Master thesis 2011.12.21

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Master thesis 2011.12.21

  1. 1. FACULTY OF ENGINEERING POLO REGIONALE DI LECCOMASTER OF SCIENCE IN ARCHITECTURAL ENGINEERING RELATORE PROF. MASSIMO TADI CO-REELATOR PROF. GABRIELE MASERA MASTER THESIS BY: ABDUXUKUR . ZAYIT 751975 Academic year 2010/2011
  2. 2. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTWe would like to mention all those who contributed their efforts to write this master‘s thesis.We thank to PROF. GABRIELE MASERA, PROF. MASSIMO TADI, PROF. DANILOPALAZZO, and PROF. LIBERATO FERRARA for their willingness and valuable advice toface the difficulties during the development of this thesis. i
  3. 3. ABSTRACTPiacenza is a city and comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy. It is thecapital of the province of Piacenza.Strategically the city is at a major crossroads at the intersection of Route E35/A1between Bologna, gateway to eastern Italy, and Milan, gateway to the Alps, and RouteE70/A21 between Brescia at the foot of the Alps and Tortona, where branches leadto Turin in the north, a major industrial city, and Genoa, a major coastal port. Piacenza is alsoat the confluence of the Trebbia, draining the northern Apennines, and the Po, the majorwaterway of northern Italy, draining to the east. Piacenza right from its foundation has beenof vital interest to political powers that would control northern Italy, more than any other citythere.Piacenza is, in fact the ideal venue for an initiative focused on architectural, urban andenvironmental problems, both for the size of its scenic, landscape, artistic and monumentalwealth and for the wide range of case-studies available, as well as for its solid traditions inthe building sector.Program was to interconnect the landscape, urban spaces and architectural design of libraryintegration with towards positive energy.Urban planning was done by using the roman grid and tried to provide the facility spacesaccording to integrated, interactive and interscalar architectural –urban- environmentalconcept. While the Architecture design of Library we developed the brief by studying thelibraries present in Italy and abroad with respect to number of books and area. i
  4. 4. MSc In Architectural Engineering___________________________________________________________________________INDEXAcknowledgementAbstract1-Introduction ...................................................................................... 12- Urban Context ................................................................................. 4 2.1-Italy ..................................................................................................................................5 2.2-Emilia–Romagna ..............................................................................................................6 2.3- Brief History of Urban Development in Piacenza ..........................................................7 2.3.1-The reconstruction of the city ..................................................................................12 2.3.2-The urban genetic code............................................................................................14 2.4- Analysis about Current City of Piacenza ......................................................................15 2.4.1- The Geographic Context ........................................................................................15 2.4.2-Population ................................................................................................................17 2.4.3 – The Socio- Economic System ...............................................................................30 2.4.4- Strategic Plan ..........................................................................................................31 2.5- Piacenza‘s network........................................................................................................36 2.6-Physical-morphological aspects .....................................................................................47 2.7-Local conditions, scope, borders, limits .........................................................................50 2.8-Conclusion .....................................................................................................................553-Urban Design ................................................................................. 56 3.1-Project Area ....................................................................................................................58 3.2-Site Comparison .............................................................................................................63 3.3-Site Analysis ..................................................................................................................64___________________________________________________________________________ i
  5. 5. MSc In Architectural Engineering___________________________________________________________________________ 3.4-SWOT Analysis .............................................................................................................67 3.5-Project Scope..................................................................................................................68 3.5.1- project Objective ....................................................................................................68 3.5.2- Master plan .............................................................................................................69 3.5.3- Master plan Analysis ..............................................................................................734- Architectural Design ..................................................................... 85 4.1- Library ...........................................................................................................................86 4.1.1-Library in History ....................................................................................................86 4.1.2- Classifications of Library .......................................................................................91 4.2- Project Objective ...........................................................................................................91 4.3- Research Example for Reference ..................................................................................95 4.3.1-Piacenza Libraries ...................................................................................................95 4.3.2-Biblioteca Civica, Prato ...........................................................................................98 4.3.3-New Public library in Pontivy, France ....................................................................98 4.3.4- Public Library Kelsterbach, Germany ..................................................................101 4.3.5- Jaume Fuster Library, Spain .................................................................................102 4.3.6- Surry Hills Library, Australia ...............................................................................103 4.4-Architectural Design ....................................................................................................106 4.5 Concept and Drawings ..............................................................................................1105-Structural Design ......................................................................... 132 5.1-Introduction ..................................................................................................................133 5.2-Load Calculations ........................................................................................................135 5.3-Slab...............................................................................................................................143___________________________________________________________________________ ii
  6. 6. MSc In Architectural Engineering___________________________________________________________________________ 5.4-Beams ...........................................................................................................................149 5.5-Columns .......................................................................................................................157 5.6-Foundation ...................................................................................................................1646- Building Physics .......................................................................... 167 6.1-Climate .........................................................................................................................168 6.2-Analysis for Climate ....................................................................................................1747- Technological Design .................................................................. 181 7.1- Towards Positive Energy ............................................................................................182 7.2- Energy Trends .............................................................................................................183 7.2.1- Examples of definitions for low energy building standards .................................187 7.2.2- Passive house and equivalent concepts ................................................................188 7.2.3- Zero energy houses/zero carbon houses ...............................................................189 7.2.4- Energy positive Building ......................................................................................190 7.3-Design Pathways ..........................................................................................................190 7.4-Thermal Comfort ..........................................................................................................193 7.5-U-Values and Glazer Diagrams ...................................................................................197 7.6-Materials and Technology ............................................................................................204 7.7-Modeling of building....................................................................................................212 7.8- Heat Energy and Cooling Demand .............................................................................220 7.9-Lighting ........................................................................................................................225References........................................................................................ 132___________________________________________________________________________ iii
  7. 7. MSc In Architectural Engineering___________________________________________________________________________ CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION___________________________________________________________________________ 1
  8. 8. MSc In Architectural Engineering___________________________________________________________________________1-INTRODUCTION Italy is located in Southern Europe, a peninsula extending into the central Mediterranean Sea, northeast of Tunisia. Its terrain is mostly rugged and mountainous; with some plains, coastal lowlands and a predominantly Mediterranean climate. The choice of Piacenza as seat of the International Summer School stems, among other things, from the analysis of its territory, an extraordinary case- study in terms of issues and topics related to architectural design and construction of public spaces in contemporary cities. The international Summer school competition was divided in three parts and we selected the first part of the competition. 1st part was to redevelop (treatment of this complex area through a sequence of buildings and open spaces and connection with the historical city of Piacenza Our goal was to start with the following points and to select one building which is library for architectural design. - The relationship between the river and the city; in particular, the areas on the Po river bank - The relationship of urban spaces with architectural design. - The relationship between the city centers The common denominator is the ―ar chitectural design of open spaces‖, which can be seen today as a ―m ultidisciplinary practice‖, affecting several interconnected and closely related architectural scales: from landscape architecture to planning, from the architectural design of public spaces to connections architecture, from the design of architectural components to the study of contemporary aesthetic scenarios. The particular attention to environmental and open space issues is part of a theoretical-operational debate, focusing on the promotion of architectural urban and territorial contexts in terms of resources sustainability and environmental impact in order to consonance complementarity and impact,___________________________________________________________________________ 2
  9. 9. MSc In Architectural Engineering___________________________________________________________________________ reach high levels of consonance, integration among the architectural-urban requirements and the distinctive traits of the locations. For architectural design, the competition did not provide any brief for architectural building so for our urban part we selected architectural design of Public library and we developed a brief while studying various libraries located in Italy and abroad. After that we studied different energy aspects to develop the technological part of library and finally we developed the project according to approach towards positive energy and other possible aspects of the project.___________________________________________________________________________ 3
  10. 10. MSc In Architectural Engineering___________________________________________________________________________ CHAPTER 2 URBAN CONTEXT___________________________________________________________________________ 4
  11. 11. MSc In Architectural Engineering___________________________________________________________________________2- URBAN CONTEXT2.1-Italy Italy, officially the Italian Republic (Italian: Repubblica italiana), is a country located in south central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and Slovenia along the Alps. To the south it consists of the entirety of the Italian Peninsula, Sicily, Sardinia, the two largest islands in the Mediterranean Sea and many other smaller islands. Global, location of Piacenza, Italy The countrys total area is 301,230 km², of which 294,020 km² is land and 7,210 km² is water. Including the islands, Italy has a coastline and border of 7,600 km on the Adriatic, Ionian, Tyrrhenian seas (740 km), and borders shared with France___________________________________________________________________________ 5
  12. 12. MSc In Architectural Engineering___________________________________________________________________________ (488 km), Austria (430 km), Slovenia (232 km) and Switzerland; San Marino (39 km) and Vatican City (3.2 km).2.2-Emilia–Romagna Emilia–Romagna  Repeated under the bearing location on the railway line Milan-Bologna and Turin on the cross-Brescia, a rail hub of national and International importance.Piacenza: Piacenza is a city and comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy withCoordinates45°2′52″N and 9°42′2″E. It is the capital of the province of Piacenza. Emilia–Romagna is an administrative region of Northern Italy comprising the two historic regions of Emilia and Romagna and the city is situated on the right of the Po, near its junction with___________________________________________________________________________ 6
  13. 13. MSc In Architectural Engineering___________________________________________________________________________ the Trebbia, in an important strategic position. Agriculture is the chief industry. The cathedral is of the ninth century; it was remodeled by Santa da Sambuceto and others (1122-1223) in beautiful Lombard style. Map of Italy2.3- Brief History of Urban Development in Piacenza Piacenza lies on the right bank of the river Po, at a crucial crossroads in the south-west area of the Po Valley. The first settlements date back to the stone and bronze ages. Gauls and Etruscans are likely to have settled in the area at a later stage, but there are no certain traces left. The earliest urban settlement may be traced back to the year 218 B.C. The Romans had planned to construct them after the successful conclusion of the latest war with the Gauls ending in 219 BC. In the spring of 218 BC after declaring war on Carthage the Senate decided to accelerate the foundation and gave the colonists 30 days to appear on the sites to receive their lands. They were each to be settled by 6000 Roman citizens but___________________________________________________________________________ 7
  14. 14. MSc In Architectural Engineering___________________________________________________________________________ the cities were to receive Latin Rights 1 .that is, they were to have the same legal status as the many colonies that had been co-founded by Rome and towns of Latium. The era of Late Antiquity in Piacenza (4th/9th centuries AD) was marked by the expansion of Christianity, with the presence of several martyrs. Before the year 286 AD Piacenza was not overtly Christian. In that year the co-emperors of the late Roman Empire resolved once again on an attempt to eradicate Christianity, the senior emperor, Diocletian, relying this time on the services of a subordinate emperor, Maximian. The latter intended to suppress the Christians of Gaul with fire and sword. He ordered the garrison of Thebes, Egypt, to join him in Gaul for that purpose. It is not clear whether he knew that the entire legion, having been recruited in a then intensely Christian region, was Christian. Roman city Medieval City1 Polybius III.40, Livy XXI.25.___________________________________________________________________________ 8
  15. 15. MSc In Architectural Engineering___________________________________________________________________________ 1435 1500 Historical maps The first Bishop of Piacenza (322-357), San Vittorio, declared Antoninus the patron saint of Piacenza and had the first Basilica di S. Antonio constructed in his honor in 324 in downtown Piacenza. It was restored in 903, rebuilt in 1101, 2 again in 1562, and is still a church today. The remains of the bishop and the soldier are in urns under the altar. The theme of the soldier- saint, protector of Piacenza, is well-known in art. 1600 18212 Townsend, George Henry (1877). The manual of dates: a dictionary of reference to all the mostimportant events in the history of mankind to be found in authentic records (5 ed.). London: FrederickWarne. p. 752___________________________________________________________________________ 9
  16. 16. MSc In Architectural Engineering___________________________________________________________________________ 1908 2010 Historical maps In the 13th century, despite unsuccessful wars against Emperor Frederick II, Piacenza managed to gain strongholds on the Lombardy shore of the Po River. The primilaries of the Peace of Constance were signed in 1183 in the Saint Antoninus church. Agriculture and trade flourished in these centuries, and Piacenza became one of the richest cities in Europe. This is reflected in the construction of many important buildings and in the general revision of the urban plan. Struggles for control were commonplace in the second half of the 13th century, not unlike the large majority of Medieval Italian communes. The Scotti family, Pallavicino family and Alberto Scoto (1290– 1313) held power in that order during the period. Scotos government ended when the Visconti of Milan captured Piacenza, which they would hold until 1447. Duke Gian Galeazzo rewrote Piacenzas statutes and relocated the University of Pavia to the city. Piacenza then became a Sforza possession until 1499. Piacenza was the capital city of the duchy until Ottavio Farnese (1547–1586) moved it to Parma. The city underwent some of its most difficult years during the rule of duke Odoardo (1622– 1646), when between 6,000 and 13,000 Piacentini out of the population of 30,000 died from famine and plague, respectively. The city and its countryside were also ravaged by bandits and French soldiers.___________________________________________________________________________ 10
  17. 17. MSc In Architectural Engineering___________________________________________________________________________ Between 1732 and 1859, Parma and Piacenza were ruled by the House of Bourbon. In the 18th century, several edifices which belonged to noble families such as Scotti, Landi and Fogliani were built in Piacenza. In 1802, Napoleons army annexed Piacenza to the French Empire. Young Piacentini recruits were sent to fight in Russia, Spain and Germany, while the city was plundered of a great number of artworks which are currently exhibited in many French museums. The Habsburg government of Maria Luisa 1816-1847 is remembered fondly as one of the best in the history of Piacenza; the duchess drained many lands, built several bridges across the Trebbia river and the Nure stream, and created educational and artistic activities. On June 1865 the first railway bridge over Po river in northern Italy was inaugurated (in southern Italy a railroad bridge had already been built in 1839). In 1891 the first Chamber of Workers was created in Piacenza. During World War II the city was heavily bombed by the Allies. The important railway and road bridges across the Trebbia and the Po Rivers and the railway yards were destroyed. The historic centre of city itself also suffered collateral damage. In 1944 the bridges over the Po became vital to the supply from Austria of Field Marshal Albert Kesselrings Gothic Line, which protected the withdrawal of Kesselrings troops from Italy. Foremost among them were the railway and road bridges at Piacenza, along with supply depots and railway yards. In Operation Mallory Major, July 12–15, allied medium bombers from Corsica flew 300 sorties a day, knocking out 21 bridges east of Piacenza, and then continued to the west for a total of 90 by July 20. Fighter-bombers prevented reconstruction and cut roads and rail lines. By August 4 all the cities of north Italy were isolated and had suffered heavy bombing, including especially Piacenza. Transport to Genoa on___________________________________________________________________________ 11
  18. 18. MSc In Architectural Engineering___________________________________________________________________________ the east or through Turin to the north was impossible; nevertheless, Kesselring continued to supply his men.3 On the hills and the Apennine mountains, partisan bands were active. On April 25, 1945, a General partisan insurrection by the Italian resistance movement occurred and on the 29th troops of Brazilian Expeditionary Force arrived at the city. In 1996 president Oscar Luigi Scalfaro honoured Piacenza with the Gold Medal for Valour in Battle.2.3.1-The reconstruction of the cityTowards the contemporary city, city infrastructure. The two world wars affected the city and the province, considering also the significant involvement of Piacenza in the army. During the Second World War the city was heavily hit by air raids of the Allies that they collapse the important railway bridge over the Po, the railway station, hospital and arsenal as well as portions of the center. Outside the city, on the hills of Piacenza and over the Apennines, supporters of various groups who fought the Nazi army were active. Superstructures and road system engineering3 Craven, Wesley Frank; James Lea Cate, Editors (1983). The Army Air Forces in World War II.DIANE Publishing. pp. 404–407___________________________________________________________________________ 12
  19. 19. MSc In Architectural Engineering___________________________________________________________________________ In the second half of the nineteenth and early twentieth century new ventures gave an important impetus to the economic and industrial development, but also the modernization of farms. For this agricultural vocation and also in the strong tradition Sacro Cuore Milan opened Christian tradition, the Catholic University of in in city the first faculty in the fifties, was the Agriculture one, Piacenza in the detachment of the university. The central location, the important railway junction and the passage of two major highways, continue to promote the economic and industrial development of Piacenza and the surrounding area to this day which is developing and expanding a logistics hub in the suburbs. The main aspects of contemporary Piacenza to be sent to the entire chapter of "transformations" dedicated to these important issues. Main connection of the city___________________________________________________________________________ 13
  20. 20. MSc In Architectural Engineering___________________________________________________________________________2.3.2-The urban genetic code The urban biography finds its application more complex and effective in drawing the biographical map. This itself is generative matrix of a projected vision into the future, in which we represent, through a process of abstraction, the final synthesis, that of today, the life processes of the city, not only the processes are vital but are able at same time to generate life. From the point of view more interesting to us, and therefore to the architectural, biographical map is represented expression of the urban genetic code, the DNA of the city. With this definition we want to emphasize the profound need to understand what underlies the construction of the city and fundamentally permanent elements, those elements that have covered the story and are now able to turn into generators of paths, elements of future projection and therefore archaeological items in future. Biographical map: Main Historical thresholds___________________________________________________________________________ 14
  21. 21. MSc In Architectural Engineering___________________________________________________________________________2.4- Analysis about Current City of Piacenza2.4.1- The Geographic Context The today‘s world is a residence subject to our whole design, and also the natural support is subject to human transformation. The words of Leonardo Benevolo and Benno Albrecht (2002), applied to the condition of Piacenza, drawing a possible overlap and hybridization between the concepts of geography and landscape from which the same architectural design should engage for thought and discussion. First on the issue of borders. Since the Piacenza is a city that its borders are lived, grown and built part of his fortune in various historical eras. Even today - Lombard city in the land of Emilia or, looking at the other side, in Lombardy, Emilia offshoot – lives in a strange and in the same time fascinating luminal condition. As is relevant in our contemporary thinking in terms of geographical boundaries but it‘s an open question. Because, accomplices the transformation of infrastructure and the exponential increase of the flows of people and goods, Piacenza is interpretable not anymore as urban reality unto itself but rather as a system or a network node. The city, in fact, is the integrant part of the so-called "megacities Po", theorized in 2000 by Eugenio Turri, one of the leading Italian geographers, agglomeration that characterizes the northern Italy by tying and built areas and non, with different characters of settlements and materials, in a system without any solution of continuity. With a Continental look, the megalopolis of Po valley extends from the foothills at the foot of the Alps (condensed around the city of Varese, Como, Lecco, Bergamo and Brescia and then towards east to Venice), finds its strategic point in Milan and then extends towards west (Turin) and south, with a density that decreases as the increase of agricultural land south of Lombardy Just in Piacenza the shape of the conurbation bends connecting with the urban linear formed around the Via Emilia, with greater concentration around urban centers (Parma, Reggio, Modena) to Bologna. Beyond the strictly geographical aspects, the conurbation has effects on the political, economic and social systems. First,___________________________________________________________________________ 15
  22. 22. MSc In Architectural Engineering___________________________________________________________________________ since the size of Po megacities place it in confrontation and comparison with other similar European cities such as London of Great Britain or the Dutch urban strip that links Leiden, Den Haag and Rotterdam with Amsterdam, together with the German region of the Ruhr. There are the flows of people and goods, and thus the efficiency of infrastructure, to give strength and substance to these conurbations. Even today - despite a phase of strong transformations and with a strong planning related to the development of road and rail networks should materialize in the coming years - about 10% of Piacenza is commuting, working every day in Milan. In this framework, the boundaries tend to blur, or perhaps tends to change in an irreversibly manner the same concept of geography, no longer a mere description of the area changing, but urban science able to envisage transformative scenarios. "The geography would thus be to assume an operational role - writes Luigi Coccia - pre- figuration of a change based on a large project of ground capable of reorganizing the territory of the dispersion is not through the imposition of a new abstract order, of a predefined drawing dropped casually in a specific spatial context, but rather through the unveiling of an existing order, an order constructive detectable in the form of a specific geographical territorial area." In the contemporary widespread urbanization, privileged design themes are gaps between settlements and infrastructure. Places where you can experiment and propose not so much abstract and global settlement patterns rather than new, and local, urban geographies and territorial. In the culture of the urban and architectural design could cite two significant moments in this sense: the 1973 with the project of Vittorio Gregotti for the University of the Calabria and the 1993 with the realizing of the museum square of Amsterdam from the Sven-Ingvar Anderrson. They both – by ways and new forms – un built areas, although very different among them and in a different scale (Territorial in the first, the urban in second). It constructs, in extreme synthesis, innovative landscapes. The theme of construction of landscape - or landscape - is set to geography more than requested by the contemporary design.___________________________________________________________________________ 16
  23. 23. MSc In Architectural Engineering ___________________________________________________________________________ ―( The size of an urban place is an important factor that can 1) contribute to and detract from quality of life conditions; it therefore deserves a primary place in the formulation of national growth policy. (2) In general, the quality of urban life, as measured across non-economic dimensions, seems to decline as urban scales increase. (3) The extent to which this quality of life difference is acceptable seems to depend largely upon economic trade-offs; the economic rewards must compensate sufficiently for apparent net social, environmental, political preferential and systematic disamenities which accrue as urban scale increases; otherwise, one could expect a spontaneous reversal in migration patterns away from larger cities to occur‖ Elgin et al. (1974, p. 16). 2.4.2-Population4 Foreigners enrolled in the registers of Piacenza province municipalities on 31st December 2009 were 36.153, which is the 12,6% of total residents (which are 288.011). The growth of the foreign population resident in the territory continues apace: since 2002 the average yearly increase has been 18%, the equivalent of more than 3.600 foreign residents per year. Anyway, in 2009 this growth marked a slight decrease +3.019 residents, which equals +9,6% compared to the number registered at the end of the previous year. ABSOLUTE VALUES OF FOREIGNERS % BY GENDER % ON TOTAL RESIDENTS FEMAL FEMALEYEAR MALES ES TOTAL MALES FEMALES MALES S TOTAL2002 6.330 5.022 11.352 55,8 44,2 4,9 3,6 4,22003 8.320 7.131 15.451 53,8 46,2 6,3 5,1 5,72004 9.969 8.767 18.736 53,2 46,8 7,5 6,2 6,8 4 Provincial Statistics Office on Municipal Population Data ___________________________________________________________________________ 17
  24. 24. MSc In Architectural Engineering ___________________________________________________________________________2005 11.320 10.268 21.588 52,4 47,6 8,4 7,2 7,82006 12.614 11.794 24.408 51,7 48,3 9,3 8,3 8,82007 14.614 13.805 28.419 51,4 48,6 10,7 9,6 10,12008 16.953 16.181 33.134 51,2 48,8 12,2 11,0 11,62009 18.372 17.781 36.153 50,8 49,2 13,1 12,1 12,6 Province of Piacenza. Foreign population. Time series 2002 - 2009. Absolute values, % by gender, impact on territory Declining data on foreigners residing in Piacenza territory, the distribution at the end of 2009 was the following: 50.8% men and 49.3% women. Also in 2009 the upward trend in the incidence of women among foreign residents is confirmed: foreign female citizens enrolled in the municipal registry offices of the province since 2002, compared to foreign male citizens data, have recorded exceeding growth rates (+20% annually compared to +16%) and they have been converging to equity; meanwhile the distance in terms of impact on the total population has gradually reduced to 1% (13.1% men and 12.1% women). In particular, in 2009 foreign female population increased annually of 9.9% and foreign male population increased of 8.4%, so 1.419 more men and 1.600 more women.5 Implication s on correspond ent Implications provincial on total foreign m f total population population 0-17 4.620 4.249 8.869 20,50% 24,50% 18-40 9.021 8.588 17.609 22,20% 48,70% 5 Provincial Statistics Office on Municipal Population Data ___________________________________________________________________________ 18
  25. 25. MSc In Architectural Engineering___________________________________________________________________________ 41-64 4.370 4.435 8.805 9,10% 24,40% >64 361 509 870 1,30% 2,40% total 18.372 17.781 36.153 12,60% 100,00%Piacenza Province. Foreign Population on 31.12.2009 for age and gender. Absolute values,implications on correspondent provincial population, implications on total foreign population. Foreign population age class distribution confirms the relevance of the youth classes implications on the total resident youth populations. In fact, ―0 -40‖ aged people in the province represent the 73.2% of the total foreign population and the 21.6% of Piacenza population under 41 years old is composed of foreign citizens. 100 - 104 95 - 99 90 - 94 85 - 89 80 - 84 75 - 79 70 - 74 65 - 69 60 - 64 55 - 59 50 - 54 45 - 49 40 - 44 35 - 39 30 - 34 25 - 29 20 - 24 15 - 19 10 - 14 5-9 0-4 -7.00 -6.00 -5.00 -4.00 -3.00 -2.00 -1.00 0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 7.00 FEMALES MALES Age pyramid for the foreign resident population on 31.12.2009.___________________________________________________________________________ 19
  26. 26. MSc In Architectural Engineering___________________________________________________________________________ 100 - 104 95 - 99 90 - 94 85 - 89 80 - 84 75 - 79 70 - 74 65 - 69 60 - 64 55 - 59 50 - 54 45 - 49 40 - 44 35 - 39 30 - 34 25 - 29 20 - 24 15 - 19 10 - 14 5-9 0-4 -5.00 -4.00 -3.00 -2.00 -1.00 0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 Italian MALES Italian FEMALES Foreigner MALES Foreigner FEMALES Age pyramid for the foreign resident population on 31.12.2009: Italians and ForeignersTOTAL PROVINCE2009 The Five early countries representCOUNTRY/ MALE FEMA 57.5% of immigration.AREAS S LES TOTALAlbania 3.535 2.907 6.442Romania 2.208 2.368 4.576Morocco 2.482 2.077 4.559Macedonia(ex Rep. Jugos.) 1.527 1.337 2.864Ecuador 917 1.416 2.333 Communities from Macedonia, Ecuador and Bosnia-HerzegovinaIndy 1.058 747 1.805 placed in Piacenza area are ranked as the most important in Italy.Ukraine 269 1.164 1.433___________________________________________________________________________ 20
  27. 27. MSc In Architectural Engineering___________________________________________________________________________Bosnia-Herzegovina 749 485 1.234Tunisia 667 388 1.055Egypt 465 236 701Moldova 234 462 696Serbia, Republicof 321 265 586Burkina Faso(Alto Volta) 342 209 551 55% of the immigrants come from European area, 26% from Africa, 10% fromChinese Popular Americas and 9% from Asia.Rep. 262 280 542 Concerning female population for eachSenegal 390 145 535 Country of origin it’s relevant to detect a significantly above average implicationNigeria 216 314 530 concerning America (62%) and someBulgaria 295 132 427 Countries of Eastern Europe: Ukraine (81%), Poland (71%), Moldova (66%).Poland 107 267 374 Instead, concerning male population, decisively to overcome the averageCote dAvoire 189 161 350 incidence rate (50.8%) are Algeria (82,2%),Brazil 111 208 319 Senegal (72,9%) and Bulgaria (69,1%).Croatia 154 144 298Algeria 245 53 298Peru 96 161 257Sri Lanka(Ceylon) 142 95 237Philippines 110 121 231Mauritius 86 107 193France 72 103 175Ghana 79 89 168___________________________________________________________________________ 21
  28. 28. MSc In Architectural Engineering___________________________________________________________________________Dominican, Rep. 56 94 150Korea, Rep.(Southern Korea) 64 69 133United Kingdom 68 65 133OTHERCOUNTRIES 852 1.108 1.960EUROPEANUNION 2.921 3.233 6.154OTHEREUROPEANCOUNTRIES 6.922 6.957 13.879AFRICA 5.385 3.957 9.342AMERICA 1.355 2.202 3.557ASIA 1.778 1.426 3.204OCEANIA 6 1 7STATELESS 1 1 2TOTAL* 18.368 17.777 36.145  Slight difference with ― Foreign Population Time Series‖ and ―for class‖ owing to age different Population Sources. Altitude Foreig Total Imp. % Area n Resident foreigner citizens s s Plane 25.667 189.473 13,5% Hill 9.583 84.055 11,4%___________________________________________________________________________ 22
  29. 29. MSc In Architectural Engineering___________________________________________________________________________ Mountain 903 14.483 6,2% Total 36.153 288.011 12,6%Province of Piacenza. Foreign population and Total on 31.12.2009 for altitude area P n r : ia u a 2 .6 7 5 6 C llin : o a 9 8 .5 3 Mn g a o ta n : 930Province of Piacenza. Foreign Population on 31.12.2009 for altitude Foreigner s implicatio Minor’s n on total foreigners implication on % G2 on Resident total tot. Populatio a.v. minors foreigners G2 a.v. Foreigners nProvince of Piacenza 33.141 8.123 24,5% 4.509 13,6% 11,6%Region Emilia-Romagna 421.482 97.344 23,5% 59.938 14,2% 9,7%Italy 3.891.293 862.453 22,2% 518.700 13,3% 6,5%Resident foreign citizen on 31/12/2008 with implication minors and G2 (born in Italy) ontotal foreigners.___________________________________________________________________________ 23
  30. 30. MSc In Architectural Engineering___________________________________________________________________________Comparison Province of Piacenza, Region Emilia-Romagna, Italy6Population Trend Description Comune ProvinceLand area (sq. km) 118.46 2589.47population 96806 264641Population density (inhabitants / sq km) 807 102Foreign resident population 3416 8828100 foreign residents 3.57 3.35For older children 5 5.3 5.4Percentage of population living on less than 5 years 3.65 3.78Percentage of population aged 85 and over 3:45 2.99 3.45Percentage of population aged 75 and over 11.05 11.81Ageing index7 211.3 217.91Dependency ratio8 52.19 55.39Sex ratio 88.28 93.34Resident population that moves each day 47322 125442occupied 39873 109938Unemployment rate 4.72 4.22 ISTAT - Census 20016 Caritas/Migrants, Immigration, Statistic Dossier 20097 Ageing index Ratio of population aged 65 and over and the population aged 0-14 years. The result is,inGeneral, multiplied by 100 or 1,000.8 Index of total dependency ratio between young and elderly people on the one hand, andpopulationother hand, for every 100 people. Corresponds to the total dependency ratios of youngand elderly. IndexTotal dependency = (Dependency Index Index Dependence Young + old) / Populationaged 15-64) *100___________________________________________________________________________ 24
  31. 31. MSc In Architectural Engineering___________________________________________________________________________ ISTAT data on family size (Census 2001) and the trend of the population As seen in Figure above, the City of Piacenza has recorded a considerable decrease in the population as a trend in recent years settling mainly due to the immigration phenomenon. In connection to this phenomenon has had a significant aging of the population, whose average age has risen from 40 to 45 years between the 1981 and 2004. Population densities of Province Emilia Romagna Region___________________________________________________________________________ 25
  32. 32. MSc In Architectural Engineering___________________________________________________________________________ Average age of the population of the City of PiacenzaAge structure: division of the population of the City of Piacenza by age (Harp - Chamber ofPiacenza)___________________________________________________________________________ 26
  33. 33. MSc In Architectural Engineering___________________________________________________________________________ISTAT data on the nationality of the foreign population residing in the town ofPiacenza (Census 2001) Population trendmen 49,217 born 870 (From January 1___________________________________________________________________________ 27
  34. 34. MSc In Architectural Engineering___________________________________________________________________________ December 31, 2010) (From January 1 tofemales 53,989 dead 1,247 December 31, 2010) (From January 1 tototal 103,206 weddings 219 December 31, 2010)residents in thehistoric center 17,165 of whichforeign 3,825 childrenAccess to education and social services Together with the growth of foreign residents, also the access to Social Services increased steadily in the last years. In particular foreign students inserted into the provincial school system reached the number of 5887, with prevalence in primary schools, and a relative impact on total students of 16% and so higher than the total implication of foreigners on the provincial population. Piacenza Emilia-Romagna Italy Implicati Implication Implication Foreign Foreign Foreign on per per 100 per 100 students students students 100 enrolled enrolled enrolled Childhood 1.143 16,9 13.471 12,2 125.092 7,6 Primary 2.133 18,4 26.879 14,5 234.206 8,3 Second. I grade 1.264 17,7 15.410 14,3 140.050 8,0 Second. II grade 1.347 12,3 16.839 10,2 130.012 4,8 Total 5.887 16,2 72.599 12,7 629.360 7,0 Students not having Italian citizenship for school type – S.Y. 2008/20099 The access to social services is even more marked. The foreign children into care to territorial social services represent 44% of9 Ministry of Education, University and Research, Statistical Service.___________________________________________________________________________ 28
  35. 35. MSc In Architectural Engineering___________________________________________________________________________ total minor users, with a weight well above the regional average. It should be emphasized that 77% of operations covers family support, economic or educational, relational, so assistance to foreign minors actually often means a social intervention for foreign families in difficulty. Depending Minors Including foreigners % on depending Including a.v. a.v. minors unaccompanied Piacenza Province 3.957 1.728 43,7% 107 Region Emilia-Romagna 40.386 13.885 34,4% 763 Depending to territorial social services foreign minors10 Among other measures of protection must be reported foster families (on a total of 146 cases, 37 are foreigners, so the 25.3%), insertions in community care (on a total of 111 cases, 62 are related to foreigners of 55.9%); activities for victims of violence (on a total of 66, 26 refer to foreigners so the 55.9%); activities for victims of violence (on a total of 66, 26 refer to foreigners, so the 39.4%). Even for the access for foreign citizens to the services for adults in difficulty there are significant data: foreigners depending on professional social services are 1.037 (4.25% on total foreigners); foreigners accommodated in dedicated residential care facilities have been 59 into low threshold structures, while the first and second for adults in difficulty, were 116 out of 381 people /30.4%), social housing at 39 out of 61 users (63,9%). Even the access to housing of Public Housing (ERP) indicate the increasing use of public services by foreign residents. On10 RER–SISAM- Detected minors depending on territorial services on 31/12/2006___________________________________________________________________________ 29
  36. 36. MSc In Architectural Engineering___________________________________________________________________________ 1924 ERP housing in Piacenza town inhabited by families in 2009, 314 are of foreigners families.2.4.3 – The Socio- Economic System Piacenza lies on the right bank of the Po River and is one of the richest provinces in the Emilia Romagna Region of Northern Italy. It exists at a natural crossroads between communication routes and is within proximity of other bigger cities, such as Milan, Bologna, and Genoa, allowing for rapid movement and a high standard of living. There are 100,000 inhabitants in the city and 280,000 in the province, with a steady increase in the last several years due to a rise in immigration from new and non-EU countries. The city and the immediate surrounding municipalities are home to a majority of the 32,000 mostly small- and medium-size companies in the region. Quality agribusiness, advanced mechanics (machine tools, robotics), and the building materials industry are the primary developed sectors of production in the province. Agriculture is first-rate, making use of state-of the- art technologies and a highly-qualified knowledge network. This sector takes advantage of the scientific contribution of the Faculty of Agriculture (since 1951); other faculties that contribute to development are Mechanical Engineering, Economics, Law, and Education. Piacenza has a multimodal, inter connected road and railway supply center that is integrated with the new logistic areas through the west-east axis. The agribusiness industry in Piacenza is top-notch. There are several regional products, most of them with certified controlled origin branding (DOC): three for salami, two for cheese (i.e., Grana Padano), and twenty for wine. Although tourism is scarcely developed in absolute terms, it is growing at a steady rate thanks to the natural resources (the Po River and Apennine mountains and valleys), and cultural attractions (medieval castles, churches, and Roman heritage). In general terms, the labor market is well balanced, with an employment rate of 64 percent and a very low unemployment rate (almost three percent before the international crisis). In 2008, the GNP per capita was EUR 30,050, higher than the___________________________________________________________________________ 30
  37. 37. MSc In Architectural Engineering___________________________________________________________________________ averages in Italy (EUR 26,300), and in other European Union countries (EUR 25,100). In social terms, the area presents a rich social service endowment, with excellent services for infants and the elderly, an efficient school system, and well-organized cultural entertainment. Lastly, there is Piacenza‘s environmental assessment, which scores lower than its economic and social sectors. Air pollution and emissions of NOx and CO2 (respectively, 66 and 24 tons per year per capita) are higher than the Italian averages (24 and 8 tons per year per capita, respectively). Additionally, high domestic water and energy consumption make for weak environmental sustainability in the area (similar to other areas in northern Italy).2.4.4- Strategic PlanPiacenza’s First Strategic Plan The Piacenza Strategic Plan began with a meeting of key stakeholders in October 2000 who met (and followed a bottom- up approach) to deliberate, listen, and analyze. During this general stakeholders meeting (Stati Generali), draft program declarations and projects were presented. In order to execute the declaration, the city, province and the chamber of commerce began negotiating an implementation action plan through a process called Pact for Piacenza. A strategic committee was established, which consisted of 32 members representing the municipality of Piacenza, the province, the Emilia- Romagna region, the chamber of commerce, two mountain communities, other towns in the province, key economic sectors, trade unions, civil society organizations (social cooperation and voluntary associations), and the Church. The strategic committee gathered information from stakeholders‘ meeting reports and organized a list of projects clustered around four strategic areas (human resources and culture, infrastructures and networks, integrated development resources, collective and social services), together with their respective strategic goals. Ensuring the internal coherence of___________________________________________________________________________ 31
  38. 38. MSc In Architectural Engineering___________________________________________________________________________ the strategic areas and the strategic goals was a key consideration, as well as the relative strengths and weaknesses of the territories and the local system. The four strategic areas were subdivided into ten action lines, for which working teams were established and tasked with the development of the programs/ projects and an assessment of their feasibility. The working teams consisted of representatives from local institutions and economic and social sectors. Coordination of the process was in the hands of competent officials from the municipality and the province. Strategy papers and projects were compiled into a ―strat egic document,‖ which was signed by the parties on January 12, 2002. The final document, The Pact for Piacenza, outlined actions and projects and grouped them into ten thematic areas: human resources and culture; infrastructure and material resources; networks and services; entrepreneurial development; logistics and added value; highest quality food system; integrated tourism; collective and social services; mountain project; and local agenda 21. There were 30 priority projects contained in these thematic areas – some of them were implemented, some are still in progress and others were integrated into the second edition of the plan. After an intense and enthusiastic year following the preparation of the strategic document, the first difficulties occurred during the implementation phase, when the focus shifted to the preparation of the feasibility studies. Local elections took place in June 2002 and changed the political color of the city government. The process encountered further setbacks due to a similar change in the provincial administration (June 2004), and the resignation of the plan coordinator, an important local entrepreneur who was elected in 2003. The first outcomes from the Piacenza experience demonstrate that the Strategic Plan enhanced Piacenza‘s visibility both at the regional and national levels. Key to this success was the active role of the city, the province, and the chamber of commerce. In 2003, the Forum for the Public Administration awarded the provincial plan, Pact for Piacenza, with an official best practice acknowledgment. In 2004, a similar prize was granted to the province for its territorial marketing plan, which was prepared___________________________________________________________________________ 32
  39. 39. MSc In Architectural Engineering___________________________________________________________________________ by one of the working teams. The discovery of areas available for production development and the new logistics zones in Piacenza lured external and foreign investors. Another notable outcome were the new research centers (2004– 2005), which offer great opportunities to strengthen the innovative capability of the local system, and a potential to stall and reverse the migration of talented residents to Milan and other economic development centers.Piacenza’s Second Strategic Plan In May 2005, a new phase, which led to the second edition of the strategic plan (Piacenza 2020), was initiated. From the outset, the limitations of the first strategic planning experience were carefully considered. The first plan was conceived as a collection of projects that were sometimes too general. There was also a lack of participation from local politicians, councilors, and parliamentarians, partly due to a lack of knowledge and understanding. In fact, although key local officials and representatives coordinated the plan since the beginning, they did not fully engage their councils until the signing of the first Pact for Piacenza. Some local politicians felt the first plan overlapped with or even surpassed the institutional mandate, as noted by experts (Bobbio 2000). Paradoxically, political support for the plan seemed to decrease when both local administrations (the municipality and province) belonged to the same party. Moreover, there were no links to higher levels of government that could guarantee the flow of resources necessary to implement the ambitious projects prepared by the working teams. Therefore, the following projects were dropped: ―Pia cenza Holding‖ (a venture capital fund project for local initiatives), ―Piacenza Portal‖ (a promotion of the local web site), social housing projects for vulnerable groups, and the consideration for some special sectors such as planning and education. Another weak element was surely the decline in the initial willingness to get the projects started, and the decrease in enthusiasm for sharing the Piacenza Strategic Plan objectives.___________________________________________________________________________ 33
  40. 40. MSc In Architectural Engineering___________________________________________________________________________ Since participation was the crucial element for the formation of the agreement, a wider range of stakeholders from the economic, social, environmental, and cultural sectors were invited to participate in the strategic committee for preparing the second edition of the plan, Piacenza 2020, including some from new social areas. The promoters (province, municipality and chamber of commerce) convened a public meeting with the cultural, environmental and voluntary associations in order to nominate their own representatives for the strategic committee. Real participation in such meetings, however, turned out to be always poor. Rather, the direct participation of the population at large could have been implemented through the representing associations that would have been able to organize open meetings to discuss guidelines, strategic areas, and priority actions. However, this did not happen perhaps because the associations were not facilitated and supported. Finally, a further weakness of the process was the absence of a structure devoted to the plan, which affected support for the working group sessions and, moreover, diminished the capacity to evaluate and monitor the expected interventions. Since May 2005, the promoters expressed their intent to re- launch the strategic plan by revising the first plan. The new challenge was to project a mid- to long-term timeline for the whole provincial territory, and build a baseline framework that set out the priorities for the next 20 years. This, it was believed, would enhance coherence for policy and strategic decisionmaking. To that end a new phase was entered, and community consultations were organized. In soliciting inputs and ideas for the future of the city, focus groups were organized with a range of stakeholders and citizens, including with students and teachers. The promoters provided special staff for the organization and support to the committee. Another key innovation was the selection of the strategic plan‘s flagship projects. These were characterized by the following features: medium to long term; large subjects‘ involvement (likely public-private integration); inter- sectoriality/multidisciplinary; strategic impacts on the competitiveness/ sustainability of the territorial system; measurable through indicators; demonstration effect/exemplariness. Other ―or dinary‖ projects that do not fall___________________________________________________________________________ 34
  41. 41. MSc In Architectural Engineering___________________________________________________________________________ within the flagship category, such as administrative projects or initiatives from single stakeholders, are however assessed for their compatibility or fit with the strategic plan framework, and for their ability to be integrated with the plan‘s flagship projects. The new Piacenza 2020 strategic axes and the selected relevant flagship projects are highlighted in Table 1. The innovations of the second edition of the Piacenza strategic plan lie both in content and method; the following paragraphs illustrate these innovations.Piacenza’s future strategic and integrated planning The new vision of Piacenza is related to an idea of a sustainable city, an open society based on knowledge and a competitive productive system. The Piacenza 2020 Strategic Plan for Economy1111 Comune di Piacenza___________________________________________________________________________ 35
  42. 42. MSc In Architectural Engineering___________________________________________________________________________ The Piacenza 2020 Strategic Plan for Environment12 The Piacenza 2020 Strategic Plan for Society132.5- Piacenza’s network This system, as it would be read today, exhibits the way this conformation of the infrastructural system can more recently has traced somehow a preexisting limit, a limit that it was already determined previously from the collocation of the historical city on the border of the river. This process, in any measure, of superimposition, of overwriting has effectively the expansion of the city, limiting, on the northern side, the right12 Commune di Piacenza, Strategic plan environmental 202013 Commune di Piacenza, Strategic plan for society 2020___________________________________________________________________________ 36
  43. 43. MSc In Architectural Engineering___________________________________________________________________________ bank of the Po River. Another system that immediately is intelligible within the city, is the system of the great dispositive figures of the military establishments: the city over decades, has seen its place in all around, especially behind the sixteenth century walls, a series of large craft systems to military functions, both of hospital type and kind of tied to military forces even with large systems of buildings used for military arsenal. These areas, though of no great architectural merit, held today, since almost totally abandoned, and a significant role to balance the city, especially in the years to come. And it is precisely these areas that the city is identifying new possible development strategies, especially for a large recovery area to convert to new features useful to the city and, above all, without taking up new land outside the city itself. The following figure explains the network of the city in terms of built up spaces. Built -up space: density and rarefaction of building.___________________________________________________________________________ 37
  44. 44. MSc In Architectural Engineering___________________________________________________________________________ Built -up space: Urban textures, settlements and heavy compounds Land path rules: Suburbs vs inner-city.___________________________________________________________________________ 38
  45. 45. MSc In Architectural Engineering___________________________________________________________________________ Back-ground for urban design: Piacenza‘s north east side, the built-up system.___________________________________________________________________________ 39
  46. 46. MSc In Architectural Engineering___________________________________________________________________________ Typological plan: city axes, typologies, and strong-points High ways___________________________________________________________________________ 40
  47. 47. MSc In Architectural Engineering___________________________________________________________________________ On a street view Piacenza is the intersection of the A1 (Milan-Naples) and A21 (Turin-Brescia).___________________________________________________________________________ 41
  48. 48. MSc In Architectural Engineering___________________________________________________________________________ Infrastructures around ANAS bridge and PO RIVER___________________________________________________________________________ 42
  49. 49. MSc In Architectural Engineering___________________________________________________________________________ Measures, matrix, module: the relation-ship among three project sites and urban___________________________________________________________________________ 43
  50. 50. MSc In Architectural Engineering___________________________________________________________________________ settlement rules. Pan-European Corridors & Trebbia valley___________________________________________________________________________ 44
  51. 51. MSc In Architectural Engineering___________________________________________________________________________ Master plan1414 Piacenza City Council – Planning Office. Zoning, General-Plan, 2001.___________________________________________________________________________ 45
  52. 52. MSc In Architectural Engineering___________________________________________________________________________ Master plan15 Master plan1615 Piacenza City Council – Planning Office. Enviromental System (proposal), 2001.___________________________________________________________________________ 46
  53. 53. MSc In Architectural Engineering___________________________________________________________________________ Traffic general plan172.6-Physical-morphological aspectsTextures The city as we cans see it today and moreover the way we perceive it, is the result of synthesis of a deep process of stratification began with the founding act of the city itself, by the Romans work, on a previous settlement. This act of foundation, still recognizable in the contemporary city, is not the only physical trace that has remained for us; the whole fabric of the Roman for "insulae" has remained largely intact within the city confined by the system of medieval walls,built in the mid sixteenth century.16 Piacenza City Council – Planning Office. Urban Facilities (proposal), 2001.17 Piacenza City Council – Planning Office. Car-Traffic General-Plan, 2004.___________________________________________________________________________ 47
  54. 54. MSc In Architectural Engineering___________________________________________________________________________ The defensive walls, now partly converted into a national park, have revealed over time, an effective containment of the development of the city. Not only these boundaries, especially on the right margin of the river Po, in recent decades have also determined the location of infrastructure with high flow, such as highway and rail. Overcoming the sixteenth century walls occurs only after the Second World War, through the support of the economic boom of the Italy. Thus it can be said that the natural geographical limits of the river and the limits of artificial walls, appear to be, still today the matrix that characterizes the city of Piacenza, the one that can be found only along the Via Emilia and from the offshoots of the Apennines, the lines Development of settlements last half century. Madrid - reading of the And it is towards this geographic range, between the Via Emilia and Trebbia river, facing south, the city has found new areas of construction: It is obvious even today that the wedge of farmland on the left bank of the river Po has not been reached by the expansion of the city (architecture of urban spaces Piacenza summer school competition). Relationship between topography and infrastructural development___________________________________________________________________________ 48

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