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Eia (2)

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Eia (2)

  1. 1. Environmental Impact Assessment
  2. 2. Table of content Introduction History Reason Purpose Philosophy Key elements Analysis Procedure Shortcomings ESM 297
  3. 3. EIA Systematic process for identifying and evaluating the potential effects of proposed actions on the physical, biological, cultural and socioeconomic components of the environment. EIA is a process for decision-making. NOT a formula for preparing a document
  4. 4. EIA It intended as an instrument of preventive environmental management. It provides a framework and an information basis for decision making on activities affecting the environment
  5. 5. EIA It applies to the assessment of the environmental effects of those public and private projects which are likely to have significant effects on the environment. Projectmeans: The execution of construction works or of other installations or schemes.
  6. 6. History It was first introduced in the USA within the framework of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) in 1969, which became law on January 1, 1971.
  7. 7. Reason Direct and indirect effects of a project on the following factors: Human beings Soil, water, air, climate and the landscape The inter-action between the factors mentioned in the first and second indents
  8. 8. Purpose To allow government officials, business leaders, and all concerned citizens to understand the environmental consequences of proposed actions  To cooperate in making wise decisions that restore and maintain the quality of our shared environment for future generations
  9. 9. Purpose To implement a strategy to prevent adverse impact on the environment after the implementation of plans and construction projects  Promote coordinated development of the economy, society, and environment.
  10. 10. Purpose “To LOOK before you LEAP!” EIA is now a required process in more than 100 nations. The International Association for Impact Assessment (IAIA) is a global network with 2,700 members from more than 80 countries.
  11. 11. Philosophy Impact assessment is designed as a preventive measure It should give environmental considerations equal weight with technical and economic aspects
  12. 12. What changes can EIA bring ? Before introduction of EIA: Government planning and decision-making “D-A-D” ---- “Decide, Announce, Defend” Role of NGOs, citizens: “Critics” “Objectors” “Protestors” Environmental conditions: Steadily deteriorating
  13. 13. What changes can EIA bring ? After Implementing EIA: Government planning and decision-making: “D-D-D” ---- “Discuss, Decide, Deliver” Role of NGOs, citizens: “Stakeholders” “Contributors” “Participants” Environmental conditions: Deterioration slows; some areas improving
  14. 14. Key elements EIA must be undertaken early in the development of proposed projects, plans, and programs, and must be completed before a decision to proceed is made. EIA must be an objective, Impartial analytical process, not a way of promoting or “selling” a proposal to decision makers. It must use accepted scientific principles and methods.
  15. 15. Cont….. 3. EIA must analyze all reasonably foreseeable environmental impacts or effects of a proposed action effects may be short- term, long-term, direct, or indirect. 4. The process of EIA must be open to government officials at all levels, to potential stakeholders (those with direct interests in the proposed action), and to the Public.
  16. 16. Analysis Physical components: Land Air Water Energy
  17. 17. Analysis Bio-Cultural components: Nature Culture People Access
  18. 18. General Steps in EIA Process Formulate project Identify potentially significant environmental impacts Evaluate impacts Develop mitigation measures Report / Revise Decision
  19. 19. Procedure Deciding whether an EIA is required (Screening) Determining the scope of EIA (Scoping) Preparing of the impact statement (EIS) Consultations, public participation Evaluating EIA results and consultations Reaching a decision Monitoring impacts after project implementation
  20. 20. Procedural steps  Description of the project  Description of the environment  Identification of environmental impacts  Evaluation of environmental impacts  Management and control of impacts  Presentation of the study  Public participation  Judgment by authorities
  21. 21. Cont….. Phase I: Description of project Objective: identification and characterization of the proposed project Sources: developer, planners Software: GIS, spreadsheet, graphics, statistics
  22. 22. Cont….. Phase I: Description of project Input: project phases, processes, products and materials, risks Output: site (alternatives), emissions, resource consumption, technical solutions Problems: uncertainties, technical limitations
  23. 23. Cont…. Phase 2: Description of environment Objective: identification of affected environment Sources: government, public, specialists Software: GIS, spreadsheet, graphics, statistics
  24. 24. Cont….. Phase 2: Description of environment Input: local/regional environments, human concerns, standards Output: current state, sensitive elements Problems: data and resource limitations
  25. 25. Cont….. Phase 3: Identification of effects Objective: identification of likely interactions between project and environment Sources: specialists, stake holders Software: expert systems, conceptual and qualitative models
  26. 26. Cont…… Phase 3: Identification of effects Input: phases 1 and 2, checklists, cross-impact analysis Output: list of potentially important effects Problems: criteria, qualitative judgments, completeness of coverage
  27. 27. Cont…… Phase 4: Evaluation of effects Objective: estimate magnitudes and characteristics of impacts Sources: specialists, stake holders Software: GIS, expert systems, environmental simulation models
  28. 28. Cont…… Phase 4: Evaluation of effects Input: phases 1,2 and 3, scientific literature, expert knowledge Output: description and classification or ranking of impacts Problems: criteria, model and data uncertainty
  29. 29. Phase 5: Management and control of environmental effects Objective: mitigation, compensation, and monitoring measures Sources: specialist, developer, government Software: GIS, visualization
  30. 30. Cont…… Phase 5: Management and control of environmental effects Input: phases 1,2 and 4, standards, methods and technologies Output: procedures, measures (monitoring, plan, mitigation measures) Problems: criteria, resources, judgments
  31. 31. Cont……. Phase 6: Presentation of the study Objective: report preparation Sources: specialist (risk communication) developer, government Software: visualization, GIS, text processing, multi-media
  32. 32. Cont……. Phase 6: Presentation of the study Input: phases 1,2,3,4,5, formal regulatory Output: report (consensus) Problems: communication, vested interests
  33. 33. Cont……. Phase 7: Public participation (hearings) Objective: negotiation with public, interest groups, stake holders (actors) Sources: all actors involved, media Software: visualization, GIS, text processing, multi-media
  34. 34. Cont……. Phase 7: Public participation Input: phases 1,2,3,4,5,6 Output: opinions, comments, position statements Problems: communication, conflicting objectives, plural rationalities, subjectivity, hidden agenda
  35. 35. Cont…… Phase 8: Formal decision making Objective: decision making, communication, implementation Sources: government regulations, specialists Software: GIS
  36. 36. Cont……. Phase 8: Formal decision making Input: phase 6,7 Output: formal decisions, commitments Problems: communication , legal challenges
  37. 37. Shortcomings of EIA Environmental issues are dealt with in a reactive and project focused, rather than a pro-active way; the main focus is often on mitigation; non direct effects are often neglected. Decisions above the project level at which EIA is usually applied are made without an awareness of their consequences. Long-term visions of sustainable development and associated aims and objectives are not consistently followed through; short term political interests and benefits prevail.

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