Chapter 8 Poverty, Income Assistance, and Homelessness

1,378 views

Published on

The topics of this chapter are mental health and mental illness, the abuse of alcohol and other drugs, and developmental disabilities.

Published in: Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,378
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
37
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Chapter 8 Poverty, Income Assistance, and Homelessness

  1. 1. Chapter 8:Mental Health, Substance Abuse, and Developmental Disabilities Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  2. 2. Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  3. 3. Social Work: A Competency- Oriented Education Council on Social Work Education (CSWE) - Defines Educational Policy and Accreditation Standards (EPAs) - Developed 10 “Core Competencies” and 41 Related “Practice Behaviors” Every student should master the Practice Behaviors and Core Competencies before completing the program Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  4. 4. Resources Aligned to EPAS 2008 The Textbook – - “Helping Hands” icons call attention to content that relates to Practice Behaviors and Competencies - “Competency Notes” at the end of the chapter help put the Practice Behaviors and Competencies in practical context Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing
  5. 5. Resources Aligned to EPAS 2008 (cont’d) The Practice Behaviors Workbook developed with the text provides assignable exercises that assist in mastering the Practice Behavior and Competencies Additional on-line resources can be found at: www.cengage.com/socialwork Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  6. 6. Mental health needs of people• Mental disorders account for 4 of the 10 leading causes of disability worldwide• 25% of U.S. population is affected by mental disorders in any given year• Half of individuals with severe mental disorders are also affected by substance abuse• Major depression is the leading cause of mental disability in U.S.EP 2.1.1a, 2.1.7a, 2.1.9b Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  7. 7. Mental health needs of people• 37% of people who abuse alcohol and 53% of individuals who abuse other drugs have at least one serious mental illnessEP2.1.1a, 2.1.7a, 2.1.9b Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  8. 8. Mental health definitions• Societal labeling determines who is categorized as mentally ill• Stigma of the label is as damaging as the illness• Definitions usually are based on visible symptoms rather than severityEP 2.1.3a Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  9. 9. Categorizing mental illness• Medical model – severe emotional problems caused by brain dysfunction or intrapsychic causes• DSM-IV-TR – multiaxial system that focuses on psychological, biological, and social aspects• PIE system – focuses on social functioning and environmental, mental health, and physical health problemsEP 2.1.3b, 2.1.7a, 2.1.7b Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  10. 10. Mental health: A matter of viewpointMental health is promoted by our competence indealing with our environment and our confidence ofbeing able, when necessary, to cause desiredeffects (Thomas Szasz)EP 2.1.7a, 2.1.7b Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  11. 11. Mental health: A matter of viewpoint (cont’d)Szasz’s classification of mental health problems:• Personal disabilities (e.g., depression)• Antisocial acts• Deterioration of the brainEP 2.1.7a, 2.1.7b Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  12. 12. The development of mental health problems• Heredity, biological, and genetic factors• Psychosocial developmental factors• Social learning• Social stress• Societal reactions and labeling• Collective mobilization• Systems/ecological perspectiveEP 2.1.7a, 2.1.7b Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  13. 13. Ecological/systems perspectiveAllows focus on all factors within individual’spresent and past environment:• Behaviors/symptoms and extent to which they disrupt living• Tolerance of those exposed to symptoms• Cultural assumptions and understandings• Availability of resources and costs to individual and family, including stigmaEP 2.1.7a Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  14. 14. Types of mental health problems• Depression• Bipolar disorder• Schizophrenia• Anxiety disorders• Suicide• HomelessnessEP 2.1.3a Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  15. 15. Impact of mental health status • 5% of children in U.S. experience moderate or severe emotional or behavioral problems • Women, persons of color, the elderly, those who are poor, persons who are gay, lesbian, bisexual, or transgender, and those living in rural areas are at risk of experiencing mental health problemsEP 2.1.3b Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  16. 16. Survivors of disaster and trauma• Persons who experience or observe trauma are likely to experience post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)• Persons who work with individuals exposed to trauma are also subject PTSD• As many as 30% of those who deploy to war zones experience PTSDEP 2.1.3b Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  17. 17. Alcoholism and chemical dependence • Alcoholism – use of alcohol that interferes with personal life • Addiction – physical and/or psychological dependence on mood changing substances, including but not limited to alcohol, drugs, food, sex, or moneyEP 2.1.7b Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  18. 18. Commonly abused substances• Alcohol• Other depressants• Narcotics, including morphine and heroin• Stimulants such as cocaine and methamphetamine• Hallucinogens, including marijuana• RohypnolEP 2.1.3a Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  19. 19. Cost of substance abuse• Deaths• Disability• Accidents• Crime• Property losses• Long-term impacts on children• An estimated $420 billion in 2009EP2.1.9a Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  20. 20. At-risk populations and substance abuse• Adolescents• Elderly• Women• Children• People of colorEP 2.1.7b Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  21. 21. Other factors• Genetics• Physiology• Self-medication• Experimentation• Desire to “fit it”• Learned behavior EP 2.1.3a Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  22. 22. Intervention Approaches• Alcoholics Anonymous/other self-help groups• Hospitalization• Day and out-patient treatment programs• Family systems model• Psycho educational approach• Dual diagnosisEP 2.1.3a Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  23. 23. Developmental disabilitySevere, chronic disability of a person:• Attributable to mental or physical impairment or combination of both• Manifested before age 22• Likely to continue indefinitely• Results in substantial functional limitations• Results in need for special care/servicesEP 2.1.7b Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  24. 24. Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)• Enacted in 1990• Covers persons with AIDS, substance abusers, and those with mental disorders• Includes physical disabilities such as cerebral palsy, learning disabilities, and developmental delayEP 2.1.7b Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  25. 25. Factors associated with developmental disability• Hereditary and fetal development• Prenatal• Perinatal• PostnatalEP 2.1.7a Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  26. 26. Changing views• From inhumane to moral treatment• Introduction of psychoanalysis• Shift to community mental health programs• Initial postwar developments• Deinstitutionalization• Community mental health programs• Neurobiology and related technologiesEP 2.1.1a, 2.1.8b, 2.1.9a Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  27. 27. Intervention options• Partial hospitalization• Day treatment programs• Halfway houses• Supervised livingEP 2.1.9b Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  28. 28. Quality mental health programs• Comprehensive services and supports• Integrated delivery system• Sufficient funding• Consumer and family-driven systems• Safe and respectful treatment environments• Information accessible to consumers and family membersEP 2.1.9b Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  29. 29. Quality mental health programs• Culturally competent• Emphasize health promotion and morality reduction• Adequate mental health workforceEP 2.1.9b Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  30. 30. Intervention• Self-help groups• Family systems model• Cognitive/behavioral approach• Few inpatient or residential programs exist for women and children that also provide care for the childrenEP 2.1.3b, 2.1.8b Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  31. 31. The Americans with Disabilities Act• Comprehensive approach• Bans discrimination based on disabilities among private employers with a work force of more than 15 persons• Provides for accommodations in public places, services, transportation, and telecommunicationsEP2,1,8a, 2.1.8b, 2.1.9b Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  32. 32. The Americans with Disabilities Act (cont’d)• Advocated for supported employment of individuals with disabilities• Encouraged education and reduction of stigma associated with having a disabilityEP2,1,8a, 2.1.8b, 2.1.9b Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  33. 33. Other legislation• The Rehabilitation Act• The Assistive Technology Act• Crime Victims with Disabilities Awareness Act• Hate Crimes Prevention Act• No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB)• Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)• Deficit Reduction Act of 2005EP2.1.8a, 2.1.9b Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  34. 34. Other legislation (cont’d)• Wellstone and Domenici Mental Health Parity and Addiction Act (2008)• Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (2010)EP2.1.8a, 2.1.9b Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  35. 35. The struggle continues• End discrimination in seeking housing• Guard against abuses that stem from Medicaid managed care• Achieve full funding of each component of the NCLB• Reauthorization of key legislation• Expand S-CHIPEP2.1.8a, 2.1.9b Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  36. 36. The struggle continues (cont’d)• Amend federal revenue and tax policy to enable families of people with disabilities to stay together• Strengthen civil rights laws that affect people with disabilities• Fund and regulate attendant services for persons with disabilitiesEP 2.1.8a, 2.1.9b Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  37. 37. The struggle continues (cont’d)• Protection of individuals with disabilities from: - Criminalization or victimization based on disability - Use of genetic information to deny employment or health insurance - Use of physical and chemical restraints and seclusionEP 2.1.8a, 2.1.9b Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  38. 38. Affordable Care Act • Comprehensive health care reform legislation enacted on March 23, 2010 • Expected to expand insurance coverage to 32 million U.S. citizens and legal immigrants by 2019 • Monumental accomplishment for the Obama administration • Fulfilled one of Obama’s major campaign promisesEP 2.1.1a, 2.1.8a Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  39. 39. Affordable Care Act (cont’d)• Parity for mental health and substance abuse services• No discrimination based on preexisting conditions• No rate changes based on health status• Greater availability of insurance, at lower cost• Expansion of Medicaid EP 2.1.1a, 2.1.8a Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  40. 40. Career opportunities• Clinical social work• Crisis intervention and child and family services• School-based services and drug treatment• Case managers• Advocates• Policymakers• Outreach programsEP 2.1.1a, 2.1.8b, 2.1.9b Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .

×