Functional requirements for bibliographic records & functional requirements for authority data
FRBR & FRAD
● Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records
● In 1990s IFLA Cataloguing Section formed a group to study functional requirements that was
needed for bibliographic records.
● In 1998 final report titled “Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records:Final Report”
was approved by IFLA Standing Committee on Cataloguing.
● Report has 3 parts
○ Description of the model
○ National level bibliographic record for all materials
○ User tasks
○ Structure a framework for data in bibliographic records to be mapped to the user needs
○ Recommend a functionality for records created by national bibliographic agencies
Entities,attributes and relationships
● FRBR follows an entity relationship model.
○ It contains
■ Attributes or characteristics
■ Relationships between entities
Part 1: Entities
Work : intellectual or artistic creation (eg: when you ask who wrote the book)
Expression : realization of the work in the form of text, numericals,musical, sound etc
Manifestation : physical embodiment of the expression
Item : single occurence of the manifestation
Note: Work and expression denote the artistic content of the work. Manifestation and item
describes the physical form.
Wizard boy and
his adventures 1. Text- English
2. Text- Japanese (translation by
3. Musical work as performed
4. Audio- English
1. Copy in ISI Hostel Library.
2. Copy in Delhi Public Library
3. Copy in BHU Library
Relationship between entities of Group 1
Double arrow represents that work can be
realised through multiple expressions
Single arrow represents that
expression can be realised
through one and only one
Entities responsible for the intellectual or artistic content, the physical production and dissemination, or the
custodians of the entities in the first group
Person : individual author or a group of authors
Corporate body: organisation or a collective effort of multiple organisation
Related to the group 1 by the relations:
● (Item) Is owned by
● (Manifestation) is produced by
● (Expression) is realized by
● (Work) is created by
} Person or Corporate Body
Group 3 entities: Concepts, Objects, Events, Places, Group 1 and Group 2 can be the subject of the
Part 2: Attributes
● Attributes are characteristics used to distinguish the entities.
● It is through attributes that the user tasks (discussed later) proceed.
Part 3: Bibliographic Relationships
Apart from the internal relations among the entities, there are other relations:
● Content relationships
○ Equivalent relations - same intellectual content (work, in terms of FRBR)
○ Derivative relations - new expressions (translations, modified etc)
○ Descriptive relations - new work describing the original work (review, criticism etc)
● Whole/part and Part to Part relation
○ Sequential - eg: Harry Potter 1 to Harry Potter 7
○ Accompanying - eg: materials with a C.D or table
○ Companion - eg: material referring to other materials
● Defined user tasks (FRBR) as follow :
○ Find : to find entities, through attributes or relationships, that corresponds to the query
○ Identify : to distinguish and confirm what was found
○ Select : to select the content with respect to content, format etc
○ Obtain : to obtain access to entity through purchase, loan etc
Now that you know what is FRBR, write a short note about the impact of FRBR on
Write 3 examples of Group 1 entities of FRBR
Last date of submission: 3rd September 2019
● Functional Requirements for Authority Data
● Entity - relationship model
● Introduced as an expansion of FRBR in 2004
● Provide a framework for the analysis of requirements for the authority data that is
required to support authority control
● International sharing of authority data.
● Mapping the authority record in the library to various user tasks
● A word or group of words by which an entity is known.
● Includes names by which persons, families, and corporate bodies are known.
● Includes titles by which works, expressions, and manifestations are known.
● Includes names and terms by which concepts, objects, events, and places are known.
● Includes real names, pseudonyms, religious names, initials, and separate letters,
numerals, or symbols.
● A number, code, word, phrase, logo, device, etc., that is associated with an entity, and serves to differentiate
that entity from other entities within the domain in which the identifier is assigned.
● Includes identifiers such as social insurance numbers assigned by a government authority.
● Includes personal identifiers assigned by other registration authorities.
● Includes business registration numbers, registration numbers for charitable organizations, etc., assigned by a
Deﬁnitions -Controlled Access Points
● A name, term, code, etc., under which a bibliographic or authority record or reference
will be found.
● Includes access points based on personal, family, and corporate names.
● Includes access points based on titles (i.e., names) for works, expressions,
manifestations, and items.
● Includes access points consisting of a combination of two access points, as in the case
of a creator/title access point.
Deﬁnitions -Rules and Agency
● Rules - A set of instructions relating to the formulation and/or recording of controlled
● Agency - An organization responsible for creating or modifying a controlled access
point. The agency is responsible for application and interpretation of the rules it
creates and/or uses.
● The attributes as explained in the FRAD is derived from various sources such as
○ Guidelines for Authority Records and References (GARR)
○ UNIMARC Manual – Authorities Format5
○ Mandatory Data Elements for Internationally Shared Resource Authority Records (MLAR)
○ International Standard Archival Authority Record for Corporate Bodies, Persons and Families
● Four broad categories of relationships reflected in authority data.
● The first category comprises the relationships that operate at a generic level between the entity types.
● The second and third categories comprise relationships commonly reflected in the reference structure of the
authority record (i.e., in the references themselves, in information notes, instruction phrases, or cataloguer’s
○ The first of those categories comprises relationships between specific instances of the entities person,
family, corporate body, and work.
○ The second comprises relationships between a specific instance of the entity person, family, corporate
body, or work, on the one hand, and a specific name by which the entity is known.
● The fourth category comprises the relationships between specific instances of the entity controlled access
point reflected in the linking structures embedded in authority records.
● The users of authority data are broadly defined to include:
○ authority data creators who create and maintain authority data;
○ users who use authority information through direct access to authority data or indirectly through the
controlled access points (authorized forms of name, variant forms of name/references, etc.) in
catalogues, national bibliographies, other similar databases, etc.
● Find - Find an entity or set of entities corresponding to stated criteria or to explore the universe of
bibliographic entities using those attributes and relationships.
● Identify - Identify an entity (i.e., to confirm that the entity represented corresponds to the entity sought, to
distinguish between two or more entities with similar characteristics) or to validate the form of name to be
used for a controlled access point.
● Contextualize - Place a person, corporate body, work, etc., in context; clarify the relationship between two or
more persons, corporate bodies, works, etc.; or clarify the relationship between a person, corporate body, etc.,
and a name by which that person, corporate body, etc., is known (e.g., name used in religion versus secular
● Justify - Document the authority data creator’s reason for choosing the name or form of name on which a
controlled access point is based.
● Coyle, K., & Hillmann, D. (2007, January/February). Resource Description and Access (RDA): Cataloging Rules for the 20th
Century. Retrieved September 19, 2018, from http://dlib.org/dlib/january07/coyle/01coyle.html
● Functional Requirements for Authority Data. (2019). In Wikipedia. Retrieved from
● Hamburger, S. (2011). Functional Requirements for Authority Data: A Conceptual Model: Ed. by Glenn E. Patton. IFLA
Working Group on Functional Requirements and Numbering of Authority Records, Final Report December 2008. IFLA Series
on Bibliographic Control, 34. Munich: K.G. Saur, 2009. 101 pp. US$77.00 hard cover ISBN: 9783598242823. Library
Collections, Acquisitions, & Technical Services, 35(1), 41. https://doi.org/10.1080/14649055.2011.10766293
● Oliver, C. (2010). Introducing RDA: A guide to the basics. Chicago: American Library Association.
● Oliver, C. (n.d.). RDA: a quick introduction. 63.
● Zhang, Y., & Salaba, A. (2009). Implementing FRBR in libraries key issues and future directions. New York: Neal-Schuman.