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ABOUT SCANNING &
METADATA STANDARDS



 William (Bill) Miller & Michael Howser
       University of Connecticut Libraries
...
OUTLINE

• Introduction

• Scanning: A   Holistic View

• Project   Planning

• Metadata: A Three-fold   approach

• Provi...
WHAT IS MAGIC?

•   University of Connecticut Libraries Map and Geographic
    Information Center - MAGIC

•   200,000+ ma...
2009
       magic.lib.uconn.edu
MAGIC STAFF
•   William (Bill) Miller – Map Library Manager

•   Michael Howser – Undergraduate Education & GIS Librarian
...
SCANNING
A Holistic Approach
COPYRIGHT & SCANNING
• Key   things to consider:

 • Government Agency          vs Private Company

 • Pre-1924    materia...
RESEARCH... THIS COULD TAKE AWHILE


• May   need to contact libraries, publishers...

• Look     for atlases, books and s...
OAISTER




      oaister.worldcat.org
GOOGLE BOOKS
DAVID RUMSEY?




           davidrumsey.com
WHAT DOES RUMSEY OFFER?

• High   quality historical maps

• Includes   Metadata

• International   Collection

• Download...
INTERNET ARCHIVE




               archive.org
WHY INTERNET ARCHIVE?

• Atlases!

• Books    which relate to maps

• Free, downloadable   content

• Higher   quality tha...
READY TO SCAN?
WORKSPACE

• Create   workspace with:

   • space   to spread out maps (may need to flatten)

   • dim   lighting (for flatb...
SCANNING EQUIPMENT

• Select   the right equipment for the task

  • Flatbed

  • Large   format continuous feed

  • Over...
FLATBED SCANNER
LARGE FORMAT SCANNER
OVERHEAD SCANNING
SOFTWARE
VUESCAN




    http://www.hamrick.com/
WHY VUESCAN?

• Multiple   scanners with one interface!

• Low-cost    $79.95 (professional)

• Multiple   export options ...
EDITING SOFTWARE


• Gimp   - Open Source image editing software

• Adobe   Fireworks - basic editing & batch processing

...
HARDWARE
WORKSTATION SETUP

• 4GB    RAM or more

• 512MB    video card (dedicated) minimum

• Consider   dual screens (2 - 19” mon...
STORAGE
• Short Term

 • 1-3   days - local computer hard drive

• Long Term

 • Networked, backed     up storage solution...
STORAGE CONCERNS

• Bit   rot!

  • DVDs, CDs, digital     files all potential victims

  • Important     to have back-ups
...
LET’S DISCUSS YOUR
DIGITIZATION SETUP
IMAGE FORMATS
FORMATS - TIFF

• Lossless   (uncompressed)

• Readable    in Photoshop and most image editing programs

• Enables    Exif...
FORMATS - JPEG2000

• Lossy   and Lossless file format (depending on settings)

• New     standard for JPEG images - preser...
FORMATS - PNG

• Improves    upon and replaces GIF format

• Supports    transparency

• Lossless   image format

• Does  ...
FORMATS - PDF

• Lossy   or lossless format (depending on settings)

• Includes   GeoPDF option - includes coordinate data...
LET’S DISCUSS YOUR
DIGITIZATION SETTINGS
PROJECT PLANNING
PLANNING THE PROJECT
• Material   Selection            • Equipment    & Costs

  • What     area(s) are the       • Studen...
USAGE

• UseGoogle Analytics to determine frequently searched for
 items

• What   are users asking for most frequently?

...
GOOGLE ANALYTICS
USER INPUT

• Survey   to find out what users want to see

• Provide    a series of options - help prioritize

• Colorful  ...
COLLABORATIVE DIGITIZATION


• Share   scanners

• Divide   and conquer faster!

• Avoid    gaps in the collection

• Shar...
LET’S DISCUSS PROJECT IDEAS
METADATA
WHY?

• Data about data to help others understand the map, dataset
 or resource

• Creates   a “digital history” for the d...
THOUGHTS?
METADATA - OPTIONS

• MARC   Records - traditional option for maps, integral part of
 library catalogs

• FGDC  Metadata -...
MARC RECORDS
MARC - PROS AND CONS
• Essential   for library catalog

• Enables    bounding box data to be added

• Can   be migrated to...
MARC TO XML




 http://www.lib.umn.edu/apps/maphappy/
FGDC METADATA

• Federal
        Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) guidelines for
 metadata creation

• FGDC    Quick Guide...
FGDC METADATA TOOLS


• ArcCatalog is the preferred FGDC metadata creator for GIS
 professionals

• Becomes    part of the...
LIVE DEMO -
ARCCATALOG 9.3
EXIF DATA
WHY EXIF DATA
• Enables   you to embed:   • Editing   options

 • Author                     • Adobe     Photoshop

 • Usa...
EXIF DATA LIVE DEMO
WHAT ARE YOUR METADATA
        NEEDS?
PROVIDING ACCESS
CONTENT DM MODEL
CONTENT DM PROS & CONS


• Are   you using Content DM?

• Likes/Dislikes

• Map   limitations?
LIBRARY OF CONGRESS
DAVID RUMSEY MODEL




         http://www.davidrumsey.com/
MAGIC’S HYBRID MODEL




           http://magic.lib.uconn.edu
FLICKR FOR MAPS?
• $24.95   / year for unlimited space (20 MB per file or less)

• Includes   creative commons licensing op...
FLICKR
RETHINK COPYRIGHT




         http://creativecommons.org/
ACCESS OPTIONS?


• How   are you providing access now?

• What   are the limitations?

• What   would you like to enable ...
LET’S PLAN A PROJECT
QUESTIONS?
THANKS!
• Contact   us at:            • William   (Bill) Miller

 • magic@uconn.edu            • Michael   Howser




   I...
About Scanning and Metadata Standards - NEMO 2010
About Scanning and Metadata Standards - NEMO 2010
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About Scanning and Metadata Standards - NEMO 2010

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Presented at the New England Map Organization conference on June 3, 2010 at the University of Southern Maine in Portland, Maine.

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About Scanning and Metadata Standards - NEMO 2010

  1. 1. ABOUT SCANNING & METADATA STANDARDS William (Bill) Miller & Michael Howser University of Connecticut Libraries Map and Geographic Information Center - MAGIC
  2. 2. OUTLINE • Introduction • Scanning: A Holistic View • Project Planning • Metadata: A Three-fold approach • Providing Access
  3. 3. WHAT IS MAGIC? • University of Connecticut Libraries Map and Geographic Information Center - MAGIC • 200,000+ maps, aerial photos, and atlases • Focus on providing public access to maps and geographic information for Connecticut and surrounding region
  4. 4. 2009 magic.lib.uconn.edu
  5. 5. MAGIC STAFF • William (Bill) Miller – Map Library Manager • Michael Howser – Undergraduate Education & GIS Librarian • George Bentley – Map Digitization • Curtis Denton – Map Digitization • Jeffrey Dunn – Aerial Imagery & Education • Cary Lynch – NEH Digital Project Manager • Joshua Strunk – Metadata Specialist
  6. 6. SCANNING A Holistic Approach
  7. 7. COPYRIGHT & SCANNING • Key things to consider: • Government Agency vs Private Company • Pre-1924 materials • Copy or original • Cartographer and Publisher • Year of material
  8. 8. RESEARCH... THIS COULD TAKE AWHILE • May need to contact libraries, publishers... • Look for atlases, books and supporting materials • Verify if an item has been scanned - Google Books, Internet Archive, OAIster, Google, David Rumsey, Flickr, Local Libraries • Explore the drawers - could be part of a series
  9. 9. OAISTER oaister.worldcat.org
  10. 10. GOOGLE BOOKS
  11. 11. DAVID RUMSEY? davidrumsey.com
  12. 12. WHAT DOES RUMSEY OFFER? • High quality historical maps • Includes Metadata • International Collection • Downloadable images - in SID format
  13. 13. INTERNET ARCHIVE archive.org
  14. 14. WHY INTERNET ARCHIVE? • Atlases! • Books which relate to maps • Free, downloadable content • Higher quality than Google Books - especially for maps!
  15. 15. READY TO SCAN?
  16. 16. WORKSPACE • Create workspace with: • space to spread out maps (may need to flatten) • dim lighting (for flatbed scanning) • some humidity - will help avoid damage to materials • good ventilation - some maps may have an “aroma”
  17. 17. SCANNING EQUIPMENT • Select the right equipment for the task • Flatbed • Large format continuous feed • Overhead photography
  18. 18. FLATBED SCANNER
  19. 19. LARGE FORMAT SCANNER
  20. 20. OVERHEAD SCANNING
  21. 21. SOFTWARE
  22. 22. VUESCAN http://www.hamrick.com/
  23. 23. WHY VUESCAN? • Multiple scanners with one interface! • Low-cost $79.95 (professional) • Multiple export options - TIFF, RAW, PDF, JPEG.... • Mac & PC compatiable
  24. 24. EDITING SOFTWARE • Gimp - Open Source image editing software • Adobe Fireworks - basic editing & batch processing • Adobe Photoshop - for advanced editing & batch processing
  25. 25. HARDWARE
  26. 26. WORKSTATION SETUP • 4GB RAM or more • 512MB video card (dedicated) minimum • Consider dual screens (2 - 19” monitors) • Hard drive space - minimum 320GB
  27. 27. STORAGE • Short Term • 1-3 days - local computer hard drive • Long Term • Networked, backed up storage solution • Able to grow with your digitization storage needs • Backup to remote location (tape or mirrored)
  28. 28. STORAGE CONCERNS • Bit rot! • DVDs, CDs, digital files all potential victims • Important to have back-ups • Migrate data to verify • Think you don’t have this? Chances are you do or will soon!
  29. 29. LET’S DISCUSS YOUR DIGITIZATION SETUP
  30. 30. IMAGE FORMATS
  31. 31. FORMATS - TIFF • Lossless (uncompressed) • Readable in Photoshop and most image editing programs • Enables Exif data storage • Gold standard for archival master copies • GeoTIFF includes geo-location data
  32. 32. FORMATS - JPEG2000 • Lossy and Lossless file format (depending on settings) • New standard for JPEG images - preserves color varations • Reduced file size • Requires Adobe Photoshop and other image software to view • Exif data supported
  33. 33. FORMATS - PNG • Improves upon and replaces GIF format • Supports transparency • Lossless image format • Does not support Exif data • Good for derivatives, not for archival masters
  34. 34. FORMATS - PDF • Lossy or lossless format (depending on settings) • Includes GeoPDF option - includes coordinate data • Can include multiple layers • Optimized for vector data (text) • Good for deliverables depending on setting
  35. 35. LET’S DISCUSS YOUR DIGITIZATION SETTINGS
  36. 36. PROJECT PLANNING
  37. 37. PLANNING THE PROJECT • Material Selection • Equipment & Costs • What area(s) are the • Student labor? focus? • Scanning equipment • High Use Items? • Storage? • Potential High Use Items? • Timeline? • Digitize to Preserve? • Funding Options?
  38. 38. USAGE • UseGoogle Analytics to determine frequently searched for items • What are users asking for most frequently? • Are there unique items you want to showcase? • Digitization can lead to increased usage and help preserve the original
  39. 39. GOOGLE ANALYTICS
  40. 40. USER INPUT • Survey to find out what users want to see • Provide a series of options - help prioritize • Colorful maps will likely generate more interest initially • Think about themes... transportation, census, topographic...
  41. 41. COLLABORATIVE DIGITIZATION • Share scanners • Divide and conquer faster! • Avoid gaps in the collection • Share archival maters
  42. 42. LET’S DISCUSS PROJECT IDEAS
  43. 43. METADATA
  44. 44. WHY? • Data about data to help others understand the map, dataset or resource • Creates a “digital history” for the dataset • Enables Web 3.0?
  45. 45. THOUGHTS?
  46. 46. METADATA - OPTIONS • MARC Records - traditional option for maps, integral part of library catalogs • FGDC Metadata - includes details on data attributes, data creation notes, and in-depth details • Exif data - available for some image formats (TIFF, JPEG, JPEG 2000)
  47. 47. MARC RECORDS
  48. 48. MARC - PROS AND CONS • Essential for library catalog • Enables bounding box data to be added • Can be migrated to other formats (XML) • Flexible - multiple subjects, coordinates, and other location related data options. • Good place to start!
  49. 49. MARC TO XML http://www.lib.umn.edu/apps/maphappy/
  50. 50. FGDC METADATA • Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) guidelines for metadata creation • FGDC Quick Guide (9 pages) includes key elements • Providesflexibility for creating metadata for datasets, aerial photos, satellite images and more • Use others examples to guide development
  51. 51. FGDC METADATA TOOLS • ArcCatalog is the preferred FGDC metadata creator for GIS professionals • Becomes part of the “workflow” and establishes good practices
  52. 52. LIVE DEMO - ARCCATALOG 9.3
  53. 53. EXIF DATA
  54. 54. WHY EXIF DATA • Enables you to embed: • Editing options • Author • Adobe Photoshop • Usage restrictions • Some open source solutions • Notes • Can be batch processed • Date • Add location data
  55. 55. EXIF DATA LIVE DEMO
  56. 56. WHAT ARE YOUR METADATA NEEDS?
  57. 57. PROVIDING ACCESS
  58. 58. CONTENT DM MODEL
  59. 59. CONTENT DM PROS & CONS • Are you using Content DM? • Likes/Dislikes • Map limitations?
  60. 60. LIBRARY OF CONGRESS
  61. 61. DAVID RUMSEY MODEL http://www.davidrumsey.com/
  62. 62. MAGIC’S HYBRID MODEL http://magic.lib.uconn.edu
  63. 63. FLICKR FOR MAPS? • $24.95 / year for unlimited space (20 MB per file or less) • Includes creative commons licensing options • Metadata can be added • Usage Statistics per item & per 28 days • Excellent “Discovery” tool • Can enable download of maps
  64. 64. FLICKR
  65. 65. RETHINK COPYRIGHT http://creativecommons.org/
  66. 66. ACCESS OPTIONS? • How are you providing access now? • What are the limitations? • What would you like to enable your users to do?
  67. 67. LET’S PLAN A PROJECT
  68. 68. QUESTIONS?
  69. 69. THANKS! • Contact us at: • William (Bill) Miller • magic@uconn.edu • Michael Howser Interested in Collaborating on a Digitization Project? Contact us

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