Report of a Journey in PalestineAuthor(s): Henry PooleReviewed work(s):Source: Journal of the Royal Geographical Society o...
Da)nascus,                 Ilauran, and the Lehanon                                        Mountainso                     ...
3i0           40        60   35?   1;-       20   - So   11                          t{   ;     i                5        ...
tWansverse                               Sec            of ihe Comltly                                                    ...
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56          POOLES   Repoat a Journeyi7 Palestine.                           ofseasonfor shipping      fromJafEa fromJune ...
POOLES    Reportof a Jouaneyin Palestine.                                                                          57been ...
8          POOLE8   Rey)oat Jourlley PulestiJIe.                          ofd      in2-05 r.M.,which by aIleroidwas S495 f...
100LES   Reportof st Jouw irzPalestilae.                                      ey                                          ...
60          POOLERS of a Jourseyin l9alestWize.                Reporttowercalle(lEl Zuereh,and at 12 35 pitchedour tents o...
POOIXESRepoat a                           of            Journeyin Palestine.                   1runningstream,I caught sev...
62           Pool,es Report a >()?trtley                           o:                in   Palesti?2e.es Ashkha,"   and at ...
POOT,ES   Reportof a Journeyin Palesti7te.                63streamS Vadi el Deraah,"flowinO          "                    ...
64         POOLES of a Jolt.rney Palestine.               Re7)ort          indepressions  were observable the table-land, ...
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(;(;        POOLES                 Repo?t a Joualney Palestiaze.                      of         in   November Sunday.-I w...
POOJ,ES   Reporto.fa Jo2lra2ey Palestine.                                        in                    7gained the summito...
68          POOLES                 Reportof a Journe,y Palestine.                                   insometimesto have flo...
OOLE    8 Rq)ost     of a J0UR8?ICX iZ. Paleti>ze.         69the g;raves,    aboutlOOft.     abovethe sea. Fromthe stateof...
()               Reyv07t        in Palestine.             POOLES of a Jozmrne?ythe surrounding   eountry. We thenvisitedth...
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  1. 1. Report of a Journey in PalestineAuthor(s): Henry PooleReviewed work(s):Source: Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London, Vol. 26 (1856), pp. 55-70Published by: Blackwell Publishing on behalf of The Royal Geographical Society (with the Institute ofBritish Geographers)Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1798345 .Accessed: 20/03/2012 17:41Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at .http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jspJSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range ofcontent in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new formsof scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org. Blackwell Publishing and The Royal Geographical Society (with the Institute of British Geographers) are collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London.http://www.jstor.org
  2. 2. Da)nascus, Ilauran, and the Lehanon Mountainso 55obligedto correcttheir positions, assuncedby the best autho- asrities, in order to lnake them agree with my oYvn observations.Having laid down these places,I constructed severalroutes the1 had fUllowed betweenthem,and thus fixed with care the stationon the sumulitof the lofty peakaboveBludan. I then laid downthe stationsof observation Hermon,Jebel 0inVyeh, Mania on rellandrell es-Sa]alliyeh, fromeach of which,with the exceptionofthe secorld, hadtuAen anglesof cllltAeothers. On the basis I thethus formetl, constructed wllolefrommy itineraries, very I the andnumerous bearings. It urillthlls be obseIved,that the maphas no claim to strictaccuracy, therewerello poiiltstvitAlin bouncls 77zy sulvey, as the ofastrollolllically fixed to serYe as a basis. I have encleavoure(l,however, a)proximate closelyto the truthas possible; and I to ashave been care?ful de]ineatew-ith to accuracythe relativepositiosof the severalprovinces, cities, and vi]lages. It hAs often l)eento ule a subjectof regrettllat, fromthe wantof tlle requisiteinstruIrsents,have not beenable to improve I theInanyopportunities have had of clscertainingom astronomical I fiobservation, true positionof many importanttowns in this theiilteresting country. *Verethe latitudesandlongitudes Damas- ofcus, Hums,Busrall,and a few otller places ascertained, accu-anrate andfull mapof this sectionof SyriacouldllOW be collstructed.This, however,I can scarcely hope to accomplish, I have foralreadyfoutldit to be ratlleran expensiveamusement conducttoscientificinvestigations a countrylike Syria, whereone is de- inpendentwhollyon his own resources.VI. Reportof a JouSzeyi?b Palestine. By Mr. HENRY POOLE6. Commllrlicatedby the EARLof CLARENDON.September 1855. Leaving (:onstantinople Jaia by the 27, forsteamer,we stoppeda SllOlt time at Gallipoli,the l)ardanelles,Tenedos,WIitylene,Smyrna, Chio,Rhodes,Marsine, Alexandretta,Latakia,Larnacain Cyprus,to land and take in goods and pas-sengers. October Sull(lay.- Arrivedat Beyrut. 7, October NVe 9. stoppedfor a shorttime at MountCarmel, andanchored Jaia at 3 P.M. of October10. The Vice Consularrangedaboutengaginghorse3to take us to Jerusalem. He informedme that 150 okes or400 lbs. were a camels load from Jerusalem; the charge forcarriage25 piastresor 4s. 2d. per load. The chargebr storagewas 10 piastres or ls. 8ct.per load for a reasonabletillle; the
  3. 3. 3i0 40 60 35? 1;- 20 - So 11 t{ ; i 5 *(<-: ;Xap ilitrate to X5PoolesJouzrey t
  4. 4. tWansverse Sec of ihe Comltly be trowa& Saxia, also to dLe DeaASea. Th.e.udes wereta by SneraiQl MeRi. g 2 3 Pook,F&Y a A t 2 3 3 ? ilorrxontal forboi Secaons Scale .5 lo 20 A;B. s7?zAf:d,ades shzrw 17r Ene of pafh>arl, Weg siof XOeaiL Sea>.
  5. 5. ,F&Y1856 . Og_ . m .e C) V) O i C_ ,,,> z , C Cx _ o U O-
  6. 6. 56 POOLES Repoat a Journeyi7 Palestine. ofseasonfor shipping fromJafEa fromJune to November. The wasprincipal importsweresalt and manufactured goods; the exportswerecottonand grain; population 2S,000. I left Jaffaat 4 P.M.and passed between hedges of pricklypears,protectingorange-tree3loadedwithfruit, for somedistance; the soil appeared be tored sand,andwhererockshowedit seemedto dip to the east. Thegroundrose graduallyuntil we came to Ramlehat 7 P.X.,wherewe restedat the houseof the Consular Agent. October I left Ramlehat 130 A.M., and rode over culti- 11.vatedground: at 4 A.X. we l)eganto ascendthe mountain-pass;the rock waslimestone, dipping about8? to 10? w.; we reachedthe summitat 6 .30A.1fl-, passed the village of Abu Gosh,and aChUrCll in ruinsat 7 A.M., as we descelldedon the E. side of theluountain. At 7 30 Yve reacheda spring, wherethe limestone hada slight dip to the E.; we then crossed another of limestone; hillpassed over a stonebridge, near the village of Kulonia, an(larrivedat Jerusalemat 10v30 A.M. By aneroidthe bottom of HezekiahsPoo] was 2064h ft. above the level of the Medi- terianean. Bedouinscame with camel3loadedwith raisins,very large and luscious; also carbonateof potash from the district of Salt to the east of the Jordan. October At 7 3() A.M. I felt threesmart 17. shocksof an earth- quakeat Jerusalem. At 3 P.M. I wentto meet Mr. ConsulFinn returning fromhis tour,atldaccompanied Graham his way Mr. on to Damascus, far as Nablus. We rode out at the Bethlehesu as Gate; over Scopus, by the base of Mouslt Gibeon, through Ram-Allah, campedat Bireh. Limestone and rocksprevailed the wholfewahr, and a good deal of the countrywas cultivatedin terraces. October I got sozneshelly limestone 18.- beforeleavingBireh. The rockon the top of the hill was nearlyflat, slightlyinclinedto tlle E.; large clearedspacesare used for threshing-floors.In an hourand a quarterwe arrivedat Bethel, whereis a large pool in ruins,also a tower. Ot1the top of the hill werelarge masses of l)luelimestonewithshells. An hourlater we passednear Ain-y- Borek,wherethe moulltain-road by tlie si(le of a precipice, was the mountain appeared havebeen split, for the stratification to on both sides of the ravine corresponded. Another hours ride brought U8 to Ain-el-hara-mich, the RobbersSpring, in a or arrowdefile. rhe perpen(licular rockswerecuriously marked, as if by torrentsof water,by deeplongitudinalgroovesup to their summit. We passed the Khan-el-Liban,then rode over an extensiveplain,near to Burin,and reachedNablus at 7 30 P.M., situated on the E. sicleof Mount Gerizim,whenceit is well sup- plied witil springsof water. October I wentto the top of MountGerizim,and during 19. the aSceIlt got nummulitic limestone; in sorllepartsthe rockshad
  7. 7. POOLES Reportof a Jouaneyin Palestine. 57been ill a liquid state, for one kind had overflowed and enca3edanother. By aneroid,the summitwas 24127 ft. abovethe Medi-terranean,and 1274 ft. above Nablus, to which we returnedat 7 P.M. Octobea 20. I rodfe Samaria, to passing througha great dealof fertile,well-watered country,and observedthat the springs ofNablus were the summit sources of streamsflowingboth ways,to the Jordan and to the A1editerranean.Most of the waybetween Nablus and Samariais covered with masses of flint,called by tlle inhabitantschalcedony. The hill of Saxnariaiscomposed limestone.* The land appearsto be fertile, and I ofsaw a great manymistletoes the olive-trees; indigoandsesame onW also grown the valley. ere in OctolSer 22. 1 left Nablus in companywith lIr. Finn at9-20 A.X., arldvisitedJacobsWell and the tombsof Joseph andEleazar; the rocks were everywherelimestone; we reaclledBirehat 8 P,M., wherewe campedfor the night. October 23. 07Ve Bireh at 9 A.M. and returne(lto Jeru- leftsalems t October 24.-I calledon the Consul,and arranged througllhimwith Mattien Fadlalleh for horses,tents,and provisions the for l)ead Sea; he also sent a messengerto Abu Daouk,sheikh ofthe Djahalins, a guar(l,as we hadto passthrough territory; for hisalso sent to Elijah Mashallam ask him to accompany and to me,act as interpreter. Octoher 25.-I visite(l the tombs and other remarkablesitesaroundJerusalern, while waitingfor the arrival of the guard ofAlabs. Oct(Jber At 8 45 A.M. I left Jerusalem and rode through 26.Betbany: the limestone dippedabout 15? to the E. At 11-05theroadto Jerichobranched to the E. Mte?oonafterpassednear off the rllinedKhan-el-Lachme, wherewhite noduleswith l)lackflint in the centrewerethicklystrewed about. At 11-45 we passed Durbez-zuar;saw Tirb-rearclleto the E. At 12*30 camse to the junction valleysDubbakand Cavernof Hiram-em-Dowrah; ofthe cisternsin lime?stone were dry. rhencewe rode S.E., andascendeda hill where chalk was vertical with a yellow tinge; strike N.N.W. and S.S.E. lhe roadvvasthroughbarrenhills an(l steep ravines,an(l at 115 P.M. we passed a curious pinnacleof sharpbroken rocks; at 1-4o we crosseda ridge, viherethin layers of sandstone alternated with the chalk; anda little farther the on, hills wele coveredwith red clay, and we reachedNebi Musat at* TheMediterranean bore s. 61?w. g MountEbal Sea .. .. .. s. 48? E. MountGerizim.. .. .. s. ,339 E. g Variation w. 1VD t Dr. lVlGowall, the Blitish hospital Jerusalem, registered rainfor of at has thesomeyears,andfound 108inchesthe greatestquantityin any orleyear, $ A hardfawn-coloured limestone, shelly, andfull of fragments bone also ofnuculx andlima in limestone.
  8. 8. 8 POOLE8 Rey)oat Jourlley PulestiJIe. ofd in2-05 r.M.,which by aIleroidwas S495 ft. beloxvJerusalem,and3291 ft. below the level of the Mediterranean. The soil smeltvery strong of sulphur,the rocks dippedto the N.W., and I gotspecimensof limestoneof a] ooliticstructure, also of a seam ofbituminous and calcareouslimestone,with pectens about 6 in.thick, of WhiC}l bowls, seals, &c. are made. Therulometer was89? Fahr.in the tent at 3 P.M. October 27. I left Nebi Musa with a single Arab at 4 A.M.to rideto the Dead Sea saidto be threehoursdistant. I reachedthe shorein an hourand a halE We rode throughsteep windingdefiles: the ground sounded harshly under the horses feet.Thermometer air 70?, in the Dead Sea 82?, and fell to 64? in11ahr. drying. I waded in to a depthof 4 ft., whereI filleela inbottlewith the water,and got a specimen clay and bituminous ofstone; this wasnearthe islandas markedon the maps,but whichI foundto be a promontory a few dea(lshrubsencrusted with withsalt upon it. The water was beautifullyclear and calm. Theline of drift-wTood 4 ft. above the presentlevel of the sea; wasrounded pebblesof differentkindsformedthe beach; but I couldnotfindeithersulphur,nitre,or bitumen. By aneroid sea was the1313t ft. below the Mediterranean, and 3450 ft. below Jeru-saleln. lIy Arabguide did not like me to remainlong, as sevenArabs of anothertribecamefromthe Jordanto see whowe were.We left the shoreof the Dead Sea at 6-30 A.M.; crossedthe firstridge at 6*50; passed over *^thatthotlght might havebeen the Ioriginallevel of theold plainat 7 1.z,and5322 ft. abovethe DeadSea. At 7 30 we reachedthe top of the mountain, 1025 ft. abovethe Dead Sea, and we got back to Nebi Musa at 7 50, havingbeen only 1120hourin returning. I left Nebi Musa at 9 30 A.M.,and arrivedat Jerusalemat 2 45 P.M., SO that a personmighteasily go in 62 hours from Jerusalem to the Dead Sea by thisroute. In the evening I arrangedwith Abu Daouk, that thenumberof the guardwas not to exceed 12 men, at 10 piastreseach perdiem,and 20 piastres diem for himse]falld horse. per OctoDer Sunday.-Adam Bek,deputyPasha,called on me: 28,he was muchinterested with the aneroid, anxiousfora railroad andto be madeto Jerusalem. October 29. I left Jerusalemat 10 30 A.M., and rode by wayof Bethlehem Urtas, vvhere to Elijah Mashallam joinedme. Thisvalley is very fertile,being watered by the Pools of Solomon,whichwe passedat 1-30 P.X. fESy aneroidthe aqueductwas 81 ft.abovethe bottomof the Pool of Hezekiahin Jerusalem. Thegroundkeptrisinguntil we reachedKhanCull at 515 P.M. WATearrived at Hebronat 6 30 P.M., where we encamped. WYolves,jackals, boars,foxes,badger;s, porcupines and abounded. A great leal of landis cultivatedX large vineyards ancl werenearthe town. ()ctcher 30. WAre to rerllain clayto enablethe lntlleteers hal all
  9. 9. 100LES Reportof st Jouw irzPalestilae. ey 59to get bar]ey-, water, and other articlesfor the journey. I wentto see a tree called Abraham Oak, 23 ft. in circumference, nearwllich I got two fosbil shfells. We afterwards rode to visit theruins of Rama,on the plain of Mamre,and passedly the E. sideof E]ebron, where the limestonewas nearlylevel, dippingslightlyto the S.E. At 2 P.M. we passedby Ain-es-Lin,whereI got fossilshells muchcrushed. rrherllins at Ramameasured 214 ft. fromE. to w. by 165 ft. s. to s.; the wallswere 5 ft. 10 ill. thick, ofshelly lirlleFstone. October 31. WYe E1ebron 815 A.X. and lXode left at nearlyS.,anclat 9 45 passedthe ruins of Ziph, about 1 m. off on our left.At 10 30 I visitedthe ruinsof Eln Sirkan,whichmust havebeena large city; soonafter, going due s., we peLssed otherruins,anelcarne to Birket-el-Kurlllel 12, where there is a ruinedtower, atextensiveruins,and a large pool filled up withdirt; but a goodspring of wateriXl cave on the s. side of the pool. FromEl a Kurrnel travelled E., and at 1 P.M. came to a well at Tawana, wethen crosseda ridge, and descendecl a plainon a S.E. course, illtOwith a dry water-course and rockysides; at 1a45P.M. we crossedanother ridge, and at 2 P.X. reached the encamplnentof the Djahalins, consistingof about 70 long tents ma(leof goats hair. Ourbaggagedidnot comeup until4 P.M., SO we hadto campthere. There were not any trees or shrubs on the route, after having left Hebron, the rocksof limestonecontinued unchanged. lMovember l.-We left the campof the Djahalin3at Tavvanat 315 A.1!d., aIadrode s. till 1015, when we calne to a well and wateredour horses; we left at 11 A.M., alld lode on a S.E. course till 12 25, when we came to the valley of Drippillgs (XYadi NIahras Lynch),wherechalk showedin severalplaces overlai(l of by limestone. At 140 P.M. we came to a ridge xvhere got I a view of the Dead Sea; at 2*10P.M. we reachedErmele,where I had a good view of the s. end of El Lisan,or the Peninsula, and the s. bayof the Dead Sea; we then descended steep bank a to a (lly brook,then rose again and crosseda ridge at .SP.M. with a high mountain (Masada) on our left. The countrywas quite barren wholeway,andvery hot. At 3v23we cameto a plain, the where the sheikhwanted to camp,but I thl)ughtit too early in the day, and- pushedon until 4 30, whenwe campedat the Bed of the Dervish. P;ckedup a small piece of lava. November 2.-We left the campat 810 A.M- and rode on a S.E. course; at 9 A.M. we passed a large Talkhatree, and then rode tllrougha defile,called the " Bazar Pass ;" tbe rock looked like cindel of sulphur. At 9e40 we passeelwhat appeal to be s ed alaold crater: the rocks dipped N., S.W., and S.E. At 11 A.X. we came to the top of the ridge Nejeb. NVe now deseended iills- iy a winding ,uath, and at 11 45 passed a rllined
  10. 10. 60 POOLERS of a Jourseyin l9alestWize. Reporttowercalle(lEl Zuereh,and at 12 35 pitchedour tents on theplain of Usdum. The temperatllIe the tent was90?. The inhorses to go to EmBerghek water, didnotretulnuntil had for and5 P.M., we wele notable to ride atlywllere.I wallse(l so downto the shoreof the Dead Sea, an{3 a bottleof the water, gottemperature it wasnot. clearas at the north butwas 83?; so end,more saturated brine. Crystallized extended yards witll salt 40in widthfromthe waters edge,al(l the lineof drift-wood 70 wasyards distant. I pickedup crystallized and sawa flockof sparabout blackandwhitebirds, 30 swimming a lirle and diving inoutin thewater. I found shells no upon silore. We passed the aholewhere carneI fallenthrough encrusted a had the sand,whichvvas about60 ft. above present the levelof the sea. Mally partssounded hollow, if thereweresubterranean as watercourses. Jovember -We rodeto the Cave of Us(lum, 3. whichI foundwasaboutmidway thelengthof themountain, on theeast of andor sidenextto thesea. Rocksalt wasvisible the wayalong allin the mountain sidewith limestone overlying it, witha generaldipof 45? w. The rocksof the cave werecomposed large7 oflooseS broken masses,so we couldnotpenetrate butI was far;toldby the Arabsas wellas thetent men,whohad beenalongwithDe SaulcyS wehadpenetrated that farther other than travel-lers as no oneprexriously observed longstalactites salt had the ofwhich discovered; yet by measurement notgoneover I and I had200 ft. in a direct intothe cave. I also observed there line thatwasa current air passing the caveandascending of into towardsthe roofwhele the stalactites vvere, I hadno doubtbutthere sowasa communication thetopof the moulltain thatplace. with atI got sparabovetherock salt, but couldnot find any llitre.Marshy groundat the southend of the Dea(lSea hada redap-pearance, themud toosoftforanyperson walkuponit. but was toOnreturning ourcamp, saw a flock nearly black to I of 100 wildfowl,diving flapping wings in theDeadSea,andI could and theirnotbutthink both flocks been that the had feeditlg the time. at Lorember Sunday. WA;e 4, attempted ascend to Mount Usdumfirom westside,and wentup a water-course a heightof the to 270ft. by theaneroid, whenI found sideso steepand{ullof thefissures, I didnotliketo proceed fearof breaking in- that for mystruments; therewerepinnacles saltin everydirection.The of highest pointmustbe 400 ft. abovethe Dead Sea. At 10 A.M. we left Usdumand rode alongthenvestern shore, I saw many deadtreesstanding the DeadSea for somedistance the in fiom shore the bay. At 10-45we cameto a brine in spring, tempera- ture90?, aboutlO0yardsdistantand 30 ft abosre levelof the thesea. It spreadoversomeextentof groundwherethe kali lallt grewfieely. At thedrift linfeand a few yarals fionlthe 1)eat1Sea, to whichthere was a hee comlllunication the lJy
  11. 11. POOIXESRepoat a of Journeyin Palestine. 1runningstream,I caught severallittle fishs from half an inch toone and a quarterinch ill length; I therefore thinktileremust befishin the sea from whosespawn these little ones 61ad been pRQ-duced. The same kind of fish some three inches long, wereafterwards seerl in the " Spring of the Morass"near the northend of the sea, but llone c:ouldbe found in any of the brooksrunninginto the sea uponthe west or southshore. A duckcameflyingacrossthe sea to this spot 3ust as we left it, mostlikely tofeed there A numberof caluelscclrne lTsdumfor sa]t; the toArabs;et 60 piastresor lOs.per load of 500 lbs. at Jerusalem,the purchaserpaying the Turkisll Government duty of 15 apiastresper load additional. A camelcouldnot makemore than24 tripsin a yearunderfavourable circumstances. l!Goueanber We left Usdum at 8-45 A.M., passed the Cave 5.at 10 A.M., and rode southuntil we canle to the end of Usdum;we thell crossed at 1110 a brool;,driedup ill places, fromwhichthe Alabsn at present,collect their salt. Thence we rode S.E.acrossa rnalshy plainwithouta sign of vegetation. The road isnot passal)le wet weather. I passedl I dry brooks stopped in andat lS I5, near the rallk growtilof reels on the eastern side ofthe plain,until the baggage-mules cameup. A very whiterallgeof mountains continuetl fromUsdul, and a countlessnuml)er s.oSconicalhills cosrered plain to the s. I saw the mountain theof Petra ill the distclnce, cotlld not distinguish openirlg but any inthat direction. Just as Be uere passingtllroughthe belt of reeds we wereattackedl;y a ban(l of Bedouin3 of the Beni Orkbe (45tribe)arlnetlwith spcar8 and pistols: fortunatelythey could notuse tlle for;lel among the tall reeds, which gave time for aparley. On(-} rny guards belonged to the Tamari tribe, of f;iendlywith the Ben; C)rkbe. They recognised each other7and he told them thclt my partywasunderthe protection his tribA of the Tamari; they thereforeagreed to let us passwithoutmoles- tation. Thes had threaterled first to shootAbu Daouk, as he at was at war withthem,and had stolena numberof their camels; one had thrown spear at me, which luckilyfell short*another his rode up and took hold of the muzzle of my gun, wh;th I then turr}edtoward3 body; uponwhich he left hold of it and rode his ofE. It thus turrled that we werefortunate havingengaged out in the Tamari. The Beni Orkbedismounted pilel theirspears and whilewero(lepastthem. We ga^7e sonseof thema little tobacco. This encounterdetained us until 130 P.M., when we passed along thlougha varietyof treesandshrubsand cu]tivated patches of ground. At 2 30 P.M. we crossedthreesmall brooksof swiftly rllnningwaternot far from each other,calledby the Arabs4Ain * These fish have beerl sent, through the lXritishAIuseum,to Sir John Richardson,who has named them Lebras, or Cyptinodum llummonis, and who has promisedto describe them. Cuvier describes siIrilar fish as heing follnd in the Red Sea.
  12. 12. 62 Pool,es Report a >()?trtley o: in Palesti?2e.es Ashkha," and at 3 P.M. came to a larre encampment the ofGhoranhi:the plainbeing;called Ghor. A siroccoat nightfirstfilledour tent with sand,and afterwTards it down. blew November A ccllmmorning. A ruinedtowercalledKasar- 6.Aswad was on the moulltainside, oppositeto the tents. Westartedat l0 A.M. and rode througha very large plantation c)f1zlaize, travelled by the lower or shoreroad. After passing andthe cultivated landsnearthe river Ashkhcl,we crosseda stagnantbrook,and rode along the side of a bay withverylittle salinein-crustation;we then passedlarge bouldersof conglomerate, after-wardsboulders red sandstone, whichsome had black veins of ofand othersred or yellow veins runningthrough them. At noonwe reachedthe llorth side of tlle bay, uThere pointof latldjuts aout into the sea about 2 m. acros3; it was coveredwith mimosaand other tlees neartlle base of the mountains,whiletlle otherparts 7ere coveredby bushesor rankvegetation. 7e then rodealonganother closeto the watersedge,whichwashesthe base bayof the mountain. The rocks here showeda horizontal stratifica-tion in a line parallelto the shore,havirlga dip to the east. Thehighest ridge hada red tinge,the next ridge was of a darkbrowncolour,while at theirbase were one or twoappearatlces chalk. ofA great manyplacesappearedlike extinctcraters,and the wholeline of mountains was ftlll of rents and sharppoints. At l P.M.we rodeacrossa secondpoint with a numberof tninosatrees onit, and nearthemsomeruins. I noticed stoneswhich had been twohewnand dressed; fartheron were nulnerous lilles of foundationsas of an extensive town. The tomb of the SheikhSalakh, or" Peace,"was also on the point. He is the patronsaintof theBedouins,whostill saerifice his tombbeforegoing on their pre- atdatoryexcursions. At 1e20 P.M. Ute rode through loose rockyground, which was furrowedby the winter rains. Two brookswerestill running. AVe thenrode roundanother and at 3 r.M bay,we came to the south side of the peninsula,El Lisan, or the" rongue." This svasthe spot whereIbrahimPasha foughtthefour tribes of Bedouins,viz.: Beni Orkbe, Beni Suebke, BeniHamide,andKerak. Ibrahimis said to havelost 20,000 meninthe battle and among the mountain passes, and the Bedouinstohave lost only 7,000 men. He did not subdue them. W0Te nextpassedthe Pool or Birketel Ketme, whiehmeasured ft. square82and l l ft. deepto the mud. It hadbeenplasterell inside,and thefirsteoat had been scoredfor the better adhesionof the seeond.Traeesof an aqueduet otherbuildings remained:this was, and stillno doubt, the site of an ancient eity, but not so large as theone near StleikhSalakhs tomb. I picked up a numberof shellsof Turritellain the pool. I thenrode east aerossthe peninsula;the soil appearedsulphurousa was full of smallhillock3 and anddry water-eourses. At 4 15 P.M. we eameto a smallswiftrunning
  13. 13. POOT,ES Reportof a Journeyin Palesti7te. 63streamS Vadi el Deraah,"flowinO " down into tlle bay formedby El Lisan. On our right on the main land, we observed ruinsmhichare called Khirbetawarken-el Suker,or ruinsof the sugarmills, whichwoul(l indicate tbat sugar-carles had been folmerlygrownthere. At 4 30 P.M. Wre cameto anothersettlement the ofGholanhi,who weremorenllnlerolls uncivilized and than those attlle Krst Ghor. Few of them, even ulen, had on more clothingthaxsa stron? cottonshilt. They mentioned that a shock of anearthquake had been felt thlee (lay-s before; it was also felt atJerusalem. Xovember The Beni Orkbe 7. returned withthirty-fivecamels,whichtlley had stolen froma village on the west side of Usdum,antl coollysaid tllat they had ShOt two men and a woman the ofAssaymis tril)e, who ha(l resisted them. They had llOtfed orreste(ltheirhorse3 sincethey partedfromus at the Ghor,andnowkilled a camel,upon which they feasted; and our Aral)s gladly-acceptedtl-leir invitatiollto .join tileln. At 10 30 A.M. I left thecalnpwith ElijallllIasllallatn, GhorSlleikh,and one moullted theArab, to explore the Ieninsula. Mtepassed a lnound,wllichwewere told was an old grave; saw tlle tracks of gazelles on thesantl; andat 11 15 we reached s.w. cornerof the Cove. Ihe thestratificatiotl the llills of El Lisanwas nearlyhorizontal, of withasligllt dil)to tTle east. At noonwe fountl greatmally(leadlocusts a Iyingon tlle beach; I also got specirnens sparan(l thin shales ofdiE)pillg S.E. about 5?, WiliCh continued llearly the wholeway tothe nortllpointof El Lisarl, wllichwe reachedat ]2 40 and wllereI tooktl-ebearings several of places;* filleda bottlewithwaterfromthe Dead S;ea,whicllwas,at least, llalf a mile frointhe foot of thellill. fl here wasnot any breakthrough rangeof hills, as indi- thecated by the map. I got a few specimens sulphurand some of hotryoidallimestone. At 1 2() P.M. we left androde along on thewest side of the Pellinsula; a ridge of rocksand breakers show-edfor somedistanceout in the sea fromthe northend,until we calne opposite Sebbell,wlleretheyagainunitedwitllthe shore. There to I saw threeduckssettle in the waterand swimalong,as if feeding at the edge of the surE. At 2 45 P.M I saw seven other ducks sitting on the e(lge of the shore. AVe tried but could not get withinsilot of eitherJot,whichappearedto be smallerthanthose we had previously seel. At 3 P.M. our horses scrambled the up south end of tlle sulphurhills, alld we reached tbe table-land at 3 30, wherethe aneroid madethe heightabout230 ft.abovethe Dead Sea; the barlks theravines of werenearlyperpen(3icular, and at the base of themI observed endsof trees stickingout as if the it had formerlybeen a line of drift-wood. Two large circulal * Mouth of river Arnon .. N. 303 E. Frank ATountain .. .. N. 202 w. ,, Callirhoe N. 202 E. Birket el Khalil .. .. N..54? W. Ellgedi Point .. .. N. I 22 W.
  14. 14. 64 POOLES of a Jolt.rney Palestine. Re7)ort indepressions were observable the table-land, on and I noticedthattherewas a hole at the root of almost everyshrub. The wholeway wasfull of holes and cracks,downwhichlain wouldrun, an(lthe surface appearedcoveredwith a sulphurouscrust, beneathwhich the soil was of a soft chalkycolour,and of a loosesandynature. The ridge was ,about2 rn.wide, but is wearingawayannuallyon both sides. We returnedto the campat 5 P.M. Ionly got two or three small bits of asphalt,and not any nitre:jackals were howling all night. l he Sheikh of the Beni Orkbewantedto esco1tllS to Kerakand the risrer Arnon, and whenhefoundthat we were not going there he demanded backshish,andAbu Daouk gave him 100 piastresto preventhim frombrinpngdownthe othertribesuponus; we also promised returnat once toto the west side of the Dead Sea. llovembe? Thermometer at 6 45 A.M. Some one had 8. 72?stolennly hammer it hung on my sad(lle,and I complained as tothe Sheikh; but it was too great a prize to be given up again.AVeleft the Ghorcamp at 9*15A.M. and rode to the ruinsof theSugarMills, or E(herbet tawarken-el Suker,and of whichI tookthe measurement. A finestream flowing was alongside; the ruinslay withinthe rangeof the mountains and cover a large area, sothat it must have beenthe site of a verttpopulous city. We leftat 11 A.M., havingsent the baggageon in a(lvance. At 11s40wepassedthe pool, and at 12 25 cameto the bay at the southside ofE1 Lisan; we then crosseda pointof land, and at 12d42cametoa second bay,wherewe rodecloseto thewaters edge. At 1a30P.M.we crossed two brooksof good running water, with oleandersbloomingon their banks. At 1b40P.M. we came to the Sheikh?stomband the ruinedtower,wherea partyof twelveBedouinshadposted themselves. They declaredwar againstAbu Daouk,andthreatened fire; he talked boldlyto them,althoughtherewere toonly five of us with him at the time, and we passed on withoutmolestation. We got back to the first Ghor encampment at3 3o P.M. I picked samples rock,whichhadapparently up of rolleddownfromthe mountains Moub. of lSovember Up at 3 A.M. packing; thermometer at 6 A.M. 9. 603A very small grey-breasted honey-bird into the terlt. We flewstartedfrom the Ghorat 8@10 A.M. I got someflowers and seedsfrom the osher-trees;also some black locusts,with yellowspots(Petasia3,whichwere resting uponthem. We passed the threestreamsat 8 36 A.M., and rode throughthe reecls,wherewe hadbeen attacked the Bedouins, 9i24 A.M. All wereglad to get by atout intothe openplain,which rodeacross. At 11 30 A.M. I went weinto a cave of Usdutn,wherewereimmenseblocksof rocksalt,butI could not find any nitre. Soon after we passed the principulcave, anfl reache(l northpointof Usdum at 12 St5. The sea thehad very sensiblyrecedfed fromthe shorewince were there,and we
  15. 15. -<>1 xs0I. ............................................. F - POOLE. Ret0?t vf a >ott?ll8vy it Palestille.I shouldthinkhad lowereda foot in perpenclicular height. Arab2werecollectingsalt fiom the beach. AXVe reachedE^X1 Berhekat>?-3s p.M., wilele marly rowsof largeandheapedstonesshowedthererliains anextensive of city. lnhere twe) were 3ools: one measured33 x 54, 6 x 8 ft. deep, antl11ad stepsat the northcorner, t.he fivesecond pool measuled38.3 x 3{3 9 x &.6deep. rrhelatter didnot appeaI havebeensquare. Tllere wele the remains a fort to oton the noIth or oppositeside l)f the raviIle. The blook wouneltllrou^,h rocks,and abouta QUAlttI of a mile inlandtheres as thea fall of 10 or 19 ft. fiom wllichpcsillt there had fornlerly beellan aqueduct leadingto tlle p()ols. HereI founlla cral)* andsolnefi esh-water shells.t It tl1ulldered keptveryhot at nightfbelnn artl83? in the tent at 1015 P.M. Lovember 10. I tookthe aweasurement tlleruinedfort. Abu ofDaouk told me that wherl boy he had crossedoverto E1 Lisaxl afromthis pointon a camel. ANe at 10*15A.M., and verysocon leftatterwllrds to letlvethe shore,as the mourltai?s had camedirectlyirlto the sen, an(l there was no l)each to lide along; we had totlasfelalont,a very bad path,about200 ft. abovethe level of tilesea. At 11-30 we passedovera hill, wherethe rocksdippedN.Wabout 30?. Arethe] descendedon to an extensiveplain, withsolllemimosa. trees grouing on it, wllichis ma1ked tlle mapas onthe pointof the occasional tord. At 11 48 A.M. we >assedtEle dryARradi-Eln-Dun,V ild Goats,wlli(*h somfetimes (1te)} or must 1)e rtsntfiom thUsize of the rolled stones in it. At 2 23 P.M. were. weluarallel the ruinsof the SugarAlills,arxlong w;th masseso-fbrohenlocks, and some horizontcll strataof tlle samekin(lof sulpilurous.l;Illestone as (>n Lisan, whichspreadoveran ilnonerlse full E1 areaof fi<sures with ste>psides. I sheald imaginetlat they had bee nrnadeby esllthquakses, afterwards rain hal and the dewn ctlrlie(lthe loose soiS borrltheir sides: some hill3 apl)e.re(l lilze rountltowers Ve rode betweentllelll and the nlollnttwires, si(Ses the otwrhich werenearlyperpendicularS theirsummi$s and some1000 ft..above us. At 2-40 Px. we came to Va(li Sebbeh,mrhere therewereextensiveruiIlson bothsides of the Wadi with indications ofpoolsorsits northern bank. The renlains uallsSwith towersat ofcertain distancesrunningparallel to t.he mountain,were easily-traceal also the wallsof buildings,withsquare sides,spreading ,:x3ver the plain. I observed the convulsions naturehadtaken that ofplace just along th&} of tlle west wall, whichremailled tbe line onupper level, whileall insideof the sllpposedtownhad been surlkdownto a lowerlevel. At 3 15 P.M. Wt carnped the foot of t}e atpathwayleading up to Masada. Our CUlp, by alleroifl,tas563 ft. above the Dead Sea; thelmometer dt 5 3t) P.M. tthE S()holses w(re wateledat a springabouta mile to the 1101 th. * ahelphl$s. t Melallopsis, 3.lCeillsliXl + Cil c unlvalIelxiellof Sils a accol d inr t<,J(,nit h .,s, ll
  16. 16. (;(; POOLES Repo?t a Joualney Palestiaze. of in November Sunday.-I walkedpartof the way up the moun- 11,tain, passeda cave* in the limestone rock,and ascended 429 ft. toabovethecaulp,whenI foundthe pathso narrow, loose stolles withand precipitous si(les,that I returned. l!Govember 12.-AVe left Sebbehat 8 A.M.; the air had a sul-phurous smell. Bre rodealongwhatappeared bean old Roznan toroad,the stonesbeing cleared for about20 ft. in width,near]yina straightcourse. At 8 30 A.Bl. we cameto a coarsesandstone, inthin layers,dippingS.E. about 10?; the stratification the moun- oftainsappearedto be nearlyhorizontal. At S 45 we came to theWadi of Drippings, outlet of the brookwhichwe crossed the fromHebron,and it took us 12 minutesto ride acrossthe Wadi. At9-12 we passedan Arab encampment, where the Sheikhandmostof his men had spentSunday. It boredue west of the northendof El Lisan. At 10 26 we passedthe Wadi el Khubera,or theSpies. At 11v22we rode downon to the plainBirketel Khalil,where traditiollsays that Abrahamturned the salt into stone.Numeroussmall heapsof calcareousmatterare scattered about,svhich look like salt-heaps a distance. I observed sulphurous at asmell comingfromthe sea at this point. At 19915we arrivedatthe baseof Engedi,whichwe ascended highas the spring, as whichmras of temperature, air being86?.t By aneroid, spring 8.3? the thewas 710 ft. abovethe Dead Sea. SomeArabsof the Rashidy tribewerethere,and talkedveryangrily Abu Daouktakingstrangers ofthroughtheir territory,until the Tarnaritold them that ElijahlIashal]amwas iom Artas, when they became very civil; theysaid, " They and the heir of Artas wereall of one tribe." Therewerethe remains a mill at the spring. The fruitof the osher- oftree was muchsmallerthanthosegatheredon the Ghor. A littleattention irrig;ation to would make the wholeof the hill-sideveryfruitful,and the remainsof formerterraceswere clearlvvisible.We descended our camp,which reachedat 2a10P.M., situAte( to weby a spring of gol)d water, and shade(l by a belt of giganticreeds. trhe Arabsboughta lamb,WhiC}l they roasted a hole of inheatedrocks. The cliff was about200 ft. high oll the northsideof the stream,composedof coarse alld fine limestorle,flints, andsand. About midwayup there were numerous caves, but quiteinaccessible us. to lovem6er13.-We left Ellgedi at 8 45 A.M., and rode alonguponthe plainuntil 10 A.M., whenwe had to take a pathoverthemountainsi(le, which was most execrable,being full of largeboulders, throughwhich there was great difficulty getting the inbaggap;e-mules.We ascended200 ft., then calne down again onto the shoreat l l A.M. NVepassedby an apparent crater,calledKhmeid,and began to ascenda secondmountain 11a45. We at * Moghil at el KebIit of Lynch. t Kerak bore s. 26 E. North point of ,1 Lisan bolaes. 28 ,.
  17. 17. POOJ,ES Reporto.fa Jo2lra2ey Palestine. in 7gained the summitof the firs;t ridge at 12; the northend of E1Lisanbores. 23 E. * the heightof ridg;e 240 ft. abovetheDead wasSea. At 1o40P.M. we reached the next ridge, 509 ft. up; theroadwas so bad that we had to unload the mules,arld the menc;rriedthe baggage up a shortdistallce; and they had to holdtothe baggageand the lnulestails to checkthem in theirdescent.7Ve not appearto be half way up the mountains. NVeagain didreached shoreat 2@05 crossed plain,andbeganto ascend, the P.AI., aat 2*20P.M., anothermountain;at 3 30 P.M. we reached tXlble- aland, 740 ft. ab>vethe Dead Sea, having crosseda succession oflimestone-rocks, steep banks on each side. WYe with rodealongthis table-land northfor a quarterof an hour,witha gradualfalltowards sea. The viewwas magnificent, I coultlsee Ikerak the andtowervery distinctly the distance. XVeascendedanother in ridgefor 14 minutes height by aneroid891 ft. the main mountainstill towering aboveus; we then madea rapid descentoxrer sharpflints,withcoarseconglomerate stonesin the torientscourse,andperpendicular rocks on our light hand. NVearrivedat the Ghorat 4 25 P.M., whereI saw a heapof ruins,whichI thoughtmighthavebeerla well. We then rodethroughthe reeds to the shore,where fresh water springsup close to the edge of the sea, andwhich I think must be covered l)y the sea when it rises fromthe winterrain. Temperature air was 84?; Dead Sea 80?; ofspring79?. The waterfromthe latter tastedsoftand sweet,^hilethat ()fthe sea was 80 saturatecl I could see the brinefloating thatin it. The mules did not arrive until 5 P.M., an(l were TtlUChfati^,ued with their (layswolk. The Tam(lripicked up a smallpieceof aspilalt,of whichwe foundverylittle duringthe wholeofourJollrney.= * * November 14. I left the cam}) 7e35 at A.M., an(l walkedalongthe shoreabout half a mile, whenI cameto a salt-spring, comingout fromundera large rocknear the sea, alld 3 ft. aboveits level,and the temperature 80?: I took a bottleof it. I then walkedon to the chiefsprings fFeshwater,half a milefarther; tne tem- of peratureof them was 80?. I saw a nunlber of small fish, " Lebras,"fiorn s an illch to 3 inchesin length, of the sarnekind as previously caught; but we coulul only catchone of them froznthe water being abundant,and not able to confinethem in a smal] space. We also collected a numberof black shells, " Melanopsis." We left the springs at 9 45 A.M.; they extendfor a considerable distancealong the shore,and mustyield a greatmany thousandgallons of waterevery 24 hours. At 10 20 A.M. we passed a cave, high up in the rocks, directlyopposite thetl) mouth of the Callirhoesprings,arld froln which water appears * NOrthend Of FJII.iSIl B0lE S. 10 E. ArnOn MOllthOf RiNtAr S. 4(} T. ,, ,, (SSl11i1hn(AN. S.51,.
  18. 18. 68 POOLES Reportof a Journe,y Palestine. insometimesto have flowed. At 11 A.M. we reachel the dry bedof the brook" Kedron," pickedun " a small turretedshell; alldat ll 20 -we rode near to some ruilison the north side of thebrook,but I did not go to them, as we had to ascenclthe molln-tain. At 1145 we reached the pass in the first ridge, abollt730ft.; at 12-20 we came to the socondpliS, where one of tllemulles withmy luggage, and all would-haverolled downtEle fellcliS froma heig;ht 1226 h. if the Arab leadinait ha(lnot kept offirtnhold of the halter,and got him unloaded. We reachedthesummit,1340 ft., at 1 P.M., fromwhenceI observed that therewasa table-landor level plain,aboutthe sauleheight,on the oppo3iteshoreof the Dead Sea,estendingfrolnthe Callirhoespringsto thenorthenslof the sea. The sea was remarkably calm,and reflecteclthe skyandmountains a verywonderful in manner. We nowrodeilllandfor somedistance, and did not appearto he very far fromthe Frank nlollntain,bearings.w. The rocks were chalk,withhardhorizontal bands limestone of running through them. Mashal-lam pickedup a flattenedfossil-shell, like turritella. I observedthat these mountain-top3 of the same whiteand sulphurous werelimestoneas in the plain. If they were of the same geologicalage, analat one time level with the plainbeforethe destructionof Sodomand Goznorrah, thosecities would havebeen nearlyofthe sanzelevel as the lMedit.erranean. 2 05 P.M. cameto a At weslall conicalhill, wherewe had a fineviewof tlle valleyof Gholn-ranand the surrounding hills. Abu Daouk warlted camptherel} tobut I wouldnot coneent, we pushedon until wecameto the clifl soabovethe ruinsof Ghomtan, the heightwas 951 ft. abovethe sea.NA good deal of bituminous limestone lying about. was l;ovember 15.-I arrangedfor the baggage to go direct toJeri?ho, while Mashallam,the Sheikh,arld bur Arabs accoln-paniednle to visit the ruinsat the foc)tof the mountain:it was averywillding pathand quitenaI in someplaces,so tbat a loaded rowmule could-notilave passeddown. Abu Daouk boastedthat hehad once drivenseventycalnelsup this passon a very darknight7whellcloselypursued, so eludedhis pursuers, and whothoughttohavefourld encamped Ain el Feshkah. NVepasseda small him atcave, whetlce hot air issued. We reachedthe ruins at 8 15,having descended713ft. I found the remainsof an aqueduct,walls,pools,and somebuildings one pool measured x 17 in- 58side atld 11 ft. deep, it hadbeenplastered large unhewn on stones.A smaller pool measllred x 9 ft.; it W?S 21 filled up withrubbish.rrhemainwall was closei the side of the lar;e poolon the sea- toside,t)etvfeen whichand the sea werea number graves. Oneo{ ofthern I had opened was 6 ft. lorlg by 3 ft. wide, and 4 ft. 10 in.(leep: it wasbuilt uponall foursideswithrough stonesandsquarecorilers; therewerenoosseous reenainstraceable. The ruinswere238 ft. above the Dead Sea, and tlle base of tlle hillsn cOl1tainillg
  19. 19. OOLE 8 Rq)ost of a J0UR8?ICX iZ. Paleti>ze. 69the g;raves, aboutlOOft. abovethe sea. Fromthe stateof theruins graves, should and I think Ghomran llavebeena much must nore modern townthanthe supposed Gomolrah De Saulcy. ofAVeleft the seashore 9 53 A.M. androdeacrossthe plainto atJericho, sawa gooddeal of biturxlinous and limestone scatteredabout. We passeA somedrywatercourses, whichhad latelyhadwater them, crossed in and some sulphurous chalk-llill;picked upsomespar. The ground full of holes,madeby a species was ofmole, called" gerdy," which made dan^,erous fast. F lints it toridewerestrewed theplain. Thestratification themountains over ofon thewest side dipsgradually the north, that opposite to so toJericho samestrata downon theplainwhich the are wereontlsemountain at Ghomran.We arrived the tent,which tops at waspitched theguardhouse Jericho, 2 P.M.; thermometer near at at intent91Q. A running stream passedclose by. The villagewas; a dirty, miserable-looking withstonewalls,andbranches place, oftreesformed roofs the houses. A guardof fiftyTurkish the of soldiers in thetower collect taxesandprotect live to the travellers. i!vIaize, wheat, indigo, eg;g-plants and thrivethere; potatoe3 have also succeeded well. Jericho, aneroid, 516ft. aboste very by was theDeadSea. Thethermometer to 62?at 6 P.M., andwasat fell 60?at 10 P.M. I fUlt cold, could getto sleep. Jack- very and not als made continual a howling during night. the l!Govember I heardthattherewaswarbetween tribes 16. two of Bedouins theeastern on shoreof the Jordan, whichprevexlted intercourse the peopleon that side. I observed trees with that grewon the tops of the mountains theE, which not the of was case on thew. side of tileJ^ordan Dead Sea. Ve left Je- and richo theJordan 9 A.M., andsoon for at atterobserved founda- the tions walls lleaps ruins, notsuchlargestones onthe of and of but as shore the DeadSea. We crossed dryriverbed; the plllin of a hada gradualslopetowards Jordan, shrubs clumps. the with in We reached Jordan 10 40 A.M.; byaneroid " Iilgrirns the at the bathing-place" 104 feet above Dead Sea. Thewaters was the flowed rapidly, wereverymuddy;the temperature 64? but was thatof theair being 80?. I collected threekinds sllells(onea of bivalve);crabs werealsoseen theriver. Several * in poplars were growing the bank, on also vvillow3 and tamarisks.PalmsI did IlOt see, although the whole coastof the DeadSeais strewed with them. lhe river about50 yardswideat that spot: I saw was onlyone hawk a kingfisher and flying overits surface. At l 1 30 A.5I. WE left the Jordan, alldat 12 passedoverabout20 yards of aqueduct; soonafterwe cameto a stone well in the bed of the river,but it was only6 feet deep and full of stagnant water, beillg250 feetabove .Jordan.Thebanks thatriverwereso the of winding thickly and wooded I couldnottakeanybearings that of fP Thelphusis.
  20. 20. () Reyv07t in Palestine. POOLES of a Jozmrne?ythe surrounding eountry. We thenvisitedthe rllinsof the churchof St. John,bearing 48 E.frozn s. Jerieho.* At 2 10 P.M. left the weruins,and a few milllltes ridingtook us aerossthe bed of the firstriver; in three-qualtersexfan hour we erossed the bed of theJeriehoriver,andreturned our eampat 3a15P.M. to lMovember Up at 345 A.M.; 17. thermometer 57?. We leftJerichoat 6 5() AM.. as the SUT1 abovethe mountains just rose ofMoab. We rode throughwhatmusthave beena fine garden inthe bed of the river Araba, then passedunder an aqueduet,ofwhieh I counted 11 arehes, spannilog river, which appeared thein good preservation; soon afterwe passed anotheraqueductinruins, only two arches remaining: then the sides of a third aque-duct were traceablenearer to the mountain:all of them lladbrought water from the river of Jericho to irrigate the )laintowardsthe Dead Sea. We rode up on the N. side of the riverAraba for some lniles, the rocks being limestone. The roadwasin manyplacesverywinding steep. At 9 23 A.M. cameto a and wepass,calledthe Khan Khatrude,witha well, w-here pilgrims, thein general, rested; we then de3eendedfor a short time, anderossedat 9 40 the plain of the Robbers. At 10 30 we reachedthe point where the road joins from Nebi Musa; and at 11*25A.M. stoppedto drinkat the springof the Apostles; tempera- weture of water71?. We passed throuthBethany at 12 05, andarrivedat Jerusalemat 12 50. The thermometer my room inwas 60?. The baggage-mulesdiel not arrive until three hourslater. ffiorember (Sunday). I had an attackof fexrer ague in 18 andthe afterlloon,whiehI fearwas eaused by our campingon dampgroundat Jericho. lMovember 19.-I was engaged settling the accountsof Fad-lallell and the Tamari. Abu Daouk sent word that he was ill.Elijah Mashallam also complaining fever and ague from was ofthe cold: the changewas so great and sudden,60instead of 90degreesin 4 hours. l!Govember I felt so il] that I was r,otable to go anywhere, 20.-an(l remainezl Jerusalemuntil the 26th, whenI left for Jaia, into be in time for the steamerproceeditlg Alexandria. I got to toRamlehat 6 P.M., stoppedat the convent night. and all lMorember I left Ram]ehat 5 35 A.M., rode to Jai 27. andin two houXs and twenty minutes,where I rested until 1 P.M.,when I went on board tElesteamer,which left for Alexandria at5 P.)1. I.S. I leC to send in a section(f levellings made lgy nacin Palestine+viththe aneroisllnetalliqlle. * Nort}l end of Dead Sea bore s. 4r) E. Ain el Feshkah, or Stride, s. 23 sr.

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