Chapter 1: Social Welfare, Past and Present

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What is social welfare?
The full range of organized activities of public and
voluntary agencies that seek to prevent, alleviate or
contribute to the solution of a selected set of social
problems

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Chapter 1: Social Welfare, Past and Present

  1. 1. SOCIAL WORK AND SOCIAL WELFARE: AN INTRODUCTIONby Ambrosino/ Shuttlesworth/ Heffernan/ Ambrosino Chapter 1: Social Welfare, Past and Present Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole, Publishing
  2. 2. Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole, Publishing
  3. 3. Social Work: A Competency- Oriented Education Council on Social Work Education (CSWE) - Defines Educational Policy and Accreditation Standards (EPAs) - Developed 10 “Core Competencies” and 41 Related “Practice Behaviors” Every student should master the Practice Behaviors and Core Competencies before completing the program Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole, Publishing
  4. 4. Resources Aligned to EPAS 2008 The Textbook – - “Helping Hands” icons call attention to content that relates to Practice Behaviors and Competencies - “Competency Notes” at the end of the chapter help put the Practice Behaviors and Competencies in practical context Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole, Publishing
  5. 5. Resources Aligned to EPAS 2008 (cont’d) The Practice Behaviors Workbook developed with the text provides assignable exercises that assist in mastering the Practice Behavior and Competencies Additional on-line resources can be found at: www.cengage.com/socialwork Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole, Publishing
  6. 6. Chapter 1: Social Welfare, Past and Present What is social welfare?The full range of organized activities of public andvoluntary agencies that seek to prevent, alleviate orcontribute to the solution of a selected set of socialproblemsEP 2.1.3a Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning. Brooks/Cole, Publishing
  7. 7. Chapter 1: Social Welfare, Past and Present Relationship between social welfare and social work?Social work is the primary profession that workswithin the social welfare system and with thoseserved by the systemEP 2.1.1a Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing
  8. 8. Chapter 1: Social Welfare, Past and Present The value base of social welfare - Whose role is it to help those in need?Historical differences in value perspectives:• Judeo Christian humanitarianism• Laissez- faire economic doctrine• Residual and institutional perspectivesEP 2.1.3a, 2.1.8a Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing
  9. 9. Chapter 1: Social Welfare, Past and Present Role of English heritage in the U.S. social welfare systemIn England:• Church and feudal system in early years• Could no longer handle number of poor during Industrial Revolution• English Parliament responded by passing Elizabethan Poor Law in 1601EP 2.1.3a, 2.1.8a Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole, Publishing
  10. 10. Chapter 1: Social Welfare, Past and Present Elizabethan Poor Law of 1601• “Worthy poor” placed in almshouses (indoor relief)• Able-bodied poor placed in prisons or workhouses• Guided philosophy of aid to poor in U.S. until Social Security Act of 1935EP 2.1.3a, 2.1.8a Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole, Publishing
  11. 11. Chapter 1: Social Welfare, Past and Present Impact of Elizabethan Poor Law on U.S. social welfare policy• Clear government responsibility for the poor• Government authority to force people to work and families to care for their dependents• Local governments responsible for poor• Strict residency requirementsEP 2.1.3a, 2.1.8a Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole, Publishing
  12. 12. Chapter 1: Social Welfare, Past and Present Social welfare in Colonial America• Philosophy of English Poor Law• Poor “warned out”• Indentured servitude and slavery• Indoor relief - assistance in homes of others, in poorhouses, or in prisonsEP 2.1.3a, 2.1.8a Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole, Publishing
  13. 13. Chapter 1: Social Welfare, Past and Present After the American Revolution• Outdoor relief - cash assistance in own home• New organizations to assist the urban poor: - New York Society for the Prevention of Pauperism – “Friendly visitors” - Society for Improving the Conditions of the Poor - Charity Organization SocietyEP 2.1.3a, 2.1.8a Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole, Publishing
  14. 14. Chapter 1: Social Welfare, Past and Present Caring for specific populations• Dorothea Dix (military ill/insane)• Jane Addams/Hull House – social reform• Charity Organization Societies (“scientific charity” and individual support)EP 2.1.8b, 2.1.9b Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole, Publishing
  15. 15. Chapter 1: Social Welfare, Past and Present Great Depression and New Deal• First time federal government provided direct aid to individuals• Established historical precedent for health and welfare services• Federal Emergency Relief Act (FERA)• Works Progress Administration (WPA)• Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) EP 2.1.8b, 2.1.9b Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole, Publishing
  16. 16. Chapter 1: Social Welfare, Past and Present Social Security Act (1935)• Most significant piece of social welfare legislation ever passed in U.S.• Provided for: - Social insurance (Social Security) - Public assistance (need-based, Aid to Dependent Children - ADC) - Health and welfare servicesEP 2.1.8b, 2.1.9b Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole, Publishing
  17. 17. Chapter 1: Social Welfare, Past and Present Post-Social Security EraGreat Society Programs in 1960s:• Medicare and Medicaid• Civil Rights Act• Economic Opportunity Act (Head Start)Conservatism in 1970s and 80sEP 2.1.8b, 2.1.9b Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole, Publishing
  18. 18. Chapter 1: Social Welfare, Past and Present Welfare Reform• Rapidly expanding welfare costs• Era of conservatism• More women in workforce• Welfare devolution• Family Support Act of 1988 - emphasis on work, job training, child care, health careEP 2.1.8b, 2.1.9b Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole, Publishing
  19. 19. Chapter 1: Social Welfare, Past and Present Clinton – “end welfare as we know it”• Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996• Ended AFDC as national entitlement program• Replaced with Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF)• Stringent work requirements, maximum lifetime benefit limit of 5 years• Limited benefits for unmarried mothers < 18EP 2.1.8b, 2.1.9b Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole, Publishing
  20. 20. Chapter 1: Social Welfare, Past and Present G.W. Bush Years• Welfare roles reduced, but more working poor and rapidly growing underclass• Economic downturn means fewer jobs, most without benefits• Local communities feeling the brunt• Federal priorities not geared toward helping those in need• Hurricane Katrina and beyondEP 2.1.8b, 2.1.9b Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole, Publishing
  21. 21. Chapter 1: Social Welfare, Past and Present The Obama Years• Hope that government would address social welfare needs of underserved populations• Economic collapse in U.S. has worldwide impact• Federal government launched broad-scale economic stimulus package• Landmark health care reform legislation passed• U.S. budget deficit reaches $1 trillionEP 2.1.8a, 2.1.8b, 2.1.9b Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole, Publishing

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