SOCIAL WORK AND SOCIAL WELFARE: AN INTRODUCTIONby Ambrosino/ Shuttlesworth/ Heffernan/ Ambrosino                          ...
Empowering Programs with Resources that Enhance Social Work Education     Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole P...
Social Work: A Competency-           Oriented Education Council on Social Work Education (CSWE)  - Defines Educational Po...
Resources Aligned to EPAS 2008 The Textbook – - “Helping Hands” icons call attention to content that relates to Practice ...
Resources Aligned to EPAS 2008 (cont’d) The Practice Behaviors Workbook developed  with the text provides assignable exer...
Views on poverty and how to help• Multiple views on poverty, what should be done,  and who should do it• Most people want ...
Conceptualizations of poverty•    As deprivation•    As inequality in the distribution of income•    As culture•    As exp...
Defining poverty• Inadequate household income when defined by a  specific standard• Relative poverty• Market basket concep...
Federal poverty guidelines (2010) Household           Income                Household                     Income   Size   ...
Who are America’s poor?Who is considered poor depends on:• Overall performance of economy• Household composition and membe...
The poor are a diverse group• 14% of U.S. population live in poverty• African Americans and Latinos are almost 3 times  mo...
Debunking stereotypes about the poor• Not all poor people are on welfare – many are  two-parent families with both parents...
Social Security Act of 1935• Cornerstone of American social welfare policy• Set tone for federal support for individuals a...
War on poverty is lost• Economic Opportunity Act creates a plethora of  domestic anti-poverty programs• Many of these prog...
Last-ditch effort to reduce welfare rolls• Public outcry about “evils of welfare” intensifies• Welfare reform efforts focu...
End to welfare as we knew it• Republicans cut funds for low-income children,  families, elderly, people with disabilities•...
End to welfare as we knew it (cont’d)• Welfare rolls decline precipitously• Most people who exit welfare are employed in l...
Current strategies for addressing poverty• Strong market and family system• Public assistance programs (TANF, Medicaid, SS...
Other antipoverty programs • Direct provision of necessities • Empowerment efforts • Job training • Restructuring institut...
2010 and beyond• Single, low-income mothers and those receiving  cash assistance have high rates of psychiatric  illness• ...
Impact of poverty on children•    Family stress and conflict•    Limited opportunities for learning at home•    Lower-qual...
TANF reauthorization plan (2006)• Strengthen federal-state partnership• Maintain self-sufficiency through work and  additi...
TANF reauthorization plan (2006)• Enhance child support enforcement• Reform food stamps to promote workEP2.1.6b           ...
HomelessnessA homeless person:  Someone who lacks fixed, regular and adequate  night-time residence, and…has primary night...
Characteristics of homeless individuals• Youth• Elderly•   Women and families•   People of color•   Survivors of domestic ...
Homelessness and mental illness• 20-25% of single adults who are homeless suffer  from some type of severe mental illness•...
Homelessness and mental illness (cont’d)Homeless people with mental disorders face morebarriers to obtaining jobs, are in ...
Homelessness and employment• Inadequate or no employment and lack of  affordable rental housing leave many people  homeles...
Homelessness and healthcareHomeless people:• Often experience poor health• Are at risk for tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, diabete...
Homelessness and IsolationHomeless people:• Are likely to be isolated from families and  traditional social roles• Often h...
Policies and programs• Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act• Housing Affordability for America Act• Other programs ...
Ending homelessness•   Affordable housing•   Employment and education opportunities•   Discharge planning from institution...
Role of social workers in fighting poverty•   Public assistance programs•   Faith-based organizations•   Housing programs•...
Eliminating poverty has been elusive• It’s not that we haven’t tried (e.g., War on Poverty,  Great Society)• Individualist...
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Chapter 7 Poverty and How to Help

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This chapter defines poverty and explores why people are poor, who is poor in the United States, and what types of policies and programs are available to help reduce poverty in the United States.

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Chapter 7 Poverty and How to Help

  1. 1. SOCIAL WORK AND SOCIAL WELFARE: AN INTRODUCTIONby Ambrosino/ Shuttlesworth/ Heffernan/ Ambrosino Chapter 7: Poverty, Income Assistance, and Homelessness Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  2. 2. Empowering Programs with Resources that Enhance Social Work Education Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  3. 3. Social Work: A Competency- Oriented Education Council on Social Work Education (CSWE) - Defines Educational Policy and Accreditation Standards (EPAs) - Developed 10 “Core Competencies” and 41 Related “Practice Behaviors” Every student should master the Practice Behaviors and Core Competencies before completing the program Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  4. 4. Resources Aligned to EPAS 2008 The Textbook – - “Helping Hands” icons call attention to content that relates to Practice Behaviors and Competencies - “Competency Notes” at the end of the chapter help put the Practice Behaviors and Competencies in practical context Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  5. 5. Resources Aligned to EPAS 2008 (cont’d) The Practice Behaviors Workbook developed with the text provides assignable exercises that assist in mastering the Practice Behavior and Competencies Additional on-line resources can be found at: www.cengage.com/socialwork Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  6. 6. Views on poverty and how to help• Multiple views on poverty, what should be done, and who should do it• Most people want successful anti-poverty programs in place, but there is lack of agreement about what those programs should beEP 2.1.1a, 2.1.8a Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  7. 7. Conceptualizations of poverty• As deprivation• As inequality in the distribution of income• As culture• As exploitation by the ruling class• As structureEP 2.1.1a, 2.1.8a Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  8. 8. Defining poverty• Inadequate household income when defined by a specific standard• Relative poverty• Market basket conceptEP 2.1.1a, 2.1.8a Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  9. 9. Federal poverty guidelines (2010) Household Income Household Income Size Limit Size Limit 1 $10,380 5 $25,790 2 $14,570 6 $29,530 3 $18,310 7 $33,270 4 $22,050 8 $37,010EP 2.1.1a, 2.1.8a Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  10. 10. Who are America’s poor?Who is considered poor depends on:• Overall performance of economy• Household composition and members’ access to economic system• Levels of expenditure on social welfare programs• Effectiveness of social welfare programsEP 2.1.3a, 2.1.7b Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  11. 11. The poor are a diverse group• 14% of U.S. population live in poverty• African Americans and Latinos are almost 3 times more likely to be poor than whites• 1 in 10 persons 65 and older is poor• Almost 30% of female householders live in poverty• 1 in 3 African American and a like number of Latino children lives in poverty compared to less than 1 in 10 white childrenEP 2.1.3a, 2.1.7b Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  12. 12. Debunking stereotypes about the poor• Not all poor people are on welfare – many are two-parent families with both parents working full-time, often in minimum wage jobs with few or no benefits• 20% of families living in poverty line have a working family memberEP 2.1.3a, 2.1.7b Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  13. 13. Social Security Act of 1935• Cornerstone of American social welfare policy• Set tone for federal support for individuals and families• The act has been modified many times over the years to create new programs, modify existing programs, or do away with programsEP 2.1.3a, 2.1.7b Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  14. 14. War on poverty is lost• Economic Opportunity Act creates a plethora of domestic anti-poverty programs• Many of these programs were ill-conceived, poorly run, or not sustainable• White House preoccupied with Vietnam War• Welfare rolls escalate• Economy falters, new demands for belt-tighteningEP 2.1.3a, 2.1.7b Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  15. 15. Last-ditch effort to reduce welfare rolls• Public outcry about “evils of welfare” intensifies• Welfare reform efforts focus on work and personal responsibility• Family Support Act (1988) offers glimmer of hope, but ends up being too little, too late• Lack of jobs that pay living wage keep welfare rolls high• “Contract with America” is launchedEP 2.1.3a, 2.1.7b, 2.1.8a Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  16. 16. End to welfare as we knew it• Republicans cut funds for low-income children, families, elderly, people with disabilities• Block grants to states• Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (1996) eliminates welfare entitlement, creates lifetime limit on benefits and strict standards for complying with the lawEP 2.1.3a, 2.1.7b, 2.1.8a Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  17. 17. End to welfare as we knew it (cont’d)• Welfare rolls decline precipitously• Most people who exit welfare are employed in low- paying, “dead end” jobs with few or no benefits• Community agencies unable to pick up slack created by welfare reform initiatives• White House touts declining welfare rolls as proof that welfare reform workEP 2.1.3a, 2.1.7b, 2.1.8a Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  18. 18. Current strategies for addressing poverty• Strong market and family system• Public assistance programs (TANF, Medicaid, SSI, general assistance)• In-kind benefits and tax credits (Earned Income Tax Credit, food benefits, housing assistance)EP 2.1.1a, 2.1.8a, 2.1.8b Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  19. 19. Other antipoverty programs • Direct provision of necessities • Empowerment efforts • Job training • Restructuring institutions to produce greater access to economic opportunity • No easy solutions – most experts suggest multiple strategies neededEP 2.1.1a, 2.1.8a, 2.1.8b Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  20. 20. 2010 and beyond• Single, low-income mothers and those receiving cash assistance have high rates of psychiatric illness• Rural mothers, especially poor, single mothers, face formidable barriers to employment• Reductions in food allotment results in high levels of food insecurity among non-citizen parentsEP 2.1.1a, 2.1.8a Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  21. 21. Impact of poverty on children• Family stress and conflict• Limited opportunities for learning at home• Lower-quality child care• Inadequate nutrition• Inadequate housing; increased homelessness• Lack of transportation; increased isolation• Factors interfere with brain development EP 2.1.6b Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  22. 22. TANF reauthorization plan (2006)• Strengthen federal-state partnership• Maintain self-sufficiency through work and additional constructive activities• Promote child well-being and healthy marriages• Encourage abstinence and prevent teen pregnancy• Improve program performanceEP 2.1.6b Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  23. 23. TANF reauthorization plan (2006)• Enhance child support enforcement• Reform food stamps to promote workEP2.1.6b Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  24. 24. HomelessnessA homeless person: Someone who lacks fixed, regular and adequate night-time residence, and…has primary night time residency that is a supervised shelter providing temporary living accommodations or a public or private place not designed for use as regular sleeping accommodations for human beings.EP 2.1.1a, 2.1.3a, 2.1.8a Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  25. 25. Characteristics of homeless individuals• Youth• Elderly• Women and families• People of color• Survivors of domestic violence• Veterans• People with mental illness and addictionEP 2.1.1a, 2.1.3a, 2.1.8a Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  26. 26. Homelessness and mental illness• 20-25% of single adults who are homeless suffer from some type of severe mental illness• Many people become homeless as a result of a mental illness• Others experience emotional problems as a result of being homelessEP 2.1.1a, 2.1.3a, 2.1.8a Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  27. 27. Homelessness and mental illness (cont’d)Homeless people with mental disorders face morebarriers to obtaining jobs, are in poorer health, andhave more contact with the legal system than housedindividualsEP 2.1.1a, 2.1.3a, 2.1.8a Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  28. 28. Homelessness and employment• Inadequate or no employment and lack of affordable rental housing leave many people homeless• It is difficult to find a job without a permanent address• It is difficult to keep a job when homeless, though 20% of urban homeless are employedEP 2.1.1a, 2.1.3a, 2.1.8a Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  29. 29. Homelessness and healthcareHomeless people:• Often experience poor health• Are at risk for tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, diabetes, hypertension, addictive disorders, and mental disorders• Lack access to good nutrition, and adequate personal hygiene• Are likely have no health insuranceEP 2.1.1a, 2.1.3a, 2.1.8a Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  30. 30. Homelessness and IsolationHomeless people:• Are likely to be isolated from families and traditional social roles• Often have no ties to a support network; loss of social support systems extends length of time being homeless• Tend to remain isolated even when they find housing because of stigma of being homelessEP 2.1.1a, 2.1.3a, 2.1.8a Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  31. 31. Policies and programs• Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act• Housing Affordability for America Act• Other programs focus mostly on emergency assistance, not long-term solutions or root causes of homelessnessEP2.1.8a, 2.1.8b Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  32. 32. Ending homelessness• Affordable housing• Employment and education opportunities• Discharge planning from institutions• Child care and education for children• Comprehensive health/mental health care• Programs that make it possible for homeless people to accumulate financial assetsEP 2.1.8a, 2.1.8b Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  33. 33. Role of social workers in fighting poverty• Public assistance programs• Faith-based organizations• Housing programs• Health and mental health clinics• School-based programs• Emergency shelters• Advocacy programsEP 2.1.1a, 2.1.8b Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  34. 34. Eliminating poverty has been elusive• It’s not that we haven’t tried (e.g., War on Poverty, Great Society)• Individualist perspective remains strong• Capitalism requires an underclass in order to thrive• Globalism has only amplified the problem• Political will to end poverty doesn’t seem to exist• Domestic priorities have taken a back seatEP 2.1.1a, 2.1.8a, 2.1.9b Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .

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