Ict integration


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Ict integration

  1. 1. Integrating Technology into Teaching & Learning 1st Semester, SY 2013-2014 MSBandolon
  2. 2. “Technology…is a queer thing, It brings you great gifts with one hand, and it stabs you in the back with the other” – C.P. Snow (1971)
  3. 3. Activity Recall the lessons you had when you were in high school. Think about: a. ICT tools used in the class (teacher and students) b. How were the ICT tools used? c. In what ways were the ICT tools used beneficial to the attainment of the lesson? d. What other skills were developed during the lesson?
  4. 4. July 11, 2012 Objectives: 1. Define ICT Integration 2. Discuss the rationale behind ICT integration 3. Discuss the Traditional and New views of learning 4. Discuss & compare the traditional and new classrooms 5. Define instruction for the 21st century skills 6. Discuss the model of teaching style in he 21st century classroom 7. Identify and discuss the barriers and facilitating factors in ICT integration in teaching and learning
  5. 5. "   ICT"is the Information and Communication Technologies. "ICT in Education" means "Teaching and Learning with ICT". http://www.elmoglobal.com/en/html/ict/01.aspx Educational ICT Tools can be divided into 3 groups 1.Input source – visualizer, document camera, pc’s, application systems, tablets 2.Output Source – projector, interactive whiteboard, display monitors, television, etc 3. Others – digital camera, digital recorder, switchers, other technology
  6. 6. ICT integration is defined by Bruniges (2003) as a strategy to integrate information and communications technology into all facets of education and training, including the administrative functions and e-business models required to support learning The purpose of integrating ICT is to improve and increase the quality, accessibility and cost-efficiency of the delivery of education, while taking advantage of the benefits of networking learning communities together to equip them to face the challenges of global competition
  7. 7. ICT Integration is the seamless incorporation of technology to support and enhance student engagement in meaningful learning and for the attainment of curriculum objectives (Makoba, K. & Smulders, M., 2010)
  8. 8. Why ICT Integration? 1.The teacher today has to meet the multiplicity of the challenges of the modern society. He is expected to be traditional yet use modern technology to maintain his/her dynamism in the profession 2.ICT is a teaching tool and a professional development tool
  9. 9. Why use ICT integration? 4.ICT integration is the need of the day. Learners must be: a. equipped with knowledge that goes beyond the boundaries of the academics, and b. Develop life skills such as: *media literacy (ability to use and analyze the media to find information) *self management – self reliance and independence *metacognition – the skill of knowing how we learn and our peculiar learning styles
  10. 10. The Basic Principles and Theories Related to ICT Integration in Teaching & Learning (by Dr. Charles Graham, Birmington Universisty) Basic Principles in Technology Integration 1.Effective technology integration typically involves students (as opposed to teachers only) in actively using technology *Who is using the technology? *Does the use of technology promote active or passive learning?
  11. 11. 2. Effective technology integration is essential not peripheral to the learning activity. Questions: *Is technology an add-on to the real learning activity? *Is technology added as a convenience or solely as a motivational factor? *How does technology impact classroom management?
  12. 12. 3. Effective technology integration focuses on the learning task and not the technology. Questions: *Is the technology the focus or learning in the subject area the focus? * Is technology being used as a tool to help achieve the learning task? *How much time will it take for the students to learn to use the technology as compared to the benefit from using the technology tool?
  13. 13. 4. Effective technology integration facilitates learning activities that would be more difficult or impossible without the technology. Questions: *Would it be easier to do without technology? *What is the added value to the learning process by using technology? *What was the teacher able to do because she/he had the technology that wouldn’t have been possible without the technology?
  14. 14. Constructivist-Inquiry based Learning -knowledge is constructed, not transmitted. Let students do the activities that help them generate their own knowledge -directed instruction is teacher centered; hands on instruction is student centered -students show learning in many ways and modes The Basic Learning Theories Related to ICT Integration Directed Instruction (Objectivism) -learning is transmitted knowledge. -Teaching should be directed, systematic and structured -standardization means accountability (students should all pass the same test -inquiry approaches are too slow to be practical; learning must be teacher directed
  15. 15. Objectivist approach Knowledge Experience
  16. 16. Student Centered Learning
  17. 17. Note: 1. Objectivist strategies are used when students need an efficient way to learn a specific skill that must be assessed through traditional tests 2. Constructivist strategies are used when students need to develop skills and insights overtime (cooperative group skills, solving problem) and when learning maybe assessed with alternative measures such as portfolios and group work (Roblyer, 2010)
  18. 18. Objectivist Behavioral Theories: 1.Skinner’s Behaviorist Theories of Learning : Building on the S-R connection 2.Information Processing Theory: The Mind as the Computer- Cognitivism (Integrating Technology into Teaching and Learning by Dr. Michael D. Williams, 2000) 3. Robert Gagne’s 9 Events of Instruction 3.Systems Theory & Systematic Instructional Design
  19. 19. 1. Skinner’s Behaviorist Theories of Learning : Building on the S-R connection A. Basic Teachings/Principles: *internal processes involved in learning could not be seen directly *human behavior could be shaped by “contingencies of reinforcement” or situations in which reinforcement for learning is provided on a desired response *three kinds of situations that can shape behavior: -positive reinforcement -negative reinforcement -punishment
  20. 20. *Behavior that is positively reinforced will reoccur; intermittent reinforcementis particularly effective *Information should be presented in small amounts so that responses can be reinforced ("shaping") *Reinforcements will generalize across similar stimuli ("stimulus generalization") producing secondary conditioning References: Markle, S. (1969). Good Frames and Bad (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley. Skinner, B.F. (1950). Are theories of learning necessary? Psychological Review, 57(4), 193-216. Skinner, B.F. (1953). Science and Human Behavior. New York: Macmillan.
  21. 21. B. Implications to Education *teaching is a process of arranging contingencies of reinforcement effectively to bring about learning *high level capabilities as critical thinking and creativity could be taught by reinforcements *learning is simply a matter of establishing chains of behavior through principles of reinforcement *programmed instruction is the most efficient means available for leaning skills *Practice should take the form of question (stimulus) - answer (response) frames which expose the student to the subject in gradual steps * Require that the learner make a response for every frame and receive immediate feedback * Try to arrange the difficulty of the questions so the response is always correct and hence a positive reinforcement * Ensure that good performance in the lesson is paired with secondary reinforcers such as verbal praise, prizes and good grades.
  22. 22. Implications to Technology Integration (ICT Tools with Behaviorist Orientation) 1. Drill and Practice Software Most drill and practice software were based on Skinner’s reinforcement principle. These are often used to help students memorize important and basic information. The purpose of using these software is to increase the frequency of correct answers in response to stimuli.
  23. 23. Integration strategies for drill and practice programs: a. Use drill and practice programs for basic knowledge & skills where rapid or automatic student response is desired (multiplication table, word recognition, etc) b. The use must be consistent with the curriculum c. Introduce content prior to students’ use of drill and practice program d. Use competitions o make the drill more fun e. Design both individual & group drill & practice activities f. Maybe used for one or several independent student practice to assist students with identified weakness of the basic skill or knowledge
  24. 24. Let’s reflect! Think about the situations below. *Does each situation demonstrate effective Use of drill and practice software? *In what way does each ICT integration practice relate to behaviorsim? a.After teaching addition skill. Ms. Tizon allows her primary pupils individually practice their skills by using Math Workshop software. She instructs her students to list on paper he particular drill items they have difficulty with. b. After introducing the trigonometric ratios of right-angled triangles, Mr. Jison demonstrates to the whole class how to use Multimedia: Trigonometry. After the software demonstration, he paired up students to work with the program in a competition he had prepared.
  25. 25. 2. Information Processing Theory (Atkinson & Schiffrin) www2.hawaii.edu/.../i
  26. 26. Basic Teachings: *The mind as computer *based on a model of memory & storage *The brain contains certain structures that process information like a computer *The human mind has three kinds of memory storage: -sensory register -short term memory (STM) -long term memory (LTM) *Has 4 main assumptions about the mind: -Limited Capacity -Serial processing system -Procedural vs declarative knowledge -Automatic vs effort
  27. 27. Declarative and procedural knowledge  2 types of declarative knowledge (episodic, semantic)  Procedural knowledge is more for motor sequences, unconscious activities  Both types are shown to be distinct  Can show loss of episodic memory, but not of procedural, and other way around
  28. 28. Automatic vs effortful Some things come easily, and some do not… Blinking VS holding your eyes open Some things can start out difficult and end up being automatic or effortless, eg standard driving, reading Executive functioning allocates our resources to various tasks
  29. 29. Influence of Information Processing Theory to Education *basis for many classroom practices, eg: -teachers ask interesting questions & display eye- catching materials to increase the likelihood that students will pay attention o the new topic -while presenting information they give instruction that emphasizes important points & characteristics in the new material & suggests methods of encoding or remembering them by liking them to information students already know -teachers provide students practice exercises to ensure the transfer of information from short term to long term memory -make use of Gagne’s Bottom’s Up approach –students learn lower skills first
  30. 30. *teachers provide advance organizers or overviews of the way how information will be presented (cognitive tools) to help students develop mental framework on which to place the information – “Ausubel’s Top- Down Approach” *many of the drill and practice softwares are designed to help students encode and store newly learned information into LTM
  31. 31. Gagne’s 9 Instructional Events….Tools for Teachers Ding Basic Teachings: *built on the work of behavioral processing theories by translating principles from their learning theories into practical instructional strategies that teachers could employ with directed instruction *9 Events of Instruction: 1. gaining attention 2. informing learner of Lesson Objective 3. Stimulating recall of instructional objective 4. Presenting new material 5. Providing learning guidance 6. eliciting performance 7. providing feedback about correctness 8. assessing performance 9. enhancing retention and recall
  32. 32. Influence of Gagne’s 9 Events of Instruction to Education *The development of intellectual skills requires learning that amounts to a building process *lower level skills provide necessary foundations for higher level ones *to teach a skills, a teacher must first identify its prerequisite skills and make sure that students possess them *the events of instructions have been widely used to develop systematic instructional design principles *used as basis in planning lessons using each kind of soft software (drill, tutorial, simulation) -drill and simulation require teacher led activities to accomplish events before and after use of the software -tutorial software could stand by itself and accomplish all necessary events of instruction
  33. 33. *Tutorial software -is based on the idea of programmed instruction and gives the student an efficient path through concepts they want to learn -used to enable the student to learn the topic a their own pace, usually without any help or other materials other than the software -intends to teach new concepts to the students Williams, 2000
  34. 34. Integration of tutorial software with lessons -can be used to introduce a new lesson, for remediation, review or enrichment -must be used to help students achieve the lesson objective -prerequisite knowledge & skills needed before beginning the tutorial program -provide orientation on the use -regularly monitor to ensure that students stay on task -provide alternative & related activities for students who complete the computer-based activities early -encourage students to ask questions -ask follow up questions to stimulate thinking
  35. 35. Let’s reflect! Think about each of the teaching practices: *Does each practice demonstrate effective use of tutorial software? *In what way does each ICT integration practice relate to cognitivism and , Gagne’s 9 instructional events? a. Jessie was absent in Mrs. de Leon’s math class yesterday, so she tells him to go through a software on “Linear Equations “ to learn how to solve simple linear equation problems which was covered in yesterday’s lesson. b. Mr. Rios uses “Earth Quest” to introduce to his classs new information on the parts of a volcano. The teaching objective of his lesson is that the students will be able to label the different parts as well as their functions.
  36. 36. 4. Systems Approaches and the Design of Instruction (Reiser & Dick, 1996) Identify Instructional Goals Analyze Learners Identify Objectives Plan Instructional Activities Choose Instructional Media Develop Assessment Tools Implement Instruction Revise Instruction Source: Adapted from Reiser, R.A. & Dick, W (1996), Insructional Planning: A Guide for Teachers (2nd ed), (Fu=igure 1-1, p. 5, MA: Aillyn & Bacon
  37. 37. Basic Teachings of Systematic Approach to Teaching *ensures that what is planned: -serves a purpose -meets the needs of the learners -is attractive & well organized -is delivered in an appropriate mode -is continually evaluated & improved & teacehrs become better equipped to create high quality student centered lessons and adapt commercial materials or create their own original materials to fit their course needs
  38. 38. Influences of The Systems Approach to Teaching to ICT Integration *utilization of performance objectives and sequences for instructional objectives are widely used in teaching *Teachers still set objectives for a lesson, then develop a sequence of activities *selection of a software package or an on line activity to carry out part of the instructional sequence based on the lesson objective is still practiced in schools
  39. 39. Decisions made during planning have a profound influence on teachers’ classroom behavior and on the nature and outcomes of education children receive……… (Shavelson, 1987)