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ABOUT SCANNING &
METADATA STANDARDS



 William (Bill) Miller & Michael Howser
       University of Connecticut Libraries
Map and Geographic Information Center - MAGIC
OUTLINE

• Introduction

• Scanning: A   Holistic View

• Project   Planning

• Metadata: A Three-fold   approach

• Providing Access
WHAT IS MAGIC?

•   University of Connecticut Libraries Map and Geographic
    Information Center - MAGIC

•   200,000+ maps, aerial photos, and atlases

•   Focus on providing public access to maps and geographic
    information for Connecticut and surrounding region
2009
       magic.lib.uconn.edu
MAGIC STAFF
•   William (Bill) Miller – Map Library Manager

•   Michael Howser – Undergraduate Education & GIS Librarian

•   George Bentley – Map Digitization

•   Curtis Denton – Map Digitization

•   Jeffrey Dunn – Aerial Imagery & Education

•   Cary Lynch – NEH Digital Project Manager

•   Joshua Strunk – Metadata Specialist
SCANNING
A Holistic Approach
COPYRIGHT & SCANNING
• Key   things to consider:

 • Government Agency          vs Private Company

 • Pre-1924    materials

 • Copy    or original

 • Cartographer     and Publisher

 • Year   of material
RESEARCH... THIS COULD TAKE AWHILE


• May   need to contact libraries, publishers...

• Look     for atlases, books and supporting materials

• Verify
       if an item has been scanned - Google Books, Internet
 Archive, OAIster, Google, David Rumsey, Flickr, Local Libraries

• Explore    the drawers - could be part of a series
OAISTER




      oaister.worldcat.org
GOOGLE BOOKS
DAVID RUMSEY?




           davidrumsey.com
WHAT DOES RUMSEY OFFER?

• High   quality historical maps

• Includes   Metadata

• International   Collection

• Downloadable      images - in SID format
INTERNET ARCHIVE




               archive.org
WHY INTERNET ARCHIVE?

• Atlases!

• Books    which relate to maps

• Free, downloadable   content

• Higher   quality than Google Books - especially for maps!
READY TO SCAN?
WORKSPACE

• Create   workspace with:

   • space   to spread out maps (may need to flatten)

   • dim   lighting (for flatbed scanning)

   • some    humidity - will help avoid damage to materials

   • good    ventilation - some maps may have an “aroma”
SCANNING EQUIPMENT

• Select   the right equipment for the task

  • Flatbed

  • Large   format continuous feed

  • Overhead     photography
FLATBED SCANNER
LARGE FORMAT SCANNER
OVERHEAD SCANNING
SOFTWARE
VUESCAN




    http://www.hamrick.com/
WHY VUESCAN?

• Multiple   scanners with one interface!

• Low-cost    $79.95 (professional)

• Multiple   export options - TIFF, RAW, PDF, JPEG....

• Mac   & PC compatiable
EDITING SOFTWARE


• Gimp   - Open Source image editing software

• Adobe   Fireworks - basic editing & batch processing

• Adobe   Photoshop - for advanced editing & batch processing
HARDWARE
WORKSTATION SETUP

• 4GB    RAM or more

• 512MB    video card (dedicated) minimum

• Consider   dual screens (2 - 19” monitors)

• Hard   drive space - minimum 320GB
STORAGE
• Short Term

 • 1-3   days - local computer hard drive

• Long Term

 • Networked, backed     up storage solution

 • Able   to grow with your digitization storage needs

 • Backup   to remote location (tape or mirrored)
STORAGE CONCERNS

• Bit   rot!

  • DVDs, CDs, digital     files all potential victims

  • Important     to have back-ups

  • Migrate     data to verify

• Think    you don’t have this? Chances are you do or will soon!
LET’S DISCUSS YOUR
DIGITIZATION SETUP
IMAGE FORMATS
FORMATS - TIFF

• Lossless   (uncompressed)

• Readable    in Photoshop and most image editing programs

• Enables    Exif data storage

• Gold   standard for archival master copies

• GeoTIFF     includes geo-location data
FORMATS - JPEG2000

• Lossy   and Lossless file format (depending on settings)

• New     standard for JPEG images - preserves color varations

• Reduced    file size

• Requires Adobe        Photoshop and other image software to view

• Exif   data supported
FORMATS - PNG

• Improves    upon and replaces GIF format

• Supports    transparency

• Lossless   image format

• Does   not support Exif data

• Good   for derivatives, not for archival masters
FORMATS - PDF

• Lossy   or lossless format (depending on settings)

• Includes   GeoPDF option - includes coordinate data

• Can   include multiple layers

• Optimized    for vector data (text)

• Good    for deliverables depending on setting
LET’S DISCUSS YOUR
DIGITIZATION SETTINGS
PROJECT PLANNING
PLANNING THE PROJECT
• Material   Selection            • Equipment    & Costs

  • What     area(s) are the       • Student    labor?
   focus?
                                   • Scanning    equipment
  • High   Use Items?
                                   • Storage?
  • Potential   High Use Items?
                                   • Timeline?
  • Digitize   to Preserve?
                                   • Funding    Options?
USAGE

• UseGoogle Analytics to determine frequently searched for
 items

• What   are users asking for most frequently?

• Are   there unique items you want to showcase?

• Digitization   can lead to increased usage and help preserve the
 original
GOOGLE ANALYTICS
USER INPUT

• Survey   to find out what users want to see

• Provide    a series of options - help prioritize

• Colorful   maps will likely generate more interest initially

• Think   about themes... transportation, census, topographic...
COLLABORATIVE DIGITIZATION


• Share   scanners

• Divide   and conquer faster!

• Avoid    gaps in the collection

• Share   archival maters
LET’S DISCUSS PROJECT IDEAS
METADATA
WHY?

• Data about data to help others understand the map, dataset
 or resource

• Creates   a “digital history” for the dataset

• Enables Web    3.0?
THOUGHTS?
METADATA - OPTIONS

• MARC   Records - traditional option for maps, integral part of
 library catalogs

• FGDC  Metadata - includes details on data attributes, data
 creation notes, and in-depth details

• Exif
    data - available for some image formats (TIFF, JPEG, JPEG
 2000)
MARC RECORDS
MARC - PROS AND CONS
• Essential   for library catalog

• Enables    bounding box data to be added

• Can   be migrated to other formats (XML)

• Flexible
         - multiple subjects, coordinates, and other location
 related data options.

• Good   place to start!
MARC TO XML




 http://www.lib.umn.edu/apps/maphappy/
FGDC METADATA

• Federal
        Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) guidelines for
 metadata creation

• FGDC    Quick Guide (9 pages) includes key elements

• Providesflexibility for creating metadata for datasets, aerial
 photos, satellite images and more

• Use   others examples to guide development
FGDC METADATA TOOLS


• ArcCatalog is the preferred FGDC metadata creator for GIS
 professionals

• Becomes    part of the “workflow” and establishes good
 practices
LIVE DEMO -
ARCCATALOG 9.3
EXIF DATA
WHY EXIF DATA
• Enables   you to embed:   • Editing   options

 • Author                     • Adobe     Photoshop

 • Usage    restrictions      • Some  open source
                               solutions
 • Notes
                              • Can     be batch processed
 • Date

 • Add    location data
EXIF DATA LIVE DEMO
WHAT ARE YOUR METADATA
        NEEDS?
PROVIDING ACCESS
CONTENT DM MODEL
CONTENT DM PROS & CONS


• Are   you using Content DM?

• Likes/Dislikes

• Map   limitations?
LIBRARY OF CONGRESS
DAVID RUMSEY MODEL




         http://www.davidrumsey.com/
MAGIC’S HYBRID MODEL




           http://magic.lib.uconn.edu
FLICKR FOR MAPS?
• $24.95   / year for unlimited space (20 MB per file or less)

• Includes   creative commons licensing options

• Metadata    can be added

• Usage   Statistics per item & per 28 days

• Excellent “Discovery” tool

• Can   enable download of maps
FLICKR
RETHINK COPYRIGHT




         http://creativecommons.org/
ACCESS OPTIONS?


• How   are you providing access now?

• What   are the limitations?

• What   would you like to enable your users to do?
LET’S PLAN A PROJECT
QUESTIONS?
THANKS!
• Contact   us at:            • William   (Bill) Miller

 • magic@uconn.edu            • Michael   Howser




   Interested in Collaborating on a
   Digitization Project? Contact us

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About Scanning and Metadata Standards - NEMO 2010

  • 1. ABOUT SCANNING & METADATA STANDARDS William (Bill) Miller & Michael Howser University of Connecticut Libraries Map and Geographic Information Center - MAGIC
  • 2. OUTLINE • Introduction • Scanning: A Holistic View • Project Planning • Metadata: A Three-fold approach • Providing Access
  • 3. WHAT IS MAGIC? • University of Connecticut Libraries Map and Geographic Information Center - MAGIC • 200,000+ maps, aerial photos, and atlases • Focus on providing public access to maps and geographic information for Connecticut and surrounding region
  • 4. 2009 magic.lib.uconn.edu
  • 5. MAGIC STAFF • William (Bill) Miller – Map Library Manager • Michael Howser – Undergraduate Education & GIS Librarian • George Bentley – Map Digitization • Curtis Denton – Map Digitization • Jeffrey Dunn – Aerial Imagery & Education • Cary Lynch – NEH Digital Project Manager • Joshua Strunk – Metadata Specialist
  • 7. COPYRIGHT & SCANNING • Key things to consider: • Government Agency vs Private Company • Pre-1924 materials • Copy or original • Cartographer and Publisher • Year of material
  • 8. RESEARCH... THIS COULD TAKE AWHILE • May need to contact libraries, publishers... • Look for atlases, books and supporting materials • Verify if an item has been scanned - Google Books, Internet Archive, OAIster, Google, David Rumsey, Flickr, Local Libraries • Explore the drawers - could be part of a series
  • 9. OAISTER oaister.worldcat.org
  • 10.
  • 12. DAVID RUMSEY? davidrumsey.com
  • 13. WHAT DOES RUMSEY OFFER? • High quality historical maps • Includes Metadata • International Collection • Downloadable images - in SID format
  • 14. INTERNET ARCHIVE archive.org
  • 15. WHY INTERNET ARCHIVE? • Atlases! • Books which relate to maps • Free, downloadable content • Higher quality than Google Books - especially for maps!
  • 17. WORKSPACE • Create workspace with: • space to spread out maps (may need to flatten) • dim lighting (for flatbed scanning) • some humidity - will help avoid damage to materials • good ventilation - some maps may have an “aroma”
  • 18. SCANNING EQUIPMENT • Select the right equipment for the task • Flatbed • Large format continuous feed • Overhead photography
  • 23. VUESCAN http://www.hamrick.com/
  • 24. WHY VUESCAN? • Multiple scanners with one interface! • Low-cost $79.95 (professional) • Multiple export options - TIFF, RAW, PDF, JPEG.... • Mac & PC compatiable
  • 25. EDITING SOFTWARE • Gimp - Open Source image editing software • Adobe Fireworks - basic editing & batch processing • Adobe Photoshop - for advanced editing & batch processing
  • 27. WORKSTATION SETUP • 4GB RAM or more • 512MB video card (dedicated) minimum • Consider dual screens (2 - 19” monitors) • Hard drive space - minimum 320GB
  • 28. STORAGE • Short Term • 1-3 days - local computer hard drive • Long Term • Networked, backed up storage solution • Able to grow with your digitization storage needs • Backup to remote location (tape or mirrored)
  • 29. STORAGE CONCERNS • Bit rot! • DVDs, CDs, digital files all potential victims • Important to have back-ups • Migrate data to verify • Think you don’t have this? Chances are you do or will soon!
  • 32. FORMATS - TIFF • Lossless (uncompressed) • Readable in Photoshop and most image editing programs • Enables Exif data storage • Gold standard for archival master copies • GeoTIFF includes geo-location data
  • 33. FORMATS - JPEG2000 • Lossy and Lossless file format (depending on settings) • New standard for JPEG images - preserves color varations • Reduced file size • Requires Adobe Photoshop and other image software to view • Exif data supported
  • 34. FORMATS - PNG • Improves upon and replaces GIF format • Supports transparency • Lossless image format • Does not support Exif data • Good for derivatives, not for archival masters
  • 35. FORMATS - PDF • Lossy or lossless format (depending on settings) • Includes GeoPDF option - includes coordinate data • Can include multiple layers • Optimized for vector data (text) • Good for deliverables depending on setting
  • 38. PLANNING THE PROJECT • Material Selection • Equipment & Costs • What area(s) are the • Student labor? focus? • Scanning equipment • High Use Items? • Storage? • Potential High Use Items? • Timeline? • Digitize to Preserve? • Funding Options?
  • 39. USAGE • UseGoogle Analytics to determine frequently searched for items • What are users asking for most frequently? • Are there unique items you want to showcase? • Digitization can lead to increased usage and help preserve the original
  • 41. USER INPUT • Survey to find out what users want to see • Provide a series of options - help prioritize • Colorful maps will likely generate more interest initially • Think about themes... transportation, census, topographic...
  • 42. COLLABORATIVE DIGITIZATION • Share scanners • Divide and conquer faster! • Avoid gaps in the collection • Share archival maters
  • 45. WHY? • Data about data to help others understand the map, dataset or resource • Creates a “digital history” for the dataset • Enables Web 3.0?
  • 46.
  • 48. METADATA - OPTIONS • MARC Records - traditional option for maps, integral part of library catalogs • FGDC Metadata - includes details on data attributes, data creation notes, and in-depth details • Exif data - available for some image formats (TIFF, JPEG, JPEG 2000)
  • 50. MARC - PROS AND CONS • Essential for library catalog • Enables bounding box data to be added • Can be migrated to other formats (XML) • Flexible - multiple subjects, coordinates, and other location related data options. • Good place to start!
  • 51. MARC TO XML http://www.lib.umn.edu/apps/maphappy/
  • 52. FGDC METADATA • Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) guidelines for metadata creation • FGDC Quick Guide (9 pages) includes key elements • Providesflexibility for creating metadata for datasets, aerial photos, satellite images and more • Use others examples to guide development
  • 53. FGDC METADATA TOOLS • ArcCatalog is the preferred FGDC metadata creator for GIS professionals • Becomes part of the “workflow” and establishes good practices
  • 56. WHY EXIF DATA • Enables you to embed: • Editing options • Author • Adobe Photoshop • Usage restrictions • Some open source solutions • Notes • Can be batch processed • Date • Add location data
  • 58. WHAT ARE YOUR METADATA NEEDS?
  • 61. CONTENT DM PROS & CONS • Are you using Content DM? • Likes/Dislikes • Map limitations?
  • 63. DAVID RUMSEY MODEL http://www.davidrumsey.com/
  • 64. MAGIC’S HYBRID MODEL http://magic.lib.uconn.edu
  • 65. FLICKR FOR MAPS? • $24.95 / year for unlimited space (20 MB per file or less) • Includes creative commons licensing options • Metadata can be added • Usage Statistics per item & per 28 days • Excellent “Discovery” tool • Can enable download of maps
  • 67. RETHINK COPYRIGHT http://creativecommons.org/
  • 68. ACCESS OPTIONS? • How are you providing access now? • What are the limitations? • What would you like to enable your users to do?
  • 69. LET’S PLAN A PROJECT
  • 71. THANKS! • Contact us at: • William (Bill) Miller • magic@uconn.edu • Michael Howser Interested in Collaborating on a Digitization Project? Contact us