Overseen by the Surgeon General, the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps is a diverse team of more than 6,500 highly qualified, public health professionals. Driven by a passion to serve the underserved, these men and women fill essential public health leadership and clinical service roles with the Nation’s Federal Government agencies.1798—John Adams, second president of the United States, signed into law the Act for the Relief of Sick and Disabled Seamen. A year later, Congress extended the Act to cover every officer and sailor in the U.S. Navy. The Act led to the gradual creation of a loose network of locally controlled marine hospitals along coastal and inland waterways.1870—Hospital administration was centralized in the Marine Hospital Service, with its headquarters in Washington, DC, under the position of supervising surgeon (later Surgeon General).1871—John Maynard Woodworth, the first supervising surgeon, adopted a military model for his medical staff as part of system reform. Woodworth instituted examinations for applicants, put physicians in uniforms, and created a cadre of mobile, career-service physicians who can be assigned to various marine hospitals.1878—The prevalence of major epidemic diseases such as smallpox, yellow fever, and cholera spurred Congress to enact the National Quarantine Act to prevent the introduction of contagious and infectious diseases into the United States. Congress later extended the Act to prevent the spread of disease among the states. The task of controlling epidemic diseases through quarantine and disinfection measures, as well as immunization programs, fell to the Marine Hospital Service.1889—Legislation formalized the Commissioned Corps as the uniformed services component of the Marine Hospital Service. Congress organized Corps officers along military lines, with titles and pay corresponding to Army and Navy grades.1902—Name of the Marine Hospital Service expanded to Public Health and Marine Hospital Service to reflect growing responsibilities. The Service now carried out the medical inspection of arriving immigrants, such as those landing at Ellis Island in New York, as well as former State quarantine responsibilities. Commissioned Corps officers played a major role in fulfilling the Service's commitment to preventing disease from entering the country.1912—Name of the Public Health and Marine Hospital Service shortened to the Public Health Service (PHS). Legislation enacted by Congress broadened the powers of the PHS by authorizing investigations into human diseases (such as tuberculosis, hookworm, malaria, and leprosy), sanitation, water supplies, and sewage disposal.1930 and 1944—Corps officers expanded to include engineers, dentists, research scientists, nurses, and other health care specialists, as well as physicians.Today—The Commissioned Corps continues to fulfill its mission to protect and promote the public health of our Nation. With more than 6,500 active-duty officers, the Corps is working to create a global world free of preventable disease, sickness, and sufferingThe PHS uniform traces its roots back to 1871 when John Maynard Woodworth, the first supervising surgeon (now known as the Surgeon General), organized the service along military lines. The uniforms reflect the proud legacy and tradition of the more than 200-year-old service. Uniforms link today’s officers to their heritage and connect them to past officers. Since they represent the Commissioned Corps history and tradition, rigorous standards apply to wearing the uniform and every officer upholds those standards with pride.Dental, dietary, engineer, environmental health, medical, nurse, pharmacist, scientist, therapist, veterinarian
C3HeB/FeJ mice are highly susceptible to TBVerapamil appeared to enhance the effectiveness of standard anti-TB therapyWith further study, the use of efflux-pump inhibitors may allow for shorter courses of antimicrobialsHowever, drug-drug interactions with verapamil and rifampin in humans is concerning and may not be of utility in humans
What I Did With My Biological Sciences Degree by Thaddus Wilkerson
Working as an Infectious Diseases Clinical Pharmacy Specialist
Minimizing the Impact through Antimicrobial Stewardship
Antibiotic Resistance is a Public Health Crisis
At this time, I vow to devote my professional life to the service of
all humankind through the profession of pharmacy.
I will consider the welfare of humanity and relief of human
suffering my primary concerns.
I will apply my knowledge, experience, and skills to the best of
my ability to assure optimal drug therapy outcomes for the
patients I serve.
I will keep abreast of developments and maintain professional
competency in my profession of pharmacy.
I will maintain the highest principles of moral, ethical, and legal
I will embrace and advocate change in the profession of
pharmacy that improves patient care.
I take these vows voluntarily with the full realization of the
responsibility with which I am entrusted by the public.
Mission: Protect, promote and advance the health and safety of our nation.
Corps officers are involved in
disease control and prevention
regulation of food and drugs
mental health and drug abuse
health care delivery
The origins of the Public Health Service are to be found with sailors and medical care.
July 16, 1798 – 5th Congress passed an Act, signed by President John Adams
Rapid and effective response to public health needs
Leadership and excellence in public health practices
Advancement of public health science
“to provide for the accommodation of sick and disabled seamen.”
Today: more than 6,500 active-duty officers working to create a global world free of
preventable disease, sickness, and suffering.
American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy
Calculus, Statistics, Physics with lab
General biology with lab
Human anatomy & physiology
Microbiology with lab
Upper division bioliogy (ex Molecular)
General Chem with lab, organic chem with lab
Reading & writing for college or equivalen
Liberal arts / Humanities
Human Behavior (social,behavioral, psych)
Sante Fe – Policy &
DC – AAIP
VA – ambulatory care
Clinics & volunteering
with health fairs
Oral and IV
Works by inhibiting
topoisomerase II, IV
◦ Enzyme needed to
◦ Blocks cell division
◦ Efflux pumps
resistance genes for
proteins that block
◦ Mutations in DNA
More than 2 million people are
infected by drug-resistant germs each
23,000 die of their infections
The biggest killer is C. difficile
Up to half the antibiotic Rx written are
These unneeded antibiotics are
making the superbug problem worse.
There are not any new antibiotics
immediately in development that will
Older antibiotics with toxic side effects
are the last line defense.
NBC NEWS Sept 16, 2013
Abx resistant TB
Mycobacterial efflux pump promotes intracellular
survival and may mediate tolerance to antimicrobials
Verapamil – drug for heart disease
C3HeB/FeJ mice model of TB – lung lesions like
◦ Infected with aerosol M. tuberculosis
◦ Given standard anti-TB treatment (RIPE) + Verapamil
◦ Lung colony-forming units progressively decreased and lower
than standard treatment at 2, 4, 8, & 12 weeks
◦ All mice culture negative at 4 months with verapamil
◦ Lower 3-month relapse
J Respir Crit Care Med 2013 Sep 1
Treat infection not
Use the most effective
drug, dose with the
Minimize the spread of
Thaddus D. Wilkerson, Pharm.D., BCPS