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Sen educational software design and development model

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Presents a model for design and development of educational software for users with Special Educational Needs (SEN).

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Sen educational software design and development model

  1. 1. ADAPTING A GENERAL EDUCATIONAL SOFTWARE DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT MODEL FOR THE NEEDS OF SPECIAL EDUCATION Temenuzhka Zafirova-Malcheva Sofia University "St. Kliment Ohridski“ Faculty of Mathematics and Informatics (Bulgaria) EDULEARN 2015 *** 7th International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies *Barcelona* 6th - 8th July 2015
  2. 2. Their problems and educational needs can strongly vary and they need special learning approach. Therefore knowledge about the users group is critically important in the software design for SEN. This is a large group that includes children and students with various types and degrees of disabilities. So the educational component involves the Instructional design elements that helps to define learning problem, objectives and content of the software. The third area Special education provide knowledge about the users group – students with SEN – which is very specific. The character of educational software supposes that it has specific educational content and addresses specific learning goals. Software engineering provides the methods and tools to build software products. Design and development of educational software for users with SEN requires knowledge and skills from three different areas - software engineering, education, and special needs. Main factors for design and development of educational software for SEN Software engineering Education Special needs Methods Tools Learning problem Learning objectives Learning content Various types and degrees of disabilities
  3. 3. At each stage the model allows a return to the previous one and make changes if necessary. It makes the model flexible and adaptable. The last three stages of the model – Design, Implementation, and Testing & Evaluation – are related to Design & Development phase. They concern the use of elements from the software design models The first three stages – Needs analysis, Audience analysis, Task analysis – belong to the Analysis phase. They are related to the use of instructional design elements. The ESDD model consist of two general phases: Analysis, and Design & Development. They include six stages. The main goal of Educational Software Design and Development (ESDD) model is to serve as a tool through which students can easily build systematic knowledge on design and development of educational software. Audience analysis General educational software design and development model Testing & Evaluation ImplementationDesign Needs analysis Task analysis Analysis Phase Design & Development Phase Redesign Deployment The final step is software deployment and maintenance.
  4. 4. As a whole, the basic structure and elements of the ESDD model are saved. The main change in the new model is the shift of focus from the Needs analysis to the Audience analysis and particular additional elements and relations are added to this stage. Therefore in this case, before to make needs analysis, we need first to make an audience analysis. This change is very important because when we talk about special needs software design the specifics of the users group plays very important role. The knowledge of users’ abilities and problems help us to identify their needs. The adaptation of the ESDD model for the needs of Special Educational Software Design and Development (SESDD) requires some changes. The main change affects the order of the ESDD model stages. Adapting a general ESDD model for users with special needs Audience analysis Testing & Evaluation ImplementationDesign Needs analysis Task analysis Analysis Phase Design & Development Phase Redesign Deployment
  5. 5. In the following slides each stage and its elements will be presented separately. As we already noted SESDD model keeps the stages of the general ESDD model, only invert the sequence of the first two stages and adds some additional elements to Audience analysis stage. Stages in SESDD model Testing & Evaluation ImplementationDesign Needs analysis Develop software prototype Technical software testing Needs analysis Learning problem Learning goals Information -processing analysis Learning objectives Learning prerequisites Software requirements Learning content Learning activities and tasks Interface design Software functionalities Testing software functionali ties Evaluation End users testing Expert testing Task analysis Analysis Phase Design & Development Phase Software activities and tasks Define type of software and scenario Redesign Deployment Audience analysis Type of disability Problems User group General software and system requirements
  6. 6. This stage is unlikely to be modified, but it can come back to it at a later stage in the software process. General software and system requirements defined in this stage will be used later in the stage of design. This may not be a learning problem for users without hearing problems because they do not need such kind of knowledge and skills, to express their needs, and to communicate with each other. But these skills are critical for deaf persons. For example, if we have deaf users, they may need to learn a Sign Language. This is specific learning problem because it is typical for this particular group of users. Specific learning problems are related with problems that disability causes and person need to acquires some specific abilities, knowledge or skills to overcome the limitation caused by the disease. The specific learning problems identified in this stage are very important because, based on them, in the next stage a software learning problem will be defined. These requirements actually are very important for the users with SEN because they help to make software more accessible, and to overcome user limitations. Only then we can search an answer to other needs. For example, if our potential users are with low vision, we may require: software to provide custom settings for text and objects size, text and background color; software to maintain assistive technology products, such as screen readers and Braille displays, etc. Based on the physical problems that disability causes, some general software and system requirements can be identified. Defining users group includes to describe their type of disability, to identify the problems that it cause, and the needs that arise. We need to define clear both physical and specific learning problems that disability causes. The first stage in the SESDD model is the audience analysis. It starts with defining the group of users with SEN for which software will be designed. Audience analysis Problems User group Redesign Type of disability General software and system requirements Design Needsanalysis
  7. 7. We can return to this stage later in the design process.Once the learning problem is clearly defined we can proceed to the next stage – Task analysis. This step is essential because if we start to build educational software without prior defining the learning problem that must be solved, the final result may not meet the user's needs. So it is critical to "Understand the problem before you build a solution." At this stage we must first identify the real needs of the users group, including the already defined in the previous stage specific problems and needs, and then by analysis to select the most essential of them that will becomes the software learning problem. As we mentioned earlier, learning needs can be related with a specific learning problems and any of those problems can become the software learning problem. The second stage is needs analysis. It is aimed to detect user’s learning needs and to identify the learning problem that software should address. Redesign Needs analysis Learning problem Needs analysis Taskanalysis Audienceanalysis
  8. 8. We can go back to this stage later in the software process.After software requirements, learning content, learning activities and tasks are defined we can go to the next stage - Design. From the content we define different activities and tasks through which the intended knowledge and skills will be learned. These requirements are related with standards in software design and they are valid regardless of characteristics of the user’s group. Besides, here should be described various requirements, related to best practices in the user interface design. For example, the opportunity to return to the main menu from anywhere in the program; the options to adjust the level of complexity, etc. These requirements identified in this stage are related to common settings and features that the software must support, and depend on users’ needs. For example the ability to adjust the volume level. Prerequisite knowledge and skills are determined for each goal. The learning objectives for each goal and each prerequisite are defined, and based on these objectives we identify learning content that software will represent, and main software requirements. The third stage is task analysis. This stage is the same as in general ESDD model. Here, based on the results from needs and audience analyses, we define software learning goals. Task analysis Learning goals Information- processing analysis Learning prerequisites Learning objectives Software requirements Learning content Learning activities and tasks Design Needsanalysis Redesign
  9. 9. As in the other stages we can go back to this stage later in the software process.After the interface design is ready we can proceed to the stage of Implementation.Another advantage when using storyboarding is the possibility to obtain a feedback from the end users before the start of the implementation. This gives an opportunity to include evaluation in the earlier stages of the software development. The storyboarding helps to define and describe: the type and place of elements of each screen, what will be their functionalities and relations with other elements. Through the storyboarding can also be described how the use of an element will affect the behavior of the program. To make interface design in this stage we use the method of storyboarding.Base of functionalities the interface is designed.This stage differs from the general ESDD model, because to define the software functionalities here we use not only the requirements described in the task analysis stage, but also those that were identified in the first stage of audience analysis. Then the software functionalities are determined, based on the software requirements from the stages of Audience and Task analysis and software type, scenario, activities and tasks. According to the scenario, software activities and tasks, which will be performed by users, are defined. Another major advantage is that actually any of the other types of educational software, such as drill and practice, tutorials, problems solving or simulations, can be presented in some form of game. When we choose the types of software we have to pay special attention to educational games and benefits of their use with SEN students, as motivation generated by specific design of activities, competitive element, prizes and especially entertainment. In the stage of Design, based on the results from the Task analysis we build a model of the software that will be developed. In this stage we specify the type of the software and the software scenario. Needsanalysis Redesign Define type of software and scenario Design Software requirements Taskanalysis Interface design Software functionalities Software activities and tasks Learning activities and tasks Learning content General software and system requirements Audience analysis Implementation
  10. 10. When the software has passed technical testing we may go to the final stage - testing software functionalities and evaluation. This is required because in the implementation of the prototype we can detect problems such as lack of essential functionality or inconsistency between the requirements. Therefore it is necessary to go back and adjust software design. In case of identified problems in the software design the process can go back to some of the previous stages to make particular changes. This improvement cycle continues until the prototype start to work correctly under certain predefined conditions. After prototype is ready we have to test is it work properly and debugging it if it is necessary. Usually it is necessary . The stage of implementation is related to the development of software prototype base on the developed software model in design stage. Redesign Implementation Develop software prototype Technical software testing Design Testing& Evaluation
  11. 11. Depending on the evaluation results the software can go back to be improved, or can be provided to the end users and maintained. Collaboration with experts in the early stages of the design can save a lot of efforts and resources in its development. At this stage final software prototype is tested and evaluated by experts and end users. Collaboration with experts (psychologists, speech therapists) not only in the last stage, but also through the whole process of software design is very important. Redesign Testing and Evaluation Testing software functionalities Evaluation End users testing Expert testing Deployment Implementation
  12. 12. At the same time it is enough flexible and can be easy adapted for any kind of educational software and to any kind of user’s groups. The same steps can be followed in development of educational software not only for students with SEN but also for gifted students. This model provides an easy way to combine instructional and software design methods and tools with knowledge from special needs area to receive the best results in final software product. In parallel the model is designed with special accent to the educational side of the software in order to assure the achievement of the defined learning goals. The SESDD puts the user in focus considering his/her specific characteristics and needs. Conclusion User in the focus Special accent to the educational side Assure the achievement of the learning goals Flexible and adaptable Combines instructional and software design methods and tools with knowledge from special needs area
  13. 13. ADAPTING A GENERAL EDUCATIONAL SOFTWARE DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT MODEL FOR THE NEEDS OF SPECIAL EDUCATION Temenuzhka Zafirova-Malcheva tzafirova@fmi.uni-sofia.bg Sofia University "St. Kliment Ohridski“ Faculty of Mathematics and Informatics (Bulgaria) EDULEARN 2015 *** 7th International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies *Barcelona* 6th - 8th July 2015
  • ParvathySalim

    Mar. 10, 2017
  • ssuserb5430e

    Sep. 28, 2015
  • miroslavanikolova583

    Sep. 26, 2015

Presents a model for design and development of educational software for users with Special Educational Needs (SEN).

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