulnerable” -- as though they were ‘teflon’ kids
Death of parent at age 3 - OK / but in teen years they crash and burn Over time it became clear that NO child / person is invulnerable (even superman has bad days!) Child will do the best they can with the resources available
The concept of Resilience emerged: INTERACTIVE process That involved the INDIVIDUAL and their CONTEXT/ ENVIRONMENT
Risks also exist in Individual and Environment Risks are NOT obvious. What is a risk for one… not for another Risk is a function of the INTERACTION between individual, family, peer, school, community , cultural We cannot ASSUME something is going to be a risk for a child… Indiv - poor social skills Family, los SES, mental illness Peer - rejection School, low teacher support Social/cultural - stereotype
A risk factor can become a resilience factor - Single Parent? Teen Pregnancy? Two sides of the same coin - add more nutrients, remove nutrients
A few examples Do you have to be born with these? Are there some you can teach/nurture?
kim’s research re. caring adult in schools (knows your name)
RESILIENCE - not as simple as applying ‘protective factors” FIT: (developmental) highschool teachers allow less AUTONOMY, CREATIVITY…. Just when student needs it most
We want to help them navigate from one stone to the other - some transitions are more loaded with stressors (adoles- biology, brain, hormones, social, school, family)
Although TRANSITIONS do not predict risk -- they are a time when we can provide supports to support c/y through changes
There are many different ways… What can do to increase the possibility of increasing Resilience?
PYD can provide a framework - approach or philosophy (positive psychology)
C/Y need ABC to become Intrinsically Motivated - ie “able to absorb the nutrients” (think CALCIUM/ MAGNESIUM) Approaches, programs that promote “fit” Sundog Carvers
Reclaiming Youth at Risk: Larry Bredtro, Martin Brokenleg Imbue these characteristics in c/y The model integrates Native American philosophies of child-rearing, the heritage of early pioneers in education and youth work, and contemporary resilience research. The Circle of Courage is based in four universal growth needs of all children: belonging, mastery, independence, and generosity
CASEL - Canada CASEL - Collaborative for Academic and Social/Emotional Learning (http://www.casel.org/) Social and emotional competencies (fit with resiliency protective factors).. Can be TAUGHT and MEASURED Connection to academic success Children’s IQ accounts to 20-3-% of academic competence
Exciting time! Brain research- SEL research - Linda Lamers (Yukon’s own)
So, first you may be asking yourself why is this program called FRIENDS? Well. FRIENDS is an acronym for what a youth needs to do when they are feeling anxious or worried: F is for feelings… R is for relaxation… ……… The last one is S for smile - no one will know that you are anxious – “fake it until you make it” (an old alcohol and drug saying)
(read some of the points on this slide)
A Definition of Resilience Definition taken from the Metal Industry A metal’s ability to return to its original shape after it’s been bent Then somebody in the mental health field asked “can we bounce back after we’ve been bent?” Our ability to go back to our original form after a disappointment/something’s gone wrong Springing back and rebounding; not staying down – soldiering on, pulling ourselves together Regardless of what happens in our lives – having the skills and techniques to cope with both everyday hassles and negative life events In short, in psychology, resilience is the ability to cope with and bounce back from adversity How can you tell when a youth/child is resilient? (Ask audience for examples of behaviours) (has a sense of humor, takes risks, makes mistakes, asks questions, bounces back from an upset, can take feedback etc..)
More successful at school affect performance in school and in the workplace successful early interventions - it is the social skills and motivation of the child that are more easily altered – not IQ. These social and emotional skills affect performance in school and in the workplace. We often have a bias toward believing that only cognitive skills are of fundamental importance to success in life. Doing well in grade 8 could be better predicted from knowing children’s social competence 5 years earlier than from primary school academic results”
The research completed on FRIENDS confirms that the changes of behavior and emotions were the result of the FRIENDS program. For those children who were not anxious, FRIENDS increased their self-esteem, problem solving, and confidence Early intervention in schools reduces onset of youth anxiety and depression - “ FRIENDS for Life” programs are effective
Description of results from 36 month follow up study – As time passes the children that had the intervention (green) seemed to continue using their skills and have less and less anxiety and depression compared to the children in the control group, that over time their levels of anxiety and depression increased (red) . The difference is significant at each time point between the children that received the intervention and the children in the wait list group (red - control).
Programs Roots of Empathy Second Step FRIENDS for Life The Fourth R DPAS Community Service Learning SACY - School Age Children and Youth Substance AbusePrevention Program
What is Resilience?Good outcomes in spite of serious threats toadaptation in development
Objectives of this Presentation To identify definitions of risk and resiliency.To identify definitions of risk and resiliency. To illustrate dimensions of resiliency in relation toTo illustrate dimensions of resiliency in relation tochildren and youth.children and youth. To describe recent research findings on resiliency.To describe recent research findings on resiliency. To consider approaches and programs that facilitateTo consider approaches and programs that facilitateresiliency of the children in your schools.resiliency of the children in your schools.
Shifting from a Risk to a Resilience Focus““There is a regrettable tendency to focus gloomily onThere is a regrettable tendency to focus gloomily onthe ills of mankind and on all that can and does gothe ills of mankind and on all that can and does gowrong . . . The potential for prevention surely lies inwrong . . . The potential for prevention surely lies inincreasing our knowledge and understanding of theincreasing our knowledge and understanding of thereason why some children are not damaged byreason why some children are not damaged bydeprivation”deprivation”(Rutter, 1979).(Rutter, 1979).
What Differences Make a Difference? Better parenting resourcesBetter parenting resources More appealing infantsMore appealing infants Better cognitive test scoresBetter cognitive test scores Positive self-perceptionsPositive self-perceptions Greater conscientiousnessGreater conscientiousness One significant AdultOne significant Adult
Resilience… is both an individual’s capacity tonavigate to health promoting resources…and a condition of the individual’s family,community and culture to provide thoseresources in meaningful ways
What is Risk? Individual FactorsIndividual Factors Family FactorsFamily Factors Peer FactorsPeer Factors School FactorsSchool Factors Social/Community FactorsSocial/Community Factors Social-culturalSocial-cultural
Protective Factors Child AssetsChild Assets TemperamentTemperament Cognitive AbilitiesCognitive Abilities Positive view of selfPositive view of self Emotional & Behavioural regulationEmotional & Behavioural regulation Asks for HelpAsks for Help Plans for the future (hope)Plans for the future (hope) A sense of meaning in lifeA sense of meaning in life Sense of HumourSense of Humour AttractivenessAttractiveness
Protective Factors Family AssetsFamily Assets Positive adult role modelsPositive adult role models Positive communication within thePositive communication within thefamilyfamily Parental involvement in child’s lifeParental involvement in child’s life Clear rules and consequences within theClear rules and consequences within thefamilyfamily Time with familyTime with family
Protective Factors Community AssetsCommunity Assets High Neighborhood quality (low violence, recreational center,High Neighborhood quality (low violence, recreational center,clean air and water)clean air and water) Effective SchoolsEffective Schools Employment opportunities for parents and teensEmployment opportunities for parents and teens Good public healthcareGood public healthcare Sense of school belongingSense of school belonging Connections to significant non-parental adultsConnections to significant non-parental adults Connections to Pro-social peersConnections to Pro-social peers
Protective Factors Cultural / Societal Assets Protective child policies (health, welfare, childProtective child policies (health, welfare, childlabour, parental leave)labour, parental leave) Value and Resources directed at educationValue and Resources directed at education Prevention of and protection from oppressionPrevention of and protection from oppressionor political violenceor political violence Low acceptance of physical violenceLow acceptance of physical violence
Emergent Themes of Risk and Resilience Hidden Resilience - (not always socially acceptable) Resilience as “Fit” (no “one size fits all”) Risk status should be viewed as steps along a continuum The “at risk” label is a misnomer -- assumes prediction Risk is multiplicative - (consider early adolescence) The timing of risk factors may differentially affect outcomes (e.g.death of parent at birth versus adolescence) Risk propensity is heightened during periods of transition
TransitionsRisk or Opportunities? Birth Enter School system Enter Highschool Exit School…. (cont’d)
Transitions Death and Loss Illness Moving Youth Leaving Care Youth entering & exiting Correction CentersOTHERS?
Positive Youth Development Framework“Assumes that the nature of the child -every child-is marked by considerableresiliency. The Agenda is to maximizethis potential”.William Damon
Positive Youth DevelopmentThe Child & Community“PYD sees the child as full partner in the Community-Childrelation, bearing a full share of rights and responsibilities”William Damon“Ask not what your community can do for you……”
What we know today… New information about Early Child Development HELPhttp://www.earlylearning.ubc.ca/ Brain Research Social and Emotional Learning research “Evidence based PracticeAssessment re. “what works”
In SummaryResilience is The capacity of individuals to navigate theresources that sustain well-being The capacity of individual’s environment toprovide resources The capacity of individuals, their families andcommunities to negotiate culturally meaningfulways for resources to be sharedMichael Unger PhD
Search Institute’s 40Developmental Assets Review the 40 Developmental Assets anddetermine which of them your schoolspotentially could foster. Which ones areyou working on and which ones could youemphasize more? Only two of the 40 Assets are directlyrelated to academic achievement.
Programs Roots of Empathy Second Step FRIENDS for Life The Fourth R DPAS Community Service Learning SACY - School Age Children and Youth Substance AbusePrevention Program
ROE Program GoalsOverall, the ROE program is designed: To foster the development of children’sempathy, emotional literacy, and socialunderstanding, To foster children’s prosocial qualities(concern for others, helpfulness, andcooperation), To reduce levels of children’s aggression, To increase children’s knowledge of humandevelopment, parenting, and infant safety.
2000-2001: Changes in Proactive “Bullying”Aggression from Pretest to Post-Test by Group00.050.10.150.18.104.22.1680.4Pre-Test Post-TestComparisonChildrenRoots ofEmpathyChildren
2000-2001: Of those children who evidenced some form of proactiveaggression (bullying) at pre-test:ROE children: 88% decreasedComparison children: 9% decreased; 50%increased-100-80-60-40-200204060ROEComparison88%50%
2002-2003: Changes in Peer Assessments:Prosocial Dimensions00.010.020.030.040.050.060.070.08ProsocialBehaviorsProsocialCharacteristicsPeerAcceptanceROEComparison
Second Step Empathy Impulse Control Anger Management Kits from Pre School to Intermediate VSB Initiative
Second Step ResearchGrossman, Et Al (1997), Randomized Control StudyAggression decreased among SS classroom studentsAggression increased among non-SS studentsPro-social behavour increased and were maintained in a sixmonth follow up
FOR YOUTHFF eelingsRR emember to Relax. Have quiet time.II nner helpful thoughts (I can try my best).EE xplore Solutions and Coping Step PlansNN ow reward yourself! You’ve done your best!DD on’t forget to practice!SS mile! Stay calm for life!
Program PhilosophyThe FRIENDS for Life program was created to: Develop life skills to effectively cope with difficult and/oranxiety provoking situations. Normalize the emotional state of anxiety Build emotional resilience & problem-solving abilities Encourage peer learning, support networks & positive rolemodels Promote self- confidence Empower children, families & teachers
a simple definition…Resilience =to spring back, or reboundOxford Dictionary
Benefits Of Resilience relate better to other children, teachers and parents competent in dealing with stress and school work(Aber, Jones & Cohen, 2000) show less behavioural problems at school, even if they are in adverselife circumstances(Caprara et al., 2000) fundamental importance to success in life (Dr Heckman, Nobel Laureatein Economics, 2000)
Research Findings 80% of children showing signs of anxiety disorder nolonger display that disorder after completing the program Resilience skills acquisition at 3 age levels = long termmaintenance of gains For children who are not clinically anxious, FRIENDSsignificantly increases their level of self-esteem whilereducing worry and sadness
Percentage%0510152025303512 months 24 Months 36 MonthsInterventionControl*Significant differences between INTERVENTION and CONTROL groups at 36 monthsFollow-upBarrett, Farrell, Ollendick, & Dadds (2006)Results from a 3 year follow up study using the FRIENDS programwith primary and high school students (Australian Study)
The Fourth RLarry Haberlinlhaberlin@telus.netBC Program Coordinator
Positive Youth Development Want to help teens go beyond not drinking, not beingviolent, etc. What they WANT their relationships to look like, notmerely what to avoid Build resilience for future stressful situations Universal intervention No stigma for being involved All teens will end up in difficult interpersonal situations Increase capacity of bystandersThe Fourth R
Skill Development Focus on helping teens keep themselves safe in potentiallydangerous situations Recognize that some of these behaviours are normative Criminalization has not been an effective way to reduceproblems and can exacerbate problemsThe Fourth R
Comprehensive Approach Multi-focused: Multi-focused targeting a triad of risk behaviours Personal Safety and Injury Prevention (Peer and DatingViolence Prevention) Healthy Growth and Sexuality Substance Use and Abuse Twenty one lessons:Planning TenAlternative EducationAboriginal EducationThe Fourth R
Research on the Fourth RYouth engagement and learning: students learned moreand were more engaged in Fourth R classes.Teachers: 40% reported developing better relationshipswith their students.Skill development: students were 2.2 times more likely touse negotiation skills and 4.8 times more likely to usedelaying skills and therefore less likely to yield to peerpressure.Violence: youth who had suffered multiple types of abusewere significantly less likely to be violent.Two year follow up: boys were less likely to perpetrate datingviolence and more likely to use a condom.
The Fourth R In BC 150 Teachers from 18 Districts have been trainedin BC Trainings being planned:Lower Mainland: June 09Vancouver Island: October 23, 09
SACYSchool-aged Children and Youth Substance UsePrevention Initiative
VSB Social Responsibility identified need Approached Vancouver Coastal Health Interagency committee formed: VBE VCH Vancouver Police Department City of Vancouver UBC Centre for Addictions Research of BCBackground
Enhance the prevention and earlyintervention infrastructure for children andyouth in VSB to: Prevent substance use Delay substance use Prevent substance use problemsSACY Mission
Focus on developing assets, not on deficits. "All Children and youth need assets. Relationships are key. Everyone can build assets. Building assets is ongoing process. Asset building requires consistent messaging. Duplication and repetition are good and important."Five Key Assets:Positive relationships with parents.Positive peer relationships.Positive relationship with the school.Positive relationship with at least one adult in the school.Service to others.Evidence base
Comprehensive and multi-sectoral Inclusive; bring students closer Focus on assets, strengths; not ondeficits. Fit within school’s culture; augment Evidence-based Youth voice is a resource Relevant to the lived experiences ofyouth Whole school approachSACY Philosophy
STEP (SACY Teen Engagement Program) Parent Engagement Stream Student Engagement Stream Curriculum and Teacher Training StreamSACY –four interrelated streams
Typically includes:• SACY Stream Workers• AOD Prevention SpecialistAdministrationCounselorsCST representativesTeachersNursesStudentsMulticultural workersSWISFirst Nations Support WorkersPAC reps & other parentsSLOsYouth Addiction CounselorsMental Health WorkersEtc.School SACY Team
STEP (SACY Teen Engagement Program)Goal of STEP:Students attending school and school relatedevents drug free. Three-day, structured, cumulative Incorporates education, information, work on goals, andskill building Includes detailed follow up and parent componentReferral criteria: any student incurring problems at schoolrelated to substance use.
Youth Engagement Stream Philosophy: engage and work with students whoare on the “fringe”and draw them closer and keepthem in school. Class presentations, one day workshops andspeakers. Community service learning projects and schoolwide initiatives. “Capacity Cafes” Presentations to various groups and organizations.
“To stay emotionally open and resilient,young people must feel connected to adults.To redeem their future, we must restoretheir emotional security. Supporting stablerelationships through adolescence, in thehome, in the schools, and throughout ourentire society, must become an urgentnational priority.” Gabor Mate