What is BCI
Structure and signals
It is the study of brain functions.
A collaboration in which a brain accepts and
controls a mechanical device.
Direct communication pathway between a brain
and an external device.
Thus BCI extracts electro-physical signals from
suitable components of the brain and process
them to generate control signals for computers,
robotic machines or communication devices.
“ A Brain-Computer Interface is a communication
system that do not depend on peripheral nerves
and muscles “
[J. R. Wolpaw et al. “Brain-computer interface
technology: A review of the first international
meeting,” IEEE Trans. Rehab. Eng., vol. 8, no.
2, pp. 164–173, 2000]
Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI)
◦ Interaction between the human neural system and
Enabling people (especially disabled) to communicate
and control devices by mere thinking.
◦ BCI is a control system
1924: Hans Berger discovers the EEG
Analyses the interrelation of EEG and brain
1970: First developments to use brain waves
ARPA has vision of enhanced human
First step in the right direction
1990: First successful experiments with
Implanting electrode arrays into monkey
Recording of monkeys„ brain waves
2000: Monkeys control robots by thoughts
More non-invasive than invasive approaches
Brain reading by eg. EEG, MEG or fMRI
2004: First human benefits from research
• Implant device
• Signal recording and
• External device used for
• Feedback section to the
• Brain is made out of
• Brain detects and
translates the signal of
brain to tangible action
• Same principle different
• More accurate signal
detection from invasive
What is logical scheme of BCI?
appropriate feature extraction
appropriate feedback strategy
EEG Brain Signals
What is the motivation for BCI Research ?
Only in USA, more than 200,000
patients live with the motor
consequences of serious injury.
Motivation for Patients: is to give
disable people to communicate, to
operate prostheses, and even to
operate wheelchairs using brain
Only the INVASIVE SURGEON TECHNIQUE allows putting
electrode into a very local area of a brain uniting a few
neurons. These neurons could be belong to the cortex
center, for example, for finger control.
implant electrodes directly onto a patient’s
implant medical scanning devices to read
What is invasive technology for BCI ?
Philip Kennedy and Roy Bakay (Emory University in
Atlanta) were first to install a brain implant in a
human that produced signals of high enough quality
to simulate movement.
Implant was installed in 1998 and the patient lived
long enough to start working with the implant,
eventually learning to control a computer cursor.
Kennedy, P.R., Bakay R.A.
(1998) Restoration of neural
output from a paralysed patient
by a direct brain connection.
10 array of electrodes, each separated by 400 μm
John P. Donoghue, et al.
Assistive technology and robotic
control using motor cortex
ensemble-based neural interface
systems in humans with
tetraplegia. J Physiol 579.3
(2007) pp 603–611
Disability Level and Application:
BCI for common people
The Translation Algorithm
Any controllable machines
For answering yes/no questions
For word processing
Usually, Computer screen and the output is
the selection of targets or cursor movement
Successful Story, Wearable BCI
◦ A successful transition of the whole BCI system to the
◦ No machine learning
◦ Limited computational power (limited signal processing)
◦ A general-purpose system for (BCI) research
Source Module (new device new driver)
Signal Processing Module (reusable, No Machine Learning)
User Application Module (UDP/IP support to be running in any
Microsoft Windows™ 2000/XP
◦ Communication technologies
802.11(wire less –WLAN)
◦ PDA instead of stationary computer
Dry Electrode instead of wet (reducing
Making the BCI transparent
◦ No need to change electrodes for a reasonable long
waves [4, 7.5] associated with reverie,
daydreaming, meditation, creative ideas
Delta waves [0,4] Hz associated with deep sleep and in
the awake state were thought to indicates physical defects
in the brain.
wave(8-13hz)-its indicates both a relaxed
and attention mode of the brain.
wave(13-30 hz)-it is the brain wave usually
associated with activity thinking, active attention.
CHARACTERISTICS OF BRAIN WAVES
waves-within 35Hz-it reflect the mechanism of
wave(8-12)hz –associated with Motor activity,
Steps for the function of BCI.
1.user wired to a multi-electrode EEG skin cap,
which is connected to a pc running BCI2000.
2.user of the signal asked to generate a series
3.EEG potential record and analyze the signal
4.the software attempt to match these signal to
previous recorded signals.
5.at last identified words are wrapped on
output devices like-screen or speech
New surgery for
each up gradation
External device is
Glasses and Lasik
operation is best
THE DRAWBACKS OF BCI :
- THE BRAIN IS INCREDIBLY COMPLEX,
- THE SIGNAL IS WEAK & PRONE TO INTERFENCE,
- THE EQUIPMENTS IS LESS THAN PORTABLE,
◦ Joint Venture of several German research
◦ Supported by the Ministry of Education and
◦ Wide range of research topics
◦ Impressive combination of BCI and FES (Functional
• A potential therapeutic tool.
• BCI is an advancing technology promising paradigm shift in
areas like Machine Control, Human Enhancement, Virtual
reality and etc. So, it’s potentially high impact technology.
• Several potential applications of BCI hold promise for
rehabilitation and improving performance, such as treating
emotional disorders (for example, depression or anxiety),
easing chronic pain, and overcoming movement disabilities due
• Will enable us to achieve singularity very soon.
• Intense R&D in future to attain intuitive efficiency.
Humans dive into a
virtual world by
brains directly to a
to the fan to blow for
simulating the ball to
 IEEE Xplorer Digital Library website(Through
 Wikipedia - internet encyclopedia
• Sixto Ortiz Jr., "Brain-Computer Interfaces: Where Human and
Machine Meet," Computer, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 17-21, Jan., 2007
• F. Babiloni, A. Cichocki, and S. Gao, eds., special issue, “BrainComputer Interfaces: Towards Practical Implementations and Potential
Applications,” ComputationalIntelligence and Neuroscience, 2007
• P. Sajda, K-R. Mueller, and K.V. Shenoy, eds., special issue, “Brain
Computer Interfaces,” IEEE Signal Processing Magazine,Jan. 2008
• The MIT Press – “Toward Brain-Computer Interfacing”
• Wikipedia, HowStuffWorks and various other website sources…